@prefix cc: . @prefix dcterms: . @prefix foaf: . @prefix geo: . @prefix jld: . @prefix jlo: . @prefix owl: . @prefix prov: . @prefix rdf: . @prefix rdfs: . @prefix skos: . @prefix void: . @prefix xml: . @prefix xsd: . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1963), revolutionary and publicist. Born in Dünaburg (Dvinsk; mod. Daugavpils, Latvia), Rafail Abramovich (originally surnamed Rein) studied in a modern (nonclassical) secondary school and later at Riga Polytechnic University. He was involved in the student revolutionary movement and in 1901 joined the Bund. He then began publishing in the revolutionary press in Yiddish."@en ; jlo:title "Abramovich, Rafail" ; skos:prefLabel "Abramovich, Rafail" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1917–1991), Communist ideologue, cultural tsar of Hungary in the post-1956 Kádár era. György Aczél grew up in an orphanage, worked in construction, and performed as an actor. He participated in the Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa‘ir youth movement and later joined the underground Communist Party in 1935. Arrested in 1942, he worked as a forced laborer. During the German occupation, he participated in the resistance movement and in rescuing Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Aczél, György" ; skos:prefLabel "Aczél, György" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1947), Communist Party figure and historian. Born in Grodno, where he had a traditional elementary education, Samuil (also Shmuel or Sam) Agurskii joined the Bund during the revolution of 1905. From 1906 to May 1917 he lived in England and then America, where he was involved with the anarchist movement and wrote for the Yiddish press. Between July 1918 and March 1919 he was Jewish commissar in Vitebsk, where he published the Yiddish Communist newspaper Der frayer arbeter. Viewing EVKOM (the Commissariat for Jewish National Affairs) as an alternative to Jewish community organizations, he brought Vitebsk’s Jewish schools, Jewish charities, and burial society under its jurisdiction. In 1918 he joined the Russian Communist Party. In April 1919, after moving to Moscow, he and Stalin, then People’s Commissar for Nationality Affairs, signed the decree “About the Closure of the Central Bureau of Jewish Communities.” Between 1919 and 1923 he twice visited America, where he helped establish the Communist Party of the USA. "@en ; jlo:title "Agurskii, Samuil Khaimovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Agurskii, Samuil Khaimovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1766–1828), Talmudist, kabbalist, and Hasidic master in Staroselye (Starosselje) in the province of Mohilev. In his youth, Aharon ha-Levi became a follower of Shneur Zalman of Liady, founder of Ḥabad (Lubavitch) Hasidism. Horowitz studied under the guidance of Shneur Zalman with Dov Ber, who was Shneur Zalman’s son and successor. The two were close companions until they had a serious quarrel; although this rift was of a personal nature, it was also over matters of Ḥabad philosophy: Dov Ber frowned on all but completely authentic ecstasy in prayer but Aharon was tolerant of even sham ecstasy."@en ; jlo:title "Aharon ben Mosheh ha-Levi Horowitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Aharon ben Mosheh ha-Levi Horowitz" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1947), Hebrew and Yiddish writer. Zalman Aronsohn, known by the pseudonym Anokhi (“I Am”), was born in Liady, Belorussia, where his father served as rabbi and head of a yeshiva. Anokhi studied at the Telz yeshiva and with a circle of Musar scholars in Minsk; he then lived for a period of time in Gomel, dedicating himself to secular studies and associating with Hillel Zeitlin, Uri Nisan Gnessin, and Yosef Ḥayim Brenner. Anokhi then moved to Odessa, where he was arrested and jailed for six months because of his involvement with a group of anarchists. Following his release, he left for Vilna before traveling around Europe, and even spent a year in Palestine (1910–1911)."@en ; jlo:title "Aronsohn, Zalman Yitsḥak" ; skos:prefLabel "Aronsohn, Zalman Yitsḥak" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1759–1837), scholar and chronicler. Born in Třebíč (Ger., Trebitsch), Moravia, Avraham Trebitsch was the son of Re’uven Ḥayat and his wife, Fradl. He studied at yeshivas in Mikulov (ca. 1771) and Prague (ca. 1775). Later that decade, he was based in Mikulov, where he held the post of secretary to the Moravian Land Rabbinate and became a close associate of Mordekhai Banet and Neḥemyah Trebitsch. Trebitsch gained “familiant” status (i.e., the right to reside [and marry]) in Mikulov, started a family, and in 1799 purchased part of a house. He was, however, dependent on charitable donations from the Jewish community, and his daughters lived in poverty following his death."@en ; jlo:title "Avraham Trebitsch of Mikulov" ; skos:prefLabel "Avraham Trebitsch of Mikulov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1596–1663), rabbi and halakhic authority in Poland–Lithuania. Born in Brest Litovsk, Avraham Yehoshu‘a Heshel moved with his father to Lublin when the latter was appointed rabbi of the community and head of the yeshiva. With the death in 1650 of Naftali ben Yitsḥak Kats, his father’s heir from 1644, Avraham Yehoshu‘a was appointed head of the Lublin yeshiva. In 1654, he became rabbi and head of the yeshiva of Kraków, succeeding Yom Tov Lipmann Heller."@en ; jlo:title "Avraham Yehoshu‘a ben Ya‘akov Heshel" ; skos:prefLabel "Avraham Yehoshu‘a ben Ya‘akov Heshel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1846–1905), cantor and synagogue composer. Jacob Bachmann was born in the town of Berdichev, Volhynia province (present-day Ukraine). His early music education came as a meshoyrer (Heb., meshorer), an apprentice choir singer, for Moyshe Pasternak, a noted Berdichev cantor. "@en ; jlo:title "Bachmann, Jacob" ; skos:prefLabel "Bachmann, Jacob" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1850?–1922?), banker, Zionist activist, and philanthropist. Nothing is known of Shemu’el Barbash’s childhood beyond the fact that he was given a traditional Jewish education. He also was familiar with modern Hebrew literature, had acquired some secular knowledge, and excelled in mathematics."@en ; jlo:title "Barbash, Shemu’el" ; skos:prefLabel "Barbash, Shemu’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1845–1923), rabbi, biblical scholar, and educator. Moritz (Me’ir) Beck was born in Pápa, Hungary, where he attended Jewish elementary school, Catholic secondary school, and Protestant high school. At the same time, he studied Hebrew, Torah, and the Talmud with a private tutor, Salomon Iosef Goldberg. In 1865, Beck left for Breslau to attend the Jewish Theological Seminary established by Zacharias Frankel, as well as the faculty of philosophy at the University of Breslau. In 1868, he earned his Ph.D. with a dissertation in biblical studies and in 1872 became a rabbi."@en ; jlo:title "Beck, Moritz" ; skos:prefLabel "Beck, Moritz" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1953), engineer and Zionist leader. Growing up in the house on Dob Street in Budapest where Theodore Herzl’s uncle lived, Ármin Beregi knew Herzl personally. Beregi studied at the Technical University of Budapest and went on to work at the Ganz-Danubius factory as an engineer. While a student, he met Mózes Bisselisches, who later became a well-known Zionist leader. The two of them—with the help of several others—founded a group of Zionist organizations: Makkabea for university students (Beregi was its vice president in 1905), Ivria for high school students, Júdea for clerks, and Debóra for women."@en ; jlo:title "Beregi, Ármin" ; skos:prefLabel "Beregi, Ármin" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1916–1996), Yiddish novelist and critic; resistance fighter. Lili Berger (née List; “Lili Berger” is a pseudonym) was born in Malkin, in the Białystok region of Poland. Brought up in an Orthodox Jewish family, she attended Hebrew school for three years and also received a secular education at the Polish Jewish secondary school in Warsaw. In 1933, Berger moved to Brussels and studied pedagogy. Three years later she joined the growing number of Polish Jewish refugees in Paris and soon married Louis Gronowski, a leading figure in the Jewish section of the Communist Party."@en ; jlo:title "Berger, Lili" ; skos:prefLabel "Berger, Lili" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1789–1846), lieutenant colonel in the Polish armed forces at the time of the Duchy of Warsaw and during the January uprising of 1830–1831. Yosef Berkowicz was born in the Warsaw suburb of Praga, the only son of Berek Joselewicz. After attending Jewish schools, Berkowicz volunteered for military service in 1809 and served as a sergeant in the Napoleonic campaigns against Russia. In the course of these campaigns, he was wounded numerous times and received two medals for bravery. After the final defeat of the French Army, Berkowicz joined the army of the Kingdom of Poland; however, he was soon discharged (in March 1815) at his own request due to his previous injuries. "@en ; jlo:title "Berkowicz, Yosef" ; skos:prefLabel "Berkowicz, Yosef" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1968), mathematician. Born in Odessa, Sergei Bernshtein studied mathematics at both the Sorbonne and Göttingen, receiving his doctorate from the former in 1904. His dissertation presented the solution to Hilbert’s Nineteenth Problem, which dealt with analytic solutions of elliptic differential equations. Three famous mathematicians—Jacques Hadamard, Émile Picard, and Henri Poincaré—accepted his thesis. Upon arriving in Russia in 1905, however, Bernshtein learned that he would need to take general examinations and submit new dissertations for both master’s and doctoral degrees in order for his credentials to be recognized; he completed this work at Kharkov University."@en ; jlo:title "Bernshtein, Sergei Natanovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Bernshtein, Sergei Natanovich" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1855–1934), literary historian, ethnographer, critic, publisher, journalist, and educator. Henryk Biegeleisen was born in Touste (in the Skłatat region in eastern Galicia; a town with a population of 2,139 in 1880, of whom 40% percent were Jews). His father Wilhelm, a physician, had been a member of the National Guard in Lemberg (Lwów) during the Revolution of 1848 and belonged to a small circle of acculturated Jews in Galicia. On his mother’s side, Biegeleisen was a grandson of Naḥman Krochmal."@en ; jlo:title "Biegeleisen, Henryk" ; skos:prefLabel "Biegeleisen, Henryk" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1949), poet and novelist. Elisheva Bikhowsky was born Elisabeta Zhirkova to a Christian family in Riazan, Russia. Her father, Ivan Zhirkov, taught at a rural elementary school and published schoolbooks and texts for general readers. Her mother, the daughter of an English family living in Moscow, died when Bikhowsky was three years old. Following her mother’s death, she was raised at the home of her English aunt in Moscow. There she studied at a girls’ high school and attended courses in pedagogy at a local teachers’ training institute, completing her program in 1910."@en ; jlo:title "Bikhowsky, Elisheva" ; skos:prefLabel "Bikhowsky, Elisheva" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1625), merchant and banker. Although the Bocian family (also known as Poper or Popper) probably originated in Chęciny, its members were living in Kraków from the end of the fifteenth century. Volf (Ze’ev) Bocian, son of Yisra’el Gershon, was a merchant who became a supplier to the royal court of Sigismund III Waza."@en ; jlo:title "Bocian, Volf" ; skos:prefLabel "Bocian, Volf" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1832–1907), Czech industrialist, political leader, and historian. As the son of one of the most prominent Jewish families in nineteenth-century Prague, Bohumil Bondy himself became a major figure in the economic life of Bohemia and one of the leading entrepreneurs in the metal industry in the Czech lands. He demonstrated his unusual talents in this field during the economic crisis of 1873, when the factory he owned (located in Bubeneč, an industrial suburb of Prague) was the only one in Prague to survive the crisis without dismissing a single employee."@en ; jlo:title "Bondy, Bohumil" ; skos:prefLabel "Bondy, Bohumil" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1914–2000), Yiddish writer. Rokhl Boymvol was born in Odessa. Her father, Yehude Leyb (1892–1920), a Yiddish playwright and theater director, was murdered by Polish soldiers. A precocious child, Rokhl began rhyming even before she learned to read and write. Her first poetry collection, Kinderlider (Children’s Poems), appeared in Moscow in 1930. The literary critic Moyshe Katz wrote in his introduction, “Rokhl Boymvol is not a wunderkind who surprises by showing that a child can write exactly like a grown-up, seasoned master. She does it even better: in her writings we find what a grown-up master could not have done so honestly and naturally; she shows us the emotions of a maturing child.” "@en ; jlo:title "Boymvol, Rokhl" ; skos:prefLabel "Boymvol, Rokhl" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "A small town in eastern Poland, south of Białystok. Brańsk was a royal town that was granted city rights under Magdeburg law in the fifteenth century. The privilege de non tolerandis Judaeis barred Jews from settling there, but in 1560 two Jews obtained permission from King Sigismund August to lease mills in the district. The town council granted them permission to reside in Brańsk on a temporary basis. Until the late eighteenth century, the number of Jews never reached more than a dozen. Many, however, lived on local estates belonging to the aristocracy and gentry who leased inns and mills to them. Larger Jewish settlements thus arose in the vicinity of Brańsk in private towns such as Tykocin, Orla, Boćki, Siemiatycze, and Ciechanowiec. "@en ; jlo:title "Brańsk" ; skos:prefLabel "Brańsk" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1960), philosopher, editor, and journalist. Born in Bosancea, Bucovina, Isac Brucăr studied philosophy in Bucharest, Jena, and Leipzig, receiving his doctoral degree in 1930 with a thesis on the philosophy of Spinoza, a recurrent topic of his later research. Brucăr combined an academic career, teaching at the department of psychology at the University of Bucharest, in different high schools, and, after World War II, at the Institute of Philosophy of the Romanian Academy. He also was a journalist who wrote for leading publications."@en ; jlo:title "Brucăr, Isac" ; skos:prefLabel "Brucăr, Isac" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1722–1811), medical doctor and early proponent of the Enlightenment among Polish Jews. Jacques Calmanson was born in Hrubieszów, Poland, where his father was probably a rabbi. Calmanson studied medicine in France and was fluent in French, German, and Polish as well as Yiddish and Hebrew. In addition to Germany and France, his travels took him to the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Calmanson eventually settled in Warsaw, serving as physician to the last Polish king, Stanisław August Poniatowski."@en ; jlo:title "Calmanson, Jacques" ; skos:prefLabel "Calmanson, Jacques" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–194?), impresario and theater director in Warsaw and Łódź. Dovid Celmajster was born in Warsaw into a merchant family. He received a thorough traditional education and a rudimentary secular education, and began working in theater in 1910, eventually with both popular and dramatic companies. In 1917, Celmajster produced the operetta Di dolar-printsesin (The Dollar Princess) at Kaminski’s Theater in Warsaw; in 1920 in Łódź he produced An-ski’s Der dibek (The Dybbuk), directed by Dovid Herman, with scenic design by Yitskhok Brauner (Broyner). "@en ; jlo:title "Celmajster, Dovid" ; skos:prefLabel "Celmajster, Dovid" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1538–ca. 1615), rabbi. The family of Yitsḥak ben Avraham Chajes probably had its origins in Provence. He was active as a rabbi in Prostějov (Prossnitz, Moravia) and in Prague, where in the 1580s he became chief rabbi and head of the yeshiva. According to David Gans (Tsemaḥ David; 1592), Chajes remained in Prague until 1584, later moving to Poland. "@en ; jlo:title "Chajes, Yitsḥak ben Avraham" ; skos:prefLabel "Chajes, Yitsḥak ben Avraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Name of both a father and son who were Hungarian politicians and industrialists. Ferenc Chorin Sr. (1842–1925) was a leader in the mining industry; his son Ferenc Chorin Jr. (1879–1964) was a lawyer and industrial leader. Both served in the Hungarian parliament."@en ; jlo:title "Chorin, Ferenc" ; skos:prefLabel "Chorin, Ferenc" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Jewish public bodies (communal and supracommunal councils) accumulated enormous debts running into hundreds of thousands of Polish zlotys in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and were unique to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Though members of the aristocracy were sometimes lenders, the main creditors were overwhelmingly institutions of the Roman Catholic church, and some Greek Catholic and Greek Orthodox bodies lent money to Jewish institutions as well. Jewish public bodies were also among the church’s most important debtors; the numerous account books specifically for Jewish debts that many monastic orders held testify to this."@en ; jlo:title "Debts, Communal" ; skos:prefLabel "Debts, Communal" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The word dog is used as a derogatory term in numerous biblical texts (Ps. 22: 17; 59:7, 15). The Talmud poses numerous restrictions on owning dogs, including “keeping them on a chain” (Bava kama 7:7), and also not owning angry dogs (15:2). While the Talmud, Shulḥan ‘arukh, and other Jewish sources disagree on what counts as an “angry dog” (one that bites, attacks, or barks), it is generally agreed that Jews are not supposed to own dogs that intimidate other people. "@en ; jlo:title "Dogs" ; skos:prefLabel "Dogs" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1959), Yiddish writer. Born into a poor family in Horodok, near Vitebsk, Tsadok Dolgopolski began working at a factory in Nevel while still young. In the late 1890s, he became an active member of the Bund and was imprisoned in Białystok. Self-taught, he passed the qualifying examinations for teachers and organized a school for Jewish children in his hometown. By 1898, he was writing short articles on labor issues for illegal and legal Yiddish periodicals."@en ; jlo:title "Dolgopolski, Tsadok" ; skos:prefLabel "Dolgopolski, Tsadok" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1876–1937), poet, journalist, art historian, and critic. Adolph Donath was born in Kromĕříž (Kremsier) in the Habsburg province of Moravia. After graduating from the German gymnasium in Kromĕříž in 1895, he moved to Vienna, where he studied law and philosophy (without taking a degree) and wrote for several newspapers, including the Neue Freie Presse, which was Vienna’s leading German-language daily, and Die Gesellschaft, a modernist cultural journal published in Leipzig (and later Munich). "@en ; jlo:title "Donath, Adolph" ; skos:prefLabel "Donath, Adolph" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1910–1992), army general and public figure. After finishing the Frunze Military Academy in 1941, David Dragunskii commanded a tank battalion and then a brigade during World War II and was twice named Hero of the Soviet Union (in 1944 and 1945) for combat exploits in the crossing of the Vistula and the capture of Berlin. Altogether, he won 13 awards during his military career. He was one of a very few high-ranking Jewish officers who were retained in the armed forces after the late 1940s."@en ; jlo:title "Dragunskii, David Abramovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Dragunskii, David Abramovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883–1968), Polish socialist politician. Bolesław Drobner (who used the pseudonym Jan Okoński) was born in Kraków to a well-known assimilated family. His grandfather had participated in the uprising of 1830 and his parents in that of 1863. In 1898, Drobner joined the Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia and Silesia and between 1902 and 1906 was a member of the reformed Proletariat organization that took up the terrorist tradition of its predecessors and also organized strikes in the Kingdom of Poland during the Revolution of 1905–1907. Drobner himself took part in its activities in Warsaw, Łódź, and Sosnowiec."@en ; jlo:title "Drobner, Bolesław" ; skos:prefLabel "Drobner, Bolesław" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Cases mounted in the first half of the 1960s in the Soviet Union involving a disproportionately high number of Jewish defendants. The nature of the Soviet regime—in which state ownership of all capital was a basic ingredient, and every sphere of life became highly politicized—made economic offenses political crimes of the first order. The phenomenon of economic trials dates from the regime’s inception, although the types of economic crime for which people were indicted and the harshness of the sentences varied from period to period."@en ; jlo:title "Economic Trials" ; skos:prefLabel "Economic Trials" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Fridliand; 1900–2008), Soviet political caricaturist and memoirist who was, for some time, the world's oldest living Jew. During his heyday, which lasted from the 1920s to the fall of the Soviet Union, Boris Efimov was an obedient satirist whose brilliant cartoons depicted Soviet policy on the pages of its major newspapers and magazines: Izvestiia, Pravda, and Krokodil. His career was interrupted for several years following the arrest in 1938 of his brother, the writer Mikhail Kol’tsov, who was shot as an enemy of the people in 1940. Efimov was devoted to his brother, trying to secure his release even after—unbeknownst to him—Kol’tsov had been killed. Either because he was valuable to Stalin or because of the peculiar randomness of the Soviet Terror, Efimov himself was spared and brought back to his former position, at first anonymously. He was the recipient of numerous Soviet medals and was named a member of the Academy of Arts. In addition to many collections of cartoons, he published four volumes of memoirs, beginning at age 70 and ending at 100."@en ; jlo:title "Efimov, Boris Efimovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Efimov, Boris Efimovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1925–1987), theater and cinema director. In 1943 Efros began studying at Iurii Zavadskii’s acting studio at the Mossovet Theater, where he played his first small roles. In 1945, on Zavadskii’s recommendation, Efros studied at the directing department of the State Institute of Theatrical Arts in Moscow. He completed his studies in 1949, at the height of the anticosmopolitan campaign, which made it impossible for him to obtain steady work in a Moscow theater. His efforts to pursue graduate studies (aspirantura) also proved unsuccessful. "@en ; jlo:title "Efros, Anatolii Vasil’evich" ; skos:prefLabel "Efros, Anatolii Vasil’evich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Leaders in the textile industry of Moravia. The Ehrenstamm family came to prominence in the early nineteenth century. Its head was Veit Ehrenstamm (1760–1827), son of Salomon Jakob Kolin, a minor Jewish merchant from Prossnitz (Prostĕjov) who during the 1750s had been involved in the wool trade, purchasing fabrics from importers and then selling them piecemeal to hawkers and peddlers. After he lost his fortune as a result of the ban imposed by the Habsburg government on textile imports, his son, who had in the meantime adopted a German name, turned to different economic enterprises."@en ; jlo:title "Ehrenstamm Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Ehrenstamm Family" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1968), jurist and legal scholar. After attending elementary and secondary school in Tarnopol and Lwów (then Lemberg), Ludwik Ehrlich studied philosophy, Polish studies, and law at the university in Lwów (1907–1911), graduating with a doctorate in law. He did supplementary studies at universities in Halle (1911–1912), Berlin (1913), and Oxford (1913–1916), and then lectured on modern history at Oxford (1916–1917) and at the University of California at Berkeley (1917–1920). In the United States, he supported the movement for Poland to regain independence, and worked for the inclusion of Upper Silesia in the Polish state."@en ; jlo:title "Ehrlich, Ludwik" ; skos:prefLabel "Ehrlich, Ludwik" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1930–1989), historian, writer, and publicist. From 1947 to 1952, Natan Eidel’man studied history at Moscow State University. Despite his academic brilliance, he was unable to pursue graduate studies (aspirantura) after his father, the journalist Iakov Eidel’man, was arrested in 1950 on charges of “bourgeois nationalism.” Natan Eidel’man instead found a position teaching history at a night school near Moscow, where he worked from 1952 to 1955. "@en ; jlo:title "Eidel’man, Natan Iakovlevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Eidel’man, Natan Iakovlevich" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1530–ca. 1580), physician and skeptic. Born in Braunschweig, Germany, Eilburg moved to Poznań in 1546. After a brief stay there, he moved to Ancona, Italy, where he studied medicine. Around 1552, he moved to Oleśnica in Silesia, and subsequently appears to have lived in various places in that region, and perhaps Moravia or Poland. He was imprisoned twice and was perhaps excommunicated, though it is not clear if this was a result of his unorthodox views."@en ; jlo:title "Eilburg, Eli‘ezer" ; skos:prefLabel "Eilburg, Eli‘ezer" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1754–1823), Hasidic master. Kalonimos Kalman Epstein of Kraków was born in Neustadt (now Prudnik), Poland, to a prestigious rabbinic family. He is considered one of the most influential masters of the third generation of Hasidism. Epstein settled in Kraków early in his life and was primarily a disciple of Elimelekh of Lizhensk (1717–1786/87), who, as a student of Dov Ber, the Magid of Mezritsh (1704–1772), had been sent to Kraków to spread the teachings of the Ba‘al Shem Tov. When Epstein met Dov Ber, Kraków had no discernible Hasidic presence, and Epstein is considered to have been the first major Hasidic master in that city."@en ; jlo:title "Epstein, Kalonimos Kalman of Kraków" ; skos:prefLabel "Epstein, Kalonimos Kalman of Kraków" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1828–1908), Hungarian journalist, publisher, and member of parliament. Born into an impoverished merchant family in Pest, Miksa Falk began writing articles for both German- and Hungarian-language newspapers as early as age 14. In the wave of conversions during the 1840s, he and his brother Zsigmond became Christian. Of all of Falk’s associates, he alone retained a tenuous connection to Judaism. In 1847, he received a Ph.D. from the University of Pest and later continued his studies at the Vienna Polytechnic. In 1848, he returned to Pest, where he became an editor of the German-language newspaper Ungar during the first few months of the revolution. In September 1848, Falk returned to Vienna and lived there until 1867, writing political articles for several newspapers. "@en ; jlo:title "Falk, Miksa" ; skos:prefLabel "Falk, Miksa" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1867–1945), painter. Born in Kecskemét, Hungary, Adolf Fényes was one of his country’s most distinguished Jewish painters. The motifs of his works can be considered a metonym for the struggle to create a Hungarian Jewish identity, particularly during the decades immediately before and following World War I."@en ; jlo:title "Fényes, Adolf" ; skos:prefLabel "Fényes, Adolf" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1961), microbiologist and pioneer in the sociology of knowledge. Born in Lwów, Ludwik Fleck graduated from Lwów University’s medical school in 1920, eventually specializing in microbiology. In 1923 he married Ernestina Waldman; they had one son, Ryszard (Arieh), born in 1924. After 1925, Fleck headed a bacteriological laboratory at Lwów General Hospital and served as director of a private medical laboratory."@en ; jlo:title "Fleck, Ludwik" ; skos:prefLabel "Fleck, Ludwik" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1844–1896), labor activist and a leader of the Paris Commune. Leó Frankel was born into a large, wealthy German-oriented family in Óbuda, Hungary, where his father, Albert, was the official doctor of the city’s shipyard. The family sent Frankel to Germany in 1861 to learn to be a goldsmith. There he became involved with the labor movement, especially with the ideology of Ferdinand Lasalle."@en ; jlo:title "Frankel, Leó" ; skos:prefLabel "Frankel, Leó" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1863–1924), writer, journalist, and historian. Azriel Natan (Nosn) Frenk was a seminal figure in early Hebrew- and Yiddish-language journalism and literature in Warsaw. Renowned for translating the Zohar, Hasidic legends, and Polish literature, he also wrote numerous popular works on the history of Polish Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Frenk, Azriel Natan" ; skos:prefLabel "Frenk, Azriel Natan" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1756–1828), Hungarian maskil and rabbi. Born in a small community in southern Germany, David Friesenhausen studied with Yosef Steinhardt in Fürth. Mosheh Sofer, the rabbi of Pressburg, knew Friesenhausen in his youth and would later testify to his reputation as one of the outstanding students in the yeshiva. Until the age of 30, Friesenhausen devoted himself exclusively to Torah study, but then—seized by an intellectual restlessness—he immersed himself in mathematics and astronomy. "@en ; jlo:title "Friesenhausen, David" ; skos:prefLabel "Friesenhausen, David" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1967), Hungarian poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, and diarist. The descendant of the illustrious Fürst family, he dropped the “r” from Fürst for the more poetic Füst, meaning “smoke” in Hungarian. Milán Füst’s early poems appeared in Nyugat, the premier modernist literary journal in Hungary. His fame as a poet rests on several dozen poems, and he was among the first to introduce free verse into Hungarian poetry, though his poems are a blend of both classical and modern qualities. He produced verses that are universal and timeless expressions of the tragedy of the human condition, conveyed in language that is alternately high-flown and quotidian. "@en ; jlo:title "Füst, Milán" ; skos:prefLabel "Füst, Milán" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Prominent residents of Tartu (Ger., Dorpat), a town in eastern Estonia. Members of the Gensch family were active in the public and cultural life of the town from the nineteenth century. The father, merchant Barukh Gensch, was involved with local charitable associations, including the Lines Tsedek (Righteous Lodging for the Night) Society."@en ; jlo:title "Gensch Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Gensch Family" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1892–1946), architect, theorist, teacher, and a leader of the Constructivist group in Soviet avant-garde architecture. Moisei Ginzburg was born in Minsk into an architect’s family. With limited access to higher education in Russia, he went abroad for his architectural training. He gained a classical education in this field at the Academia di Belli Arti in Milan and then opted for more technical training at the Riga Polytechnical Institute, graduating in 1917. After spending four years in Crimea studying Tatar folk architecture, Ginzburg settled in Moscow, where he taught architectural history and theory at the Moscow High Technical School and in the architecture faculty at the Vkhutemas Art School. "@en ; jlo:title "Ginzburg, Moisei Iakovlevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Ginzburg, Moisei Iakovlevich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1945), industrialist. Leó Goldberger studied at the Evangelical High School in Budapest and in 1900 received a juris doctor degree. In 1867, his grandmother had been Hungary’s first Jewish woman to be ennobled and had thus been allowed to use the predicate Budai (or Buday; “of Buda”) before her name; hence he is also known as Leó Budai-Goldberger. As the second-born son, Goldberger did not at first intend to continue the tradition of working in his family’s factory. But after the early death of his older brother in 1913 and a long period of recession, he took over the management enterprise from his father. At the time, the factory, with headquarters in Óbuda, concentrated on manufacturing cotton fabrics."@en ; jlo:title "Goldberger, Leó" ; skos:prefLabel "Goldberger, Leó" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1913–2000), scholar and critic. Born in Podbiel in northern Slovakia, in his teens Eduard Goldstücker was a member of the Zionist youth group Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa‘ir, then joining the Communist Party in 1933. He studied German literature at Charles University in Prague. After the German invasion in 1939, he and his wife Marta escaped to Britain, where he wrote a B.Litt. thesis on German literature at Oxford and worked for the Czechoslovak government in exile. His mother and other family members died in the Holocaust."@en ; jlo:title "Goldstücker, Eduard" ; skos:prefLabel "Goldstücker, Eduard" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1867–1941), literary scholar, critic, and translator who played an important role in the development of Jewish literature in Russia. The son of a lawyer who had been one of the first Jews to receive a law degree from Kharkov University, Arkadii Gornfel’d suffered a serious childhood illness and remained disabled throughout his life. He studied Jewish subjects at home, and mastered German and French while still a child. After graduating from the Simferopol gymnasium, he studied law at Kharkov University (1886–1891) and simultaneously attended A. A. Potebnya’s seminar on the theory of literature. At the University of Berlin from 1891 to 1893, he took courses on philosophy and psychology, studying with Moritz Lazarus. "@en ; jlo:title "Gornfel'd, Arkadii" ; skos:prefLabel "Gornfel'd, Arkadii" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1956), educator and public figure in Estonia. Born in Brest-Litovsk, a large center of Jewish communal life, Samuel Gurin grew up in a poor neighborhood in a family of seven children. He studied at a heder and then at a primary school, and then moved with his family to Warsaw, where he completed high school and studied history at the university. As a student, Gurin was affiliated with the Bund; later he turned to the Russian social democrats, and for a period was a member of the Menshevik Party. However, he soon became disappointed with party politics."@en ; jlo:title "Gurin, Samuel" ; skos:prefLabel "Gurin, Samuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1843–1890), Russian Jewish intellectual and crown rabbi. Born in Kleck, Belorussia (mod. Kletsk, Belarus), Ḥayim Yonah Gurland received a maskilic education at the Vilna rabbinical seminary. After graduating in 1860, he was accepted at the University of Saint Petersburg, where he studied Semitic languages under the convert Daniil Khvol’son (Daniel Chwolson), whose work on the Babylonian god Tammuz he translated into Hebrew. Gurland also translated the fables of Lockman (Ar., Lugmān) from Arabic into Russian, and in 1863 was awarded a gold medal for his thesis on the influence of Arabic philosophy on Maimonides."@en ; jlo:title "Gurland, Ḥayim Yonah" ; skos:prefLabel "Gurland, Ḥayim Yonah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1927), Czech sculptor. Oto Gutfreund was born in Dvůr Králové nad Labem. He attended local schools, studied ceramics at Bechyné from 1903 to 1906, and then took up applied arts at Umprum (the school of applied arts) in Prague between 1906 and 1909. While in Paris in 1909–1910, he studied at the Grande Chaumière under Émile Antoine Bourdelle, visiting Belgium, England, and Germany before returning to Prague in 1911."@en ; jlo:title "Gutfreund, Oto" ; skos:prefLabel "Gutfreund, Oto" ; skos:related . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1955), Olympic champion and architect. Alfréd Hajós (born in Budapest as Arnold Guttmann) came from a working-class Hungarian Jewish family; in his youth he converted to Christianity. The word first summarizes and characterizes Hajós’s athletic career. He won the 100-meter and 1,200-meter swimming championships in the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896. With this achievement he was not only Hungary’s first Olympic champion, but also the first in the world, as swimming had not been part of the ancient Olympic Games. From 1898 to 1904, he was also on the team that won the first Hungarian soccer championship. Although he stopped competing in 1904, he remained active in the sporting world, and led the Hungarian Soccer Association in 1905 and 1906. "@en ; jlo:title "Hajós, Alfréd" ; skos:prefLabel "Hajós, Alfréd" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1826–1900), industrialist. Born in Warsaw to a family that had moved from the Poznań district in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century, Bernard Hantke was raised in a Polonized home that had discarded Jewish traditions; he was educated in institutions attended by very few Jews. His grandfather had been a grain merchant in the Poznań district, and Hantke’s father, Adolph, owned a haberdashery store in Warsaw and was a moderately successful fabric merchant. Hantke’s sister’s conversion to Christianity led some biographers to assume that he too had converted, yet there is no documentary evidence to support this contention. Unlike most of the other Jewish entrepreneurs in contemporary Poland, Hantke made his initial fortune in farming and only later reinvested the money in industry—a path far more common for the non-Jewish industrialists of Congress Poland districts. He began his career as a farmer on an estate in Drybus, but soon returned to Warsaw to be a partner in a plant that manufactured agricultural machines and implements. In 1867 he founded a factory to produce chains, nails, and agricultural implements, and in 1879 he acquired the only factory in Warsaw that made rolled steel."@en ; jlo:title "Hantke, Bernard Ludwik" ; skos:prefLabel "Hantke, Bernard Ludwik" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Hungarian industrialists and cultural figures. The Hatvany-Deutsch family played a decisive role for several generations in the economic and—later—the cultural life of Hungary."@en ; jlo:title "Hatvany-Deutsch Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Hatvany-Deutsch Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1851–1942), Hungarian general and minister of defense. Born Samu Kohn in Rimaszombat (now Rimavská Sobota, Slovakia), Samu Hazai (he changed his name in 1876) completed his studies at the Commercial Academy of Budapest and then became manager of his father’s distillery. Hazai started his military career in 1873 as a common honvéd (soldier). His excellent performance led him that same year to the Ludovika Military Academy in Budapest, where as a cadet he converted to Christianity. In 1874, he passed the officer’s exam and the following year became a professional soldier. "@en ; jlo:title "Hazai, Samu" ; skos:prefLabel "Hazai, Samu" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1960), rabbi and biblical scholar. Born in Białystok, Ḥayim Heller earned a doctorate from the University of Würzburg in Germany and was appointed rabbi of Łomża in 1912, a position that he resigned from within months. In 1914, he was elected rabbi of Suwałki, but World War I broke out before he could accept the position, and he moved to Gomel."@en ; jlo:title "Heller, Ḥayim" ; skos:prefLabel "Heller, Ḥayim" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1816–1879), journalist, prose writer, and poet. Born in Mladá Boleslav (Ger., Jungbunzlau), Bohemia, Isidor Heller attended both a yeshiva and a secondary school; he hoped to become a rabbi. In 1832 he left for Prague, where he attended the New Town Gymnasium and, briefly, Prague University. In 1837 he went to Nancy, France, where he tried unsuccessfully to join the French Foreign Legion and to support the liberal party in the Spanish civil war (1833–1840). He hoped that he could obtain French citizenship in reward for the five-year military service."@en ; jlo:title "Heller, Isidor" ; skos:prefLabel "Heller, Isidor" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1954), bacteriologist and serologist, creator of the Polish school of immunology. Ludwik Hirszfeld was born in Warsaw and studied medicine at the universities of Würzburg and Berlin, where he was graduated with highest honors in 1907. He then obtained a post at the Institute for the Study of Cancer in Heidelberg. Following his groundbreaking work, he transferred to the Institute of Serology, where in 1910 in collaboration with Emil von Dungern he demonstrated the hereditary factors of different blood groups. In 1911, he became a professor in the department of hygiene at the University of Zurich. During World War I he was in Serbia, where he organized efforts to combat a typhoid epidemic and discovered paratyphoid C. He was awarded honorary citizenship for his work by the king of that country."@en ; jlo:title "Hirszfeld, Ludwik" ; skos:prefLabel "Hirszfeld, Ludwik" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1806–1887), community leader. Leó Holländer’s father, Mark, originally from Tarnopol, immigrated to Hungary and was the first Jew to settle in Eperjes (Prešov), a royal free city, in 1780. The wealthy merchant was elected as rosh medinah, the head of Sáros county Jewry, in which capacity he served as an influential intercessor with local and Viennese authorities. Leó was instructed by private tutors from abroad; later, he completed eight years of gymnasium studies at the famous Eperjes College. It was here that Holländer formed close ties with the local gentry, which would serve him in good stead later. In 1833, he joined Ferenc Pulszky, the budding liberal politician and future president of the Hungarian Academy, for a five-month grand tour to visit sites of antiquarian interest in Italy, where they also received the pope’s blessing. Holländer’s hobby was antiques, and he came to own one of the most important coin collections in the country, later donated to the National Museum. "@en ; jlo:title "Holländer, Leó" ; skos:prefLabel "Holländer, Leó" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1942), Yiddish poet, writer, and artist. Ber Horovits was the only son of a Jewish family from the rural village of Majdan, in the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Galicia. He received a traditional Jewish education at home, from private tutors, while at the same time studying at a Ukrainian elementary school. In 1914, he graduated from the Polish gymnasium in Stanisławów (now Ukr., Ivano-Frankivs’k). During World War I, he was recruited into the Imperial Austro-Hungarian Army and was sent to various areas of the empire. He ultimately arrived in Vienna, where he enrolled as a medical student and was stationed at a military hospital. During his time in the army, he wrote Yiddish poems that reflected his war experiences."@en ; jlo:title "Horovits, Ber" ; skos:prefLabel "Horovits, Ber" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1952), Polish socialist activist, feminist, and psychiatrist. Kamila Horwitz-Kancewiczowa was born in Warsaw to a middle-class Jewish family in which both Polish and Yiddish were spoken. After completing gymnasium in Warsaw, she went abroad in 1898 to study medicine, first in Berlin and then in Zurich, and became active on the Foreign Committee of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS)."@en ; jlo:title "Horwitz-Kancewiczowa, Kamila" ; skos:prefLabel "Horwitz-Kancewiczowa, Kamila" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1751–1812), maskil, political activist, journalist, and author. As a young man, Zalkind Hourwitz left his village near Lublin and set out for Berlin. There he tutored children of wealthy families—perhaps even coming into contact with the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn—before making his way to Metz and ultimately to Paris in 1774. Whether hawking used clothing or eking out a living teaching foreign languages to the young, he avoided starvation only with the support of his friends. In his spare time he studied Ovid, Molière, Voltaire, and Rousseau. "@en ; jlo:title "Hourwitz, Zalkind" ; skos:prefLabel "Hourwitz, Zalkind" ; skos:related . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1947), violinist. Bronisław Huberman was born in Częstochowa, Poland and was a child prodigy who began to take violin lessons at the age of six. He appeared in public for the first time a year later, playing at a benefit concert for the poor. Huberman studied violin in Warsaw, with, among others, Isidor Lotto at the Warsaw Conservatory. He began to study with Joseph Joachim in Berlin in 1892, and also took lessons briefly with Hugo Heermann in Frankfurt and Martin Marsick in Paris."@en ; jlo:title "Huberman, Bronisław" ; skos:prefLabel "Huberman, Bronisław" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1966), Soviet mathematician who specialized in logic and the history of mathematics. Ianovskaia was born Sof’ia Neimark in Pruzhany, now Belarus, the daughter of an accountant. She grew up in Odessa and attended a classical gymnasium. During the revolution, she was a student at the Odessa Higher Women’s Courses. Ianovskaia joined the Bolsheviks and served as a political commissar during the Civil War. Captured by the Whites, she faced a firing squad but survived."@en ; jlo:title "Ianovskaia, Sof'ia Aleksandrovna" ; skos:prefLabel "Ianovskaia, Sof'ia Aleksandrovna" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1887–1944), historian, librarian, and rabbi. Tobias Jakobovits was born in Lakompak (Lackenback), in the Hungarian part of the Habsburg monarchy. He studied at the yeshiva in Bratislava (Pressburg), and continued at a rabbinical seminary in Berlin and in the philosophical faculty at the German University in Prague."@en ; jlo:title "Jakobovits, Tobias" ; skos:prefLabel "Jakobovits, Tobias" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1899–1970), economist. Michał Kalecki was born in Łódź to a middle-class Jewish family. His regular studies were made difficult by familial and financial problems, so he mastered mathematics and economics on his own. His research on economic fluctuations resulted in an appointment to a position at the Institute of Business Cycles and Prices, a position from which he resigned in 1936 to protest the firing of two colleagues for political reasons. Kalecki gained international acclaim after he published Próby teorii koniunktury (An Essay on the Theory of the Business Cycle; 1933), a study that anticipated the theories of John Maynard Keynes. In 1930, he married Adela Szternfeld. "@en ; jlo:title "Kalecki, Michał" ; skos:prefLabel "Kalecki, Michał" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1871–1937), rabbi, educator, and publisher. Born in Kołaczyce, Galicia, Yekuti’el Kamelhar was educated in Tarnów, where he was exposed to Hasidism. He gained experience as a religious educator, heading a group of Talmud students in Korczyna (from 1890) and in Rzeszów (from 1897). At the end of the nineteenth century, Kamelhar was involved in establishing several pioneering new yeshivas in Galicia, modeled after those in Lithuania and Hungary. He was appointed head of the Or Torah yeshiva in Stanisławów in 1907. An Orthodox activist, Kamelhar helped to found societies that supported a religious education network, and took part in the attempts to organize a rabbinic convention in Kraków in 1903."@en ; jlo:title "Kamelhar, Yekuti’el" ; skos:prefLabel "Kamelhar, Yekuti’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1866–1950), Hebrew poet, playwright, translator, and scholar. Aharon (Armand) Kaminka was born in Berdichev, Kiev province. In 1880, he was sent to Berlin to study at the rabbinical college founded by Esriel Hildesheimer. At the age of 17, in Hamburg, he founded a society called Ahavat Tsiyon (Love of Zion)."@en ; jlo:title "Kaminka, Aharon" ; skos:prefLabel "Kaminka, Aharon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1921–1992), novelist, playwright, and short-story writer. Ferenc Karinthy was part of a literary family whose members have been present on the Hungarian cultural scene for nearly a century. In a two-volume family history published in 2003, Márton Karinthy, a theater director and the oldest living member of the family, reveals that his great-grandparents, both of whom had hailed from observant Jewish homes, converted to Christianity in the 1870s before they were married, so that their children would be born Protestant. (This revelation put the lingering doubt about the family’s origins to rest.)"@en ; jlo:title "Karinthy, Ferenc" ; skos:prefLabel "Karinthy, Ferenc" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1843–1915), educator and cultural policymaker. Mór Kármán was born in Szeged, Hungary, where he came under the influence of Rabbi Lipót (Leopold) Löw, a pioneer of Neolog Judaism in Hungary. Kármán studied philosophy, pedagogy, and philology at the University of Vienna, and received his doctoral degree from the faculty of humanities of the University of Pest in 1866."@en ; jlo:title "Kármán, Mór" ; skos:prefLabel "Kármán, Mór" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1907–1941), Estonian Revisionist Zionist leader. Pinḥas Katz was born in Daugavpils, Latvia. After his graduation from high school in 1923, he worked in several businesses. In 1926, he moved to Estonia to study law at the University of Tartu, an institution famous for liberal academic traditions and a popular place for Latvian Jewish students. He joined Hasmonea, a Zionist Jewish student organization that gradually advocated Revisionism."@en ; jlo:title "Katz, Pinḥas" ; skos:prefLabel "Katz, Pinḥas" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Klein; 1921– ), gymnast, five-time Olympic champion, and coach. Ágnes Keleti won 10 Olympic medals, including 5 gold, in gymnastics over three Olympic Games. In 2000, she ranked third all-time among women athletes for most Olympic medals and fourth all-time as a winner of Olympic gold medals. Keleti is the most successful Jewish female athlete in Olympic history and was ranked among the world’s top five gymnasts from 1952 until 1956. Between 1947 and 1956, she won the All-Around Hungarian Championships 10 times."@en ; jlo:title "Keleti, Ágnes" ; skos:prefLabel "Keleti, Ágnes" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1891–1942?), poet. Dovid Kenigsberg was born in the provincial town of Busk, in the Tarnopol district of eastern Galicia. He received a general education in secondary schools in Brody and Czernowitz, and learned ancient Greek and Latin. In 1911, he worked as a bookkeeper in Lwów. Scholars claim that he first wrote poetry (in German and Polish) when he was 15, but his first piece was printed in the collection Yugnt (Youth; 1909), edited by Yankev Zrubovl. "@en ; jlo:title "Kenigsberg, Dovid" ; skos:prefLabel "Kenigsberg, Dovid" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1815–1882), rabbi, historian, and essayist. Gutmann (Gumpel) Klemperer was born into a family that had been in Prague for several generations. His father was a leader of the Zigeuner Synagogue, and his mother stemmed from the family of Yom Tov Lipmann Heller. Klemperer studied at yeshivas in Prague and Bratislava (Pressburg), at the Piarist gymnasium in Prague, and finally at the faculty of philosophy at Charles University. His first wife was the daughter of his teacher Rabbi Elias Bunzelfedern (1799–1843). In 1843, Klemperer became a preacher in Tábor, and then served as the local rabbi from 1845 until his death. Begining in 1868, he also held the title of district rabbi."@en ; jlo:title "Klemperer, Gutmann" ; skos:prefLabel "Klemperer, Gutmann" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Printers and publishers active in Prague. In the early sixteenth century, Prague became the leading center of Hebrew printing in Central and Eastern Europe, the first prayer book being produced there in 1512. From 1514 onward, the leading figure in the local group of printers was Gershom (also Gerson or Hermann) ben Shelomoh ha-Kohen (d. 1544). Between 1514 and 1522, this group issued four prayer books and an elaborate Pentateuch with a commentary by Rashi (1518; reprinted in 1530). Kohen is listed first in all the colophons, and his symbol—a pair of hands raised in blessing—appears on the opening page of the Pentateuch (1518) and the Maḥzor (1522). After 1522, the group disbanded. In 1526 Kohen, together with his brother Gronem, printed the earliest Passover Haggadah, containing more than 60 lavish woodcut illustrations (mostly by Ḥayim Shaḥor) in the style of Holbein and Dürer. This work became the preeminent model for subsequent Haggadahs and is widely regarded as a masterpiece."@en ; jlo:title "Kohen Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Kohen Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1840–1908), industrialist, banker, and philanthropist. Zsigmond Kohner’s family moved to Pest from Leipzig. His father, Adolf Kohner, joined Zsigmond’s uncle’s firm, specializing in the produce and feather trade. Zsigmond’s mother, Lujza Sváb, was a member of a distinguished entrepreneurial and landowning family."@en ; jlo:title "Kohner, Zsigmond" ; skos:prefLabel "Kohner, Zsigmond" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1720–1806), rabbi and posek (decisor; one who is recognized as having sufficient authority to rule on questions of Jewish law). Shemu’el Kolin’s name (sometimes rendered as Kelin, Keln, or Kell) is derived from his birthplace in Bohemia. His father, Natan ha-Levi, was a wealthy merchant and grandson of Natan Note ben Shelomoh Spira (1585–1633), the kabbalist and rabbi in Kraków and author of the classic Megaleh ‘amukot."@en ; jlo:title "Kolin, Shemu’el ben Natan ha-Levi" ; skos:prefLabel "Kolin, Shemu’el ben Natan ha-Levi" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1912–1975), Soviet theater and cinema actor. Born in Rechitsa, Belorussia, Kopelian moved to Leningrad with his parents and began his studies at the Architecture Faculty of the Leningrad Academy of Arts, at the same time performing as an extra with the Bolshoi Dramatic Theater (BDT). In his second year of studies he transferred to the BDT studio school, joining its troupe in 1935. He continued to perform at the BDT throughout his life, appearing on stage in 80 different roles."@en ; jlo:title "Kopelian, Efim Zakharovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Kopelian, Efim Zakharovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1844–1906), statistician. József Kőrösy was born in Pest to a poor family, and was forced to interrupt his university studies as a consequence of his financial circumstances. He went to work for the Első Magyar Általános Biztosító Társaság (First Hungarian General Insurance Company), and was the economic columnist for the newspapers Pesti Napló (from 1868) and Reform (from 1870). He was appointed director of the Statistical Office of Budapest (Fővárosi Statisztikai Hivatal) in 1870. During the 30 years of his tenure in that position, he developed the agency into a renowned institution. "@en ; jlo:title "Kőrösy, József" ; skos:prefLabel "Kőrösy, József" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1814?–1889), teacher, author, and rabbi. Izaak Kramsztyk was a leading figure in the period of Jewish–Polish rapprochement in the 1860s and in the movement for religious reform. The son of a merchant and prominent member of the Jewish community of the Warsaw suburb of Praga, Kramsztyk hailed from a family with deep rabbinic roots. After receiving a traditional education, he decided, against his parents’ wishes, to attend the rabbinical seminary that had been founded in Warsaw in 1826. He stayed on at this school as a Talmud instructor from 1837 until its close in 1863. In keeping with the spirit of reform and acculturation, he conducted his lessons in Polish and, in 1852, became the first rabbi to preach in that language in a Jewish house of worship in Warsaw—the so-called “Polish” synagogue on Nalewki Street."@en ; jlo:title "Kramsztyk, Izaak" ; skos:prefLabel "Kramsztyk, Izaak" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1942), Polish painter and illustrator. Roman Kramsztyk was a scion of two of the most prominent Jewish families of Warsaw, the Kramsztyks and the Fajans, who belonged to the Polonizing Jewish elite. This small group played a significant role in the social and intellectual life of nineteenth-century Poland. Baptized as an infant, Kramsztyk considered himself a Pole and a Polish artist. It was only during World War II that Jewish motifs began to appear in his work."@en ; jlo:title "Kramsztyk, Roman" ; skos:prefLabel "Kramsztyk, Roman" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1971), architect, teacher, and a leader of the Rationalist group in Soviet avant-garde architecture. Born into a teacher’s family in Ryazan, Vladimir Krinskii was able to complete his secondary education in Saint Petersburg, thanks to the intercession of a prominent patron, and study at the Art School of the Imperial Society for Support of the Arts. He then enrolled in the Academy of Fine Arts, graduating from its architecture department in 1917."@en ; jlo:title "Krinskii, Vladimir Fedorovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Krinskii, Vladimir Fedorovich" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Wealthy rabbinic family in Galicia. Several members of the Kristianpoller family were rabbis in Brody from the end of the eighteenth century. The dynasty began with Me’ir Kristianpoller (1740–1815), who served for a time as rabbi of Kristianpol (Pol., Krystynopol; about 60 km north of Lwów), from which the family adopted its name. In 1785, he was appointed rabbi of Brody and served in that capacity for 30 years until his death. He wrote novellae on the Talmud, titled Yad ha-Me’ir (1874). "@en ; jlo:title "Kristianpoller Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Kristianpoller Family" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1929), Social Democratic politician, publicist, and editor. Zsigmond Kunfi was born in Nagykanizsa, Hungary, the son of a civil servant of Jewish origin, and converted to Calvinism. Kunfi was never interested in religion, but as Zoltán Rónai (his friend and brother-in-law) wrote, he labored under the weight of “an invisible yellow star.” At Kolozsvár (now Cluj, Romania) University, Kunfi earned a doctorate and a degree that enabled him to teach Hungarian and German, which he did at a gymnasium in Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania) for five years. As a teacher, he contributed to local and Budapest democratic and Social Democratic papers and journals and criticized Hungarian policies in Neue Zeit (published in Stuttgart). "@en ; jlo:title "Kunfi, Zsigmond" ; skos:prefLabel "Kunfi, Zsigmond" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1873–1920), architect. Born in Budapest-Óbuda to a traditional Jewish family of tailors, Béla Lajta (originally Leitersdorfer) became the most important protomodernist architect in Hungary, bridging the art nouveau of Ödön Lechner and modernism proper. With Joseph Hoffmann, Adolf Loos, and Ian Kotěra, Lajta was one of the most significant architects between 1900 and 1920 in Habsburg lands. Talented in music, drama, sculpture, and painting, he ultimately graduated from Budapest Technical University in 1896 as a student of Alois Hausmann and Imre Steindl; he then was awarded a travel grant to Italy, Germany, France, Spain, and Russia. Lajta worked in the offices of Alfred Messel in Berlin, Norman Shaw in London, and Ödön Lechner in Budapest."@en ; jlo:title "Lajta, Béla" ; skos:prefLabel "Lajta, Béla" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1852–1921), Hungarian banker and business leader. Born in Pest, Leó Lánczy (Lazarsfeld) studied at a commercial school and at the age of 16 worked at the warehouse of the Laczkó and Gomperz Company. He then switched to a banking career, first working for the Anglo-Hungarian Bank. When this institution failed after the 1873 stock market crash, Lánczy became the managing director of the Hungarian General Mortgage Company. Like his brother Gyula (1850–1911), the historian, Lánczy converted to Christianity as a young man."@en ; jlo:title "Lánczy, Leó" ; skos:prefLabel "Lánczy, Leó" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1943), lawyer, community leader, and Bundist. Leib Landau was born in Kirov, Russia, to a traditional Yiddish-speaking Jewish family. As a child, he moved to Przemyśl, the city in which he spent most of his life. Upon graduation from gymnasium, Landau studied law and became a celebrated attorney who defended Jewish civil rights. Between 1905 and 1914, Landau was a leading member of Galicia’s Żydowska Partia Socjalno-Demokratyczna (Jewish Social Democratic Party; ŻPS)."@en ; jlo:title "Landau, Leib" ; skos:prefLabel "Landau, Leib" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Eighteenth-century Lithuanian artist and engraver. Herszek Lejbowicz seems to have been born in Sokal, a small settlement not far from Minsk, sometime in the 1720s or 1730s. Nothing is known of his childhood years or education. He followed in the footsteps of his father, Lejb Zyskielowicz, working as a coppersmith and engraver. In the spring of 1747, Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł invited father and son to his palace at Nieśwież to prepare an album of family portraits."@en ; jlo:title "Lejbowicz, Herszek" ; skos:prefLabel "Lejbowicz, Herszek" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Ethical work in Yiddish. The Seyfer lev tov (Book of the Good Heart) was first printed in Prague in 1620. Nothing is known about its author, Yitsḥak ben Elyakim of Posen (Poznań). The book has 20 chapters that present appropriate Jewish behavior from a religious perspective; it deals with the conduct of the Jew in the religious context (mainly the synagogue) as well as in everyday life. "@en ; jlo:title "Lev Tov, Seyfer" ; skos:prefLabel "Lev Tov, Seyfer" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1939), Yiddish and Hebrew writer, physician, and communal activist. Gershn Levin was born in Lublin and moved to Warsaw, where he completed medical studies in 1896. An energetic promoter of improved hygiene, he collaborated with Yisra’el Ḥayim Zagorodski (1864–1931) to write Ḥayenu ve-orekh yamenu: ‘Etsot ve-ḥukim lishmor beri’ut ha-guf (Our Life and Longevity: How to Stay Healthy; 1898). Levin’s views are particularly expressed in the chapter “Gidul-banim” (Childrearing), a critique of traditional heder education that contained a plea for children’s rights. "@en ; jlo:title "Levin, Gershn" ; skos:prefLabel "Levin, Gershn" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Rabbis and political activists. Aron Lewin (1879–1941) was a leader of the Agudas Yisroel movement and a deputy in the Polish parliament. His younger brother Yeḥezkel Lewin (1898–1941) was a Zionist leader and rabbi of the progressive (Reform) community of Lwów. They were sons of Natan Lewin, rabbi in Rohatyn and Rzeszów, and maternal grandsons of the noted scholar Yitsḥak Shmelkes of Lwów."@en ; jlo:title "Lewin Brothers" ; skos:prefLabel "Lewin Brothers" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1981), economist. Evsei Liberman was chair of the economics and engineering department at the Kharkov Institute of Economics and Engineering (1947–1963) and from 1963 headed the statistics department at Kharkov State University. He was a key figure in the debates over economic reform in the Soviet Union following Stalin’s death."@en ; jlo:title "Liberman, Evsei Grigor’evich" ; skos:prefLabel "Liberman, Evsei Grigor’evich" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1917–1997), Polish prose writer. Born in Zurich into a Polonized Jewish family, Leo Lipski (originally Lipschütz) spent his childhood and youth in Kraków where he studied psychology and philosophy and made his literary debut. He fled to Lwów in 1939, where he was arrested by the Soviets and sent to labor camps in 1940. Managing to leave the USSR with the Polish Army, he fell ill with typhoid fever and encephalitis in Tehran and, as a result, was discharged from the army. After briefly studying in Beirut, Lipski settled in Tel Aviv in 1944. Partially paralyzed and unable to speak clearly, he typed his works with one hand, later switching to dictation. In 1975 he traveled to Paris with the poet Lucja Gliksman, who cared for him."@en ; jlo:title "Lipski, Leo" ; skos:prefLabel "Lipski, Leo" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1809–1868), lawyer and journalist. Born in Warsaw, Ludwik Ozjasz Lubliner attended a Piarist (Catholic) school against the wishes of his observant parents. As a student at a polytechnical college, he then joined the uprising of 1831, during the course of which he received numerous injuries and was decorated with military honors."@en ; jlo:title "Lubliner, Ludwik" ; skos:prefLabel "Lubliner, Ludwik" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1891–1976), Soviet historian and literary critic. Margolis (later Margulis) was born in Rovno (Rivne), Ukraine. He graduated from the history department of Kiev University and taught Jewish history at the Jewish Pedagogical Institute in Kiev in the early 1920s. At the end of the 1920s, he headed the historical section of the Institute of Jewish Proletarian Culture at the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev. At this time, he was also affiliated with the Jewish Section of the Moscow-based Communist University of the Peoples of the West, known in Yiddish as the Mayrevke."@en ; jlo:title "Margolis, Osher Leibovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Margolis, Osher Leibovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1934), political figure. Born Róża Pomeranc in Tarnopol, Pomeranc married Izaak Melcer, legal adviser for the state railways in Lwów, in 1906 (the marriage was childless). Melcer studied at universities in Vienna and Paris, and also spent three years in Leipzig at a conservatory. She was fluent in several languages."@en ; jlo:title "Melcer, Róża" ; skos:prefLabel "Melcer, Róża" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1767–1831), rabbi, thinker, and harbinger of the Haskalah. Born in the small town of Smorgon’, Belorussia, Menasheh of Ilya married at age 15 but was divorced after a short time; he remarried at 17 and went to live with his new wife in her hometown, Ilya. From a very young age he attracted attention as a self-taught scholar of exceptional ability; he subsequently adopted the approach to study pursued by the school of the Gaon of Vilna."@en ; jlo:title "Menasheh of Ilya" ; skos:prefLabel "Menasheh of Ilya" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1858–1913), socialist, publisher, writer, and editor of the first Polish-language Jewish daily newspaper. Born to a well-to-do assimilated banking family in Warsaw, Stanisław Mendelsohn attended medical school. As a student at Warsaw University in 1875–1877, he helped to establish the first Polish socialist circle."@en ; jlo:title "Mendelson, Stanisław" ; skos:prefLabel "Mendelson, Stanisław" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1906–1943), Jewish council leader in Sosnowiec during World War II. A businessman active in local politics, Mosheh Merin became a Zionist representative on the Sosnowiec Jewish community council in January 1939. When the Germans occupied the city on 4 September of that year, he presented himself as the council’s representative, although he was not officially its chair. That same month, however, he was appointed head of the Sosnowiec Jewish council."@en ; jlo:title "Merin, Mosheh" ; skos:prefLabel "Merin, Mosheh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Russian family of dancers and actors. Asaf Messerer (1903–1992) studied privately with Mikhail Mordkin in 1919 in Moscow and was later singled out by Aleksandr Gorsky, who placed him in an experimental class at the Bolshoi Ballet School (from which Messerer graduated in 1921). He then joined the ballet as a principal dancer."@en ; jlo:title "Messerer Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Messerer Family" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1851–1932), politician, journalist, writer, and member of the Hungarian parliament. The younger brother of Mór Mezei, Ernő Mezei studied law in Pest and worked as a journalist from the time of his youth. His original family name was Grünfeld, which he changed in 1875 together with the rest of his family (his brother Mór had already taken this step in 1860). By the age of 20 he was already working as a political analyst for the opposition newspaper Ellenőr. Three years later, when Egyetértés, the leading daily of the constitutional opposition (Independence Party, the most nationalistic of the liberal parliamentary parties) was founded, Mezei joined its staff as an editorial writer. During the period 1875 to 1877, he published several booklets on contemporary political issues (on government activity, civil marriage, and the like). He had therefore already established himself as a known publicist in the capital before embarking on a political career in 1881. "@en ; jlo:title "Mezei, Ernő" ; skos:prefLabel "Mezei, Ernő" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1824–1898), poet, translator, and essayist. Fabius Mieses was born in Brody, Galicia, where his father exposed him to the ideas of the Hebrew Haskalah. As a youth, Mieses studied philosophy with David Lokatsher, a former student of Naḥman Krochmal. In 1840, Mieses went to the home of his father’s uncle Yitsḥak Mieses (a philosopher and researcher of Kabbalah) in Kraków; subsequently, Fabius married his relative’s daughter."@en ; jlo:title "Mieses, Fabius" ; skos:prefLabel "Mieses, Fabius" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Polish-language Jewish academic journal. Published by the Menora publishing house and edited by Zygmunt Ellenberg, Miesięcznik Żydowski (Jewish Monthly) appeared in Warsaw between 1930 and 1935; the periodical targeted Jewish and Polish intelligentsia. Miesięcznik Żydowski’s editorial offices were located in Łódź, but its administration and press were in Warsaw. As the journal was financed by subscription, the publishers found it difficult to maintain its continuity. They tried to remedy the problem by printing double issues; however, in 1934, publication was suspended for six months. In all, a total of 46 issues were published. "@en ; jlo:title "Miesięcznik Żydowski" ; skos:prefLabel "Miesięcznik Żydowski" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1911–1991), theoretical and nuclear physicist. A member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1966, Migdal was born in Lida, Belarussia. He began his studies at the Leningrad State University Department of Physics in 1929, only to be expelled in 1931 because of nonproletarian origins. He completed his university studies in the evening division. From 1931 to 1936, while working as an engineer at a factory, Migdal was able to carry out some scientific work. In 1936 he became a graduate student at the Leningrad Physics and Technical Institute, where he wrote and defended his dissertation for the degree of candidate of sciences."@en ; jlo:title "Migdal, Arkadii Benediktovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Migdal, Arkadii Benediktovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1991), historian and Communist Party activist. Isaak Mints was born in the village of Krinichki, Ekaterinoslav province. As a youth, he participated in the revolutionary movement and circulated propaganda to workers in Verkhnedneprovsk and Ekaterinoslav. In 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party and became a Red Guard, joining the Red Army in 1918. He finished the war as a commissar of the Chervonnii Cossack corps."@en ; jlo:title "Mints, Isaak Izrailevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Mints, Isaak Izrailevich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1820–1890), Yiddish author. Born in Piotrków, Poland, Yankev Morgenshtern subsequently moved to Łódź. He acquired the nickname Yankl Lerer (Yankl the Teacher) from his job teaching poor women the rudiments of elementary Hebrew and Yiddish writing. To make ends meet, he worked as a wedding jester and tried his hand at matchmaking. He later used the pseudonym Y. Katchko for his writings."@en ; jlo:title "Morgenshtern, Yankev" ; skos:prefLabel "Morgenshtern, Yankev" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1666–1739), communal scribe, preacher, author, and burial society official; a descendant of Yehudah Löw (Maharal of Prague) and an ancestor of El‘azar Fleckeles. A native of Prague, Me’ir Perles studied under Avraham Gombiner (the “Magen Avraham”) in Kalisz. He traveled through Germany and Holland, working for Samson Wertheimer (a court Jew and rabbi in Vienna) and remaining under his patronage after returning to Prague."@en ; jlo:title "Mosheh Me’ir ben El‘azar Perles of Prague" ; skos:prefLabel "Mosheh Me’ir ben El‘azar Perles of Prague" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1967), Hebraist and historian. Otto Muneles was descended from an old Jewish family in Prague, records of which date to the sixteenth century; one of his ancestors was Avraham Muneles, who wrote an index to the Shulḥan ‘arukh. From 1904 to 1912, Muneles attended the German gymnasium in Prague and studied halakhic literature at a Talmud Torah school. From 1912 to 1915, he studied classical philology at the German University in Prague and continued to pursue Judaic studies. "@en ; jlo:title "Muneles, Otto" ; skos:prefLabel "Muneles, Otto" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1949), manufacturer, Zionist activist, and philanthropist. Born in Pinsk where his father was a distiller, Yitsḥak Naiditsch was raised as a Karlin Hasid, though when he completed his heder education he was taught modern subjects and Russian by a tutor. At age 15, Naiditsch joined the Ḥibat Tsiyon movement and formed a friendship with Chaim Weizmann. In 1889, Naiditsch settled in Moscow, where he built factories to produce liquor and invented a method to extract alcohol from potatoes. The Russian Ministry of Finance sent him abroad to promote trade."@en ; jlo:title "Naiditsch, Yitsḥak Asher" ; skos:prefLabel "Naiditsch, Yitsḥak Asher" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1942?), pseudonym of Yitskhok Farberovitsh, writer of books on the Polish Jewish criminal underworld. Urke Nakhalnik was born in the Łomża region in 1897 to a middle-class family. As a boy, he went to heder and later attended the local yeshiva with the intention of becoming a rabbi. At the age of 14, following the death of his mother, he ran away to Vilna, where he taught Hebrew and Bible. While there, he was caught stealing from his employer and was sentenced to prison for a short time. Following his release, he worked at a variety of jobs, including as an assistant to a wagon driver. This association led him into the company of professional thieves and criminals. From that point on, he spent much time in and out of prison."@en ; jlo:title "Nakhalnik, Urke" ; skos:prefLabel "Nakhalnik, Urke" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in northern Romania, on the Someşul Mare River, 24 km north-northwest of the city of Bistrița. The first documented reference to Năsăud (Ger., Nussdorf; Hun., Naszód) dates to 1264. In 1762, imperial authorities turned this small market town into the center for a regiment of frontier guards; it remained as such until 1851."@en ; jlo:title "Năsăud" ; skos:prefLabel "Năsăud" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1930), publicist and literary critic. Born in Krolevets, Ukraine, Nepomniashchii was raised in a traditional Jewish family that after numerous moves finally settled in Poltava. His father was a supporter of Ḥoveve Tsiyon who devoted special attention to the Jewish education of his eldest son. Nepomniashchii showed an inclination for writing at an early age. While still a child he took part in editing a children’s magazine. As he grew older he was sent to a nearby yeshiva where, along with studying Talmud and Jewish law, he read Hebrew poets Ḥayim Naḥman Bialik and Sha’ul Tchernichowsky."@en ; jlo:title "Nepomniashchii, Shlomo Iakov Moiseevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Nepomniashchii, Shlomo Iakov Moiseevich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Writers, poets, and educators. Born in Trisk (Turzysk), Volhynia, the Olitski brothers—Leyb, Borukh, and Mates—each made meaningful contributions to Yiddish education and literature. The eldest, Leyb (1895–1975), was an educator who wrote novels and short stories for adults and children. The second brother, Borukh (1907–1941), had a strong reputation as a poet and teacher of Yiddish language and literature. Mates (1915– ), the youngest, is a poet and educator, first in Europe and later in New York."@en ; jlo:title "Olitski Brothers" ; skos:prefLabel "Olitski Brothers" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1914–2003), rabbi and halakhic authority, known primarily for his book She’elot u-teshuvot mi-ma‘amakim, a collection of halakhic rulings issued in the Kovno (Kaunas) ghetto during the Holocaust period. Ephraim (Efroim) Oshry was born in Kupishok, in the district of Panevėžys (Ponevezh) in Lithuania. He studied in the finest yeshivas in Lithuania—Khelm, Ponevezh, and Keneset Yisra’el in Slobodka. Oshry discussed halakhic issues and the clarification of Talmudic passages with prominent authorities, including Ḥayim Ozer Grodzenski and Avraham Duber Shapira, with whom he maintained a particularly close relationship. "@en ; jlo:title "Oshry, Ephraim" ; skos:prefLabel "Oshry, Ephraim" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1844/46–1930), rabbi, Polish Sejm deputy. A child prodigy, Avraham Tsevi Perlmutter was ordained as a rabbi at age 14 and was a disciple of some of the leading rabbis of his era, including Ḥayim Halberstam of Sandz (Nowy Sącz), Shim‘on Sofer of Kraków, and Dov Berush Meisels of Warsaw. At first Perlmutter served as rabbi in a series of small communities, including Osięciny, Pabianice, and Raciąż. While officiating in Raciąż, he learned Russian at the urging of the provincial governor, but only after receiving the approval of his father and of the rebbe of Gostynin, to whom he was close even though Perlmutter was not a Hasid."@en ; jlo:title "Perlmutter, Avraham Tsevi" ; skos:prefLabel "Perlmutter, Avraham Tsevi" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1843–1913), Torah scholar and early advocate of religious Zionism. Yeḥi’el Mikha’el Pines was born into a well-to-do family in Ruzhany in the district of Grodno, where he received both a traditional and a general education. From his early years, Pines was a prolific essayist and sharp-witted polemicist; as early as 1867–1869 his articles appeared in the pages of the Hebrew periodicals Ha-Melits, Ha-Magid, and Ha-Levanon."@en ; jlo:title "Pines, Yeḥi’el Mikha’el" ; skos:prefLabel "Pines, Yeḥi’el Mikha’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1913–1966), theoretical physicist, member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and professor. Born in Warsaw to an educated family (his father was a chemical engineer and his mother a doctor), Isaak Pomeranchuk moved with them first to Rostov-on-Don, and then to the Donbass. He began his studies at the Ivanovo Institute of Chemical Technology, transferring to the Department of Physics and Mechanics of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute; he completed his degree in 1936."@en ; jlo:title "Pomeranchuk, Isaak Iakovlevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Pomeranchuk, Isaak Iakovlevich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Merchants and communal leaders in Bohemia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Popper family came from Bresnitz (Břesnice), a commercial junction in southern Bohemia owned by the Kolowrat barons, one of the few noble families of Slavic descent that remained in Bohemia after 1620. During the seventeenth century, the Popper family provided a range of services to the Kolowrats, particularly granting credit. Under Kolowrat patronage, the Popper family business expanded substantially, also moving into commerce."@en ; jlo:title "Popper Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Popper Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The concept of possession by and exorcism of deceased souls (dibukim; dybbuks) who inhabited the bodies of unwilling hosts is based on the kabbalistic concept of gilgul (transmigration), found in the Zohar and other medieval sources. ‘Ibur neshamah (soul impregnation) is a related concept also found in kabbalistic sources; it refers to the penetration of a kabbalist’s soul by the additional soul of an ancient sage who aids him in a spiritual quest. ‘Ibur neshamah was valued as a positive, highly prized form of possession. "@en ; jlo:title "Possession and Exorcism" ; skos:prefLabel "Possession and Exorcism" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1902–1969), educator, journalist, and Zionist politician. Oskar Rabinowicz was born in Aspern, Austria, but was raised in Boskovice, Moravia. His father, a Hebrew teacher and cantor, had grown up in the household of the Sadegora rebbe but gave his son a secular education."@en ; jlo:title "Rabinowicz, Oskar K." ; skos:prefLabel "Rabinowicz, Oskar K." ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Nineteenth- and early twentieth-century term for physical anthropology, or the study of human difference, with scientists proceeding from the common assumption that Europeans were racially superior to non-European peoples. Jews played a central role in race science both as practitioners and objects of study. As many Jews were doctors, they were especially well placed to become race scientists and in a position to combat claims of inherent Jewish difference and/or degeneracy. The rise of antisemitism at the end of the nineteenth century provided further impetus for Jews to employ race science because antisemites used its “evidence” to justify anti-Jewish prejudice."@en ; jlo:title "Race Science" ; skos:prefLabel "Race Science" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1853–1921), economist and financial agent for the Russian government. Although Artur Rafalovich was born and raised in Odessa, he lived in France from the 1880s on, where he wrote a series of economic studies. His analyses remain valuable today as a resource for learning about the economic history of Europe."@en ; jlo:title "Rafalovich, Artur Germanovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Rafalovich, Artur Germanovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in eastern Transylvania, at the confluence of the Mureş and Gurghiu Rivers, 32 km north-northeast of the city of Târgu Mureş. The first reference to Reghin (Ger., Sächsisch-Reen; Lat., Regun; Hun., Szászrégen) dates to 1228. In the second half of the nineteenth century, it experienced substantial economic development and was designated as a free royal town in 1863."@en ; jlo:title "Reghin" ; skos:prefLabel "Reghin" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1818–1894), Hebrew writer and scholar, historian of ancient Jewish literature, the Bible, and Jewish philosophy. Ya‘akov Reifmann was born in Łagów, Poland. He spent his childhood in nearby Opatów, where he acquired a basic religious education, but subsequently spent most of his life—including the days of his extensive and highly diversified scholastic achievements—in Szczebrzeszyn, near Zamość, where he relocated after marrying. There he was introduced to classic Jewish philosophical literature and was profoundly influenced by Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed. Reifmann, who lived most of his life in poverty, learned German on his own, and, like others who followed the Haskalah, read the writings of German philosophers, which introduced him to scholarly research methods. "@en ; jlo:title "Reifmann, Ya‘akov" ; skos:prefLabel "Reifmann, Ya‘akov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1921–1970), mathematician. Alfréd Rényi was born in Budapest. His father, Artúr, was a mechanical engineer and translator; his mother, Barbara (Borka), was a photographer and the daughter of philosopher Bernát Alexander (1850–1927). It was from his mother’s side that Rényi acquired a love of literature and Greek philosophy; in secondary school his studies focused more on humanities than on sciences."@en ; jlo:title "Rényi, Alfréd" ; skos:prefLabel "Rényi, Alfréd" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1845–1906), rabbi and Zionist. A disciple of Rabbis Esriel Hildesheimer of Eisenstadt and Avraham Shemu’el Binyamin Sofer, Mosheh Aryeh Roth was born in Hanusfalva, Hungary, and married the daughter of his uncle, Mordechai Roth, the head of the Jewish community in Hunsdorf. After his marriage, Roth settled in Altendorf, near the Galician border."@en ; jlo:title "Roth, Mosheh Aryeh" ; skos:prefLabel "Roth, Mosheh Aryeh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1902–1989), Yiddish educator, journalist, and memoir writer. Ester Shnayderman (Shneyderman; Shneiderman; Rosenthal) was born in Częstochowa, Poland. After receiving a primary education at a Russian elementary school and passing external examinations for secondary education, she studied at Warsaw University and worked at the Central Yiddish School Organization (TSYSHO). In 1926, she was sent to the Soviet Union, where she soon began to work with Yoysef Liberberg, director of the Kiev-based Institute of Jewish Proletarian Culture (IJPC). Like many other activists in the left wing of the Labor Zionist movement, which had been her initial ideological affiliation, she joined the Communist Party. As a graduate student, she headed the Communist Party organization at the IJPC, later becoming a research fellow at the institute’s Pedagogical Section and also lecturing at the Kiev Pedagogical Institute."@en ; jlo:title "Rozental-Shnayderman, Ester" ; skos:prefLabel "Rozental-Shnayderman, Ester" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1912–2003), Yiddish poet, editor, and cultural activist. Hadasah Rubin was born into a poor family in Iampol’, Ukraine. In 1921, her family moved to Zbarazh in Galicia and later to Kremenets, where she finished high school. In her youth Rubin was an ardent member of the Communist Party, and consequently spent a few years in a Polish prison. She emerged with her revolutionary zeal intact and a bundle of poems under her arm. Traces of this youthful restlessness, which pervaded her early political sensibilities, stayed present in her work throughout her literary career. Even though she later renounced communism, she maintained her original ideals, namely freedom, equality, and friendship among nations."@en ; jlo:title "Rubin, Hadasah" ; skos:prefLabel "Rubin, Hadasah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1935), Polish socialist, Yiddish writer and editor, and physician. Feliks Sachs was born in Warsaw to a lower middle-class Jewish family. A native Yiddish speaker, he completed gymnasium in 1888 and subsequently entered the faculty of medicine at Warsaw University, earning his degree in 1895. At the university, Sachs attended illegal meetings of radical students and became a convinced Marxist. In 1898, he joined the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) and in 1899 sat on the executive committee of the party’s Warsaw division. Sachs coedited the party’s central organ, Robotnik, with Józef Piłsudski in 1899–1900. "@en ; jlo:title "Sachs, Feliks" ; skos:prefLabel "Sachs, Feliks" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in the extreme west of Romania, in the Crişurilor Plain, 14 km east of the border with Hungary and 40 km southwest of Oradea. The first written reference to Salonta (Hun., Nagyszalonta) dates to 1332 and was found in a papal document. Destroyed by the Turks in 1598, the town was rebuilt by the free soldiers of Prince István Bocskay in 1606. The town was ravaged by severe fires in 1658 and 1847, and by floods in 1816."@en ; jlo:title "Salonta" ; skos:prefLabel "Salonta" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1933–1998), musicologist, radio and television host, and journalist. Iosif Sava (originally Segal) was born in Iaşi to a family of musicians—his grandfather, Iosif Segal (1868–1927), after whom he was named, was a violinist and a close friend and collaborator of Avrom Goldfadn, the founder of the Yiddish theater. Sava’s father, Bernard Segal (1897–1958), was a violist in the Iaşi philharmonic who also made his mark as a composer and conductor at the Jewish theater in Iaşi."@en ; jlo:title "Sava, Iosif" ; skos:prefLabel "Sava, Iosif" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Prominent rabbinic family. Several members of the Schmelkes family served as rabbis and community leaders in Galicia from the middle of the nineteenth century. Most prominent among them were the rabbis of Przemyśl: Yitsḥak Yehudah Schmelkes (1828–1905) and his nephew Gedalyah Schmelkes (1857–1928)."@en ; jlo:title "Schmelkes Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Schmelkes Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1905–1938), Soviet mathematician who contributed to the calculus of variations, topology, and number theory. Lev Schnirelmann went to Moscow in 1921, aged 16, and immediately enrolled at Moscow University. He was admitted without a formal high school diploma because mathematics professor Nikolai Luzin was impressed by his potential. Soon Schnirelmann became an active member of Luzitania, a group of young and talented mathematicians that formed around their professor. Later this group gave rise to the powerful Moscow mathematical school."@en ; jlo:title "Schnirelmann, Lev" ; skos:prefLabel "Schnirelmann, Lev" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1877–1948), feminist, journalist, and politician. Rózsika (Róza) Schwimmer was born in Budapest into a middle-class Jewish family; her father was a produce merchant. Schwimmer studied at an evening commerce school in Temesvár (Timişoara, Romania) in 1893–1894. Following the bankruptcy of her father’s business, her family moved back to Budapest. There, she first worked as a governess and then as a bookkeeper and a correspondent clerk. She also wrote for various journals such as the Pester Lloyd. From 1904, she supported herself as a journalist and lecturer. From 1911 until 1913, Schwimmer was married to a journalist whose surname was Bédy. "@en ; jlo:title "Schwimmer, Rózsika" ; skos:prefLabel "Schwimmer, Rózsika" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in northern Romania in the county of Maramureş, on the Someşului Plain at the southwestern foot of the Gutîi Mountains and on the Seinel River, 48 km northwest of Baia Mare. The first documented reference to Seini (Hun., Szinyérváralja or Szinérváralja) dates to 1334, and the first indication of a Jewish population comes from the second half of the eighteenth century. A census of Jews in Maramureş in 1768–1769 recorded 2 Jewish families with 6 people living in Seini. In 1839–1840 there were 151 Jews; a century later, the census of 1930 counted 673 Jews (13% of the total town population). The Jewish community was established by the end of the 1700s, with its own rabbi, and it later affiliated strongly with Orthodoxy. In 1885, it became the administrative center for the surrounding rural communities."@en ; jlo:title "Seini" ; skos:prefLabel "Seini" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1899–1968), Russian poet, playwright, and novelist. Il’ia Selvinskii’s achievements include the epic poem Ulialaevshchina (The Lay of Ulyalaev; 1924, pub. 1927) and the novel in verse Pushtorg (Fur Trade; 1928). He was one of the first Soviet poets to write about the Holocaust. "@en ; jlo:title "Sel’vinskii, Il’ia L’vovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Sel’vinskii, Il’ia L’vovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1905–1986), physicist, member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1979. Born in Saint Petersburg, Shal’nikov grew up in a family associated with the Russian intelligentsia. One of his childhood friends was the composer Dmitri Shostakovich. In his youth Shal’nikov was drawn to literature, and in the 1920s he attended lectures given in the literary circle of Nikolai Gumilev."@en ; jlo:title "Shalnikov, Aleksandr Iosifovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Shalnikov, Aleksandr Iosifovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1943), Hasidic master and educational theorist; communal leader of special prominence during the Holocaust. Son of Elimelekh Shapiro of Grodzisk and a descendant of Yisra’el Hapstein (the Magid of Kozhenits [Pol., Kozienice]), Kalonymus Kalmish Shapiro was the rabbi of Piaseczno, a small town just outside Warsaw; he later moved his main residence to Warsaw."@en ; jlo:title "Shapiro, Kalonymus Kalmish ben Elimelekh of Piaseczno" ; skos:prefLabel "Shapiro, Kalonymus Kalmish ben Elimelekh of Piaseczno" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1835–1911), rabbi and halakhic authority. Shalom Mordekhai Shvadron was born in Złoczów, Galicia. At the age of 16, he married in Biały Kamień and for two years was supported by his father-in-law. He then returned to Złoczów and for several years engaged in commerce, trading in wine, timber, flax, and cattle."@en ; jlo:title "Shvadron, Shalom Mordekhai" ; skos:prefLabel "Shvadron, Shalom Mordekhai" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1992), Soviet poet, playwright, and polemicist. A graduate of the law faculty of the Kiev Institute of Economics (1930), Tsesar’ Solodar’ was a war correspondent during World War II, and joined the Communist Party in 1943."@en ; jlo:title "Solodar’, Tsesar’ Solomonovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Solodar’, Tsesar’ Solomonovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1932–2003), playwright and critic. Dumitru (Dolfi) Solomon attended elementary school and high school in Bârlad, Romania. After graduating from Bucharest University (1955), he worked as an editor for Gazeta literară (1955–1962) and Luceafărul (Evening Star; 1962–1964). He made his mark in literary society with essays and critical studies, contributing to Romania’s major journals in the field. In 1964, he began a career in cinematography, first as a director at the Film Studios of Bucharest (until 1972), and then, until 1989, as a script reader and executive producer. At the same time, he was a prolific playwright and drama critic. After 1989, he served as editor in chief of the theatrical culture reviews Teatrul, azi (Theater Today) and Scena (Stage). "@en ; jlo:title "Solomon, Dumitru" ; skos:prefLabel "Solomon, Dumitru" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1872–1945), revolutionary and Soviet public figure. Aron Sol’ts was born near Vilna to a well-established merchant family. While a student in secondary school, he became active in worker revolutionary circles in Vilna. In 1895, Sol’ts enrolled in Saint Petersburg University and simultaneously began studying Marxism; in 1898 he joined the Rossiiskaia Sotsial-Demokraticheskaia Rabochaia Partiia (Russian Social Democratic Workers Party) and helped distribute the illegal paper Rabochee znamia (Workers’ Banner). He was expelled from the university for participating in the student demonstrations in 1899. "@en ; jlo:title "Sol’ts, Aron Aleksandrovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Sol’ts, Aron Aleksandrovich" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Yiddish-language sports periodical. The passion of a significant number of Jews in interwar Poland for organized sports was reflected in the pages of Sportcajtung (Sport News). Edited by L. Koprowicz and published in Warsaw between April 1931 and August 1939, this biweekly, illustrated periodical played an important role in encouraging enthusiasm for sports. Earlier attempts to publish weeklies of the same title in Warsaw and Łódź in 1924 had been unsuccessful. "@en ; jlo:title "Sportcajtung" ; skos:prefLabel "Sportcajtung" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1854–1937), Hebrew scholar, translator, journalist, editor, and a founder of the Czech Jewish movement. August Stein was born in Nový Knín, near Dobříš, into a family of a liberal rabbi and teacher of religion. Stein studied law in Prague at the Charles Ferdinand University and received a doctorate in 1880. As a student, he worked as a clerk in the law office of Alois Zucker, a criminal law professor. At the same time, he served as private tutor to Bohuš Rieger, future professor and son of František Ladislav Rieger, leader of the Old Czech Party. Stein originally supported this party before becoming a Social Democrat."@en ; jlo:title "Stein, August" ; skos:prefLabel "Stein, August" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1992), painter, set designer, woman of letters, and translator. Born in Buzău, Romania, to a middle-class family, Margareta Sterian attended the Ranson Academy and the École du Louvre in Paris between 1926 and 1929. On her return to Romania in 1929, she studied sociology at the University of Bucharest and participated in ethnographic research conducted by Dimitrie Gusti in the village of Drăguş. As a result of this experience, she produced a series of portraits, titled Copii din Drăguş (The Children of Drăguş), which was exhibited with other works at her first personal exhibition, organized in 1929 at the Mozart Hall in Bucharest. "@en ; jlo:title "Sterian, Margareta" ; skos:prefLabel "Sterian, Margareta" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1877–1918), librarian and socialist theoretician. Ervin Szabó was born in northern Hungary in a region that is now part of Slovakia. He changed his name from Samuel Armin Schlesinger and converted to Calvinism while still in his teens. Later, as a revolutionary, he expressed no attachment either to Judaism or Christianity. Szabó studied at the faculties of law and administration at universities in Budapest and Vienna, and earned a doctorate in 1903. Beginning in 1904 he worked as founder and director of the Budapest Municipal Library, where he adopted the model of the American public library, unknown until then in Hungary. Even today, the Hungarian library network remains named for him."@en ; jlo:title "Szabó, Ervin" ; skos:prefLabel "Szabó, Ervin" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1943), editor and publisher. Lajos Szabolcsi was the son of journalist and editor Miksa Szabolcsi (1857–1915), the brother of music historian Bence Szabolcsi (1899–1973), and the father of literary historian Miklós Szabolcsi (1921–2000). Lajos completed his studies in Hungarian and French at the Philological Faculty of Pázmány Péter University in Budapest and then studied in Munich and Paris. He received his doctorate in philosophy in 1907 in Budapest. Upon completion of this degree, Szabolcsi started working for the Jewish weekly Egyenlőség, edited by his father. He himself became associate editor in 1911 and full editor in 1915 upon his father’s death, remaining in this position until the paper was banned in 1938. Szabolcsi was already very ill when he was taken into the forced labor service in 1940–1941. "@en ; jlo:title "Szabolcsi, Lajos" ; skos:prefLabel "Szabolcsi, Lajos" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Bankers and entrepreneurs in Lithuania and Warsaw. The family’s most prominent members were Moses David Szereszewski (also spelled Szereszowski; 1844–1915), a banker and businessman in Warsaw; and his son Rafał (1869–1948), who was a banker, businessman, and senator of the Republic of Poland."@en ; jlo:title "Szereszewski Family" ; skos:prefLabel "Szereszewski Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1944), writer and journalist. Born Mór Weisz in the crowded Jewish quarter of old Pest, Dezső Szomory reinvented himself as an ivory-tower aesthete and a dandy who knew little about the world of crass reality. Of course he knew a great deal about it, and let his readers know this, though always in a teasing, suggestive manner. In 1890, to avoid being conscripted into the army, he fled to Paris, and stayed there for 17 years. In A párizsi regény (The Paris Story; 1929), he evokes the years he spent abroad with a mixture of lyricism and irony, which makes this his most consistently satisfying book. "@en ; jlo:title "Szomory, Dezső" ; skos:prefLabel "Szomory, Dezső" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "To treat the many types of talk characteristic of Jews of Eastern Europe, this entry begins with a general overview, which discusses speech in relation to the multilinguism of East European Jewish culture, followed by four more specific articles: Storytelling; Professional Talkers; Blessings, Curses, and Other Expressions; and Argots. For further general discussion, see Language; for sermonizing, see Preachers and Preaching; for jesters, see Badkhonim. See also Humor, article on Oral Tradition; Proverbs; and Riddles."@en ; jlo:title "About this Article (Talk)" ; skos:prefLabel "About this Article (Talk)" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1931), rabbi, essayist, and advocate of nonviolence. Born in a village in the Grodno district, Aharon Shemu’el Tamares (who often signed his publications with the pseudonym Aḥad ha-Rabanim ha-Margishim) studied at Kolel ha-Perushim in Kovno, followed by two years at the Volozhin yeshiva. In 1893, he became the rabbi of the village of Milejczyce (in the Białystok region), succeeding his father-in-law."@en ; jlo:title "Tamares, Aharon Shemu’el" ; skos:prefLabel "Tamares, Aharon Shemu’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1874–1955), historian. In 1893, Evgenii Tarle entered the Kiev University Historical-Philological Department. As a young man, he drew close to the Social Democrats and published articles in left-wing newspapers. In May 1900, he was arrested at an illegal gathering. After a month and a half of imprisonment, Tarle was exiled to Kherson province, then to Warsaw. There he finished his master’s degree, having written his thesis on Thomas More’s social views. In 1903, Tarle was appointed privatdocent at Saint Petersburg University, where he became one of the most popular lecturers. In 1913–1918 he held a professorship at Iur’ev University."@en ; jlo:title "Tarle, Evgenii Viktorovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Tarle, Evgenii Viktorovich" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Tenczer; 1836–1905), journalist and public figure. Pál Tencer was a pivotal figure of nineteenth-century Hungarian Jewry, or at least of the Neolog (Reform) community in Budapest, although much of the information available about him would not make this evident. A true portrait of him inevitably seems vague, illustrated by the fact that he used a varying spelling for his name (Tencer, rather than Tenczer, as others spelled it), and the fact that the newspaper Egyenlőség—the public forum with which he was most closely associated—celebrated his sixtieth birthday a year early. Major manuals, encyclopedias, and biographical collections give contradictory—and to a large extent false—information about him. All this appears to be a result of his role as an éminence grise, an expression that seems to characterize him most appropriately. "@en ; jlo:title "Tencer, Pál" ; skos:prefLabel "Tencer, Pál" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "An ancient town in the central northern region of Romania, on the Arieş River, 30 km southeast of Cluj. Known in German as Thorenburg and in Hungarian as Torda, Turda was an important center for salt mining and trading. Jews were not allowed to live in Turda until the middle of the nineteenth century, as Austrian imperial authorities imposed a ban (introduced between 1693 and 1700) to prevent them from settling in mining areas. It was only after 1850 that restrictions were gradually lifted; they were formally repealed in January 1860."@en ; jlo:title "Turda" ; skos:prefLabel "Turda" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Created as an all-encompassing umbrella organization in April 1999, the United Jewish Community of Ukraine (Ob”edinennaia Evreiskaia Obshchina Ukrainy; OEOU) aimed to serve as the “political wing” of the All-Ukrainian Jewish Congress (Vseukrainskii Evreiskii Kongress; VEK). The latter was founded in April 1997 by a group of wealthy Ukrainian Jewish businessmen, led by Vadim Rabinovich and supported by Reuven Asman, a Lubavitch leader in Kiev."@en ; jlo:title "United Jewish Community of Ukraine" ; skos:prefLabel "United Jewish Community of Ukraine" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1964), political economist. Born in Hungary, Evgenii Varga, known in Hungarian as Jenő Varga, studied in Berlin, Paris, and Budapest and became a professor of economics at the University of Budapest. In 1919, he took part in the Communist Revolution and became a commissar of finance and then chairman of the Supreme Council of the National Economy in the Hungarian Soviet Republic of Béla Kun. Following the collapse of the revolution, he emigrated to Austria and then to the USSR, where he worked as a close adviser to Lenin and Stalin, mainly as an economist and expert on the world economy and the capitalist system."@en ; jlo:title "Varga, Evgenii Samuilovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Varga, Evgenii Samuilovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1821–1888), philanthropist, public figure, and businessman. Avram Varshavskii (sometimes spelled Warshawski) was from a wealthy family in Poltava. He had a traditional Jewish education supplemented with secular subjects, and was a supporter of the moderate Haskalah."@en ; jlo:title "Varshavskii, Avram Moiseevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Varshavskii, Avram Moiseevich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in northeastern Romania, in the region of southern Bucovina and the present county of Suceava. Traversed by one of the important trade routes linking Moldova to Transylvania, Vatra Dornei was for a long time administratively dependent on the town of Câmpulung Moldovenesc. The Jews’ early presence in the area was primarily linked to the establishment of the first sawmills, marking the beginning of the forestry industry. It was only during the second half of the nineteenth century that Vatra Dornei acquired greater importance with the discovery of natural resources for creating spa facilities and the growing realization of the tourism potential in the area. Jewish entrepreneurs were involved in the exploitation of these resources from the outset."@en ; jlo:title "Vatra Dornei" ; skos:prefLabel "Vatra Dornei" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1937), Polish Communist activist and leader. Born in Kraków into an assimilated family that favored the country’s independence, Adolf Warski (orig. Warszawski) was one of the founders of the Związek Robotników Polskich (Polish Workers Union; ZRP) in 1889. In 1893, he helped organize the Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy (Social Democratic Party of Poland and Lithuania; SDKPiL), which, as its name implied, renounced the independence of Poland as one of its goals and directed its activities to the tsarist empire, where it sought a proletarian revolution. From 1902 to 1913, Warski was a member of the party’s Central Executive and played an active part in the Revolution of 1905–1907, during which he was arrested several times by tsarist police."@en ; jlo:title "Warski, Adolf" ; skos:prefLabel "Warski, Adolf" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1837–1919), entrepreneur, Jewish community leader in Warsaw, follower of the Ger Hasidic dynasty, and member of the Polish Council of State. Nothing is known about Joel Wegmeister’s family background. As a successful merchant and entrepreneur, he was active in a large number of mainly religious associations, some of which he founded, as well as in the Warsaw Jewish community. In addition, he strove to increase the influence of Ger Hasidism on Polish Jewry."@en ; jlo:title "Wegmeister, Joel" ; skos:prefLabel "Wegmeister, Joel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(late 1450s–1539), convert to Judaism who was burned at the stake for apostasy in 1539. Weigel was also known as Katarzyna Malcherowa or Katarzyna Zalaszowska, and was the wife of a Kraków city councilman, Melchior Weigel."@en ; jlo:title "Weigel, Katarzyna" ; skos:prefLabel "Weigel, Katarzyna" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1919–1996), composer and pianist. Mieczysław Samuilovich Weinberg (Moisei Vaynberg) was born in Warsaw, the son of a violinist and Yiddish theater music director. Graduating from the Warsaw Conservatory with a degree in piano in 1939, Weinberg fled the Nazi invasion of Poland that year, settling in Minsk, where he studied composition under Vasilii Zolotarev at the Belorussian state conservatory. After Hitler’s invasion in 1941, Weinberg relocated to Tashkent in Soviet Central Asia. There he met his wife, daughter of the Soviet Jewish theater director and political leader Solomon Mikhoels. In 1943, Weinberg’s first symphony came to the attention of Soviet composer Dmitri Shostakovich. The result was an immediate friendship that subsequently defined Weinberg’s musical and personal life. With Shostakovich’s assistance, he moved to Moscow, quickly establishing himself as the latter’s junior colleague in the world of Soviet composers of the 1940s and 1950s."@en ; jlo:title "Weinberg, Mieczysław" ; skos:prefLabel "Weinberg, Mieczysław" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1943), physician, community activist, and politician. Salomon Weinzieher was born in Białystok to an assimilationist Jewish family. After graduating from high school in Piotrków Trybunalski, he studied medicine at the University of Warsaw but was expelled after a year because of his affiliations with radical socialist organizations. Subsequently he was accepted, through personal connections, to the University of Kiev where he joined a Polish students’ group. After graduating from medical school, he remained active in the underground movement associated with the Polish Socialist Party. He was not a Zionist; indeed, as a Polish nationalist he regarded Zionism as a reactionary movement that alienated Jews from their civic duties in Poland."@en ; jlo:title "Weinzieher, Salomon" ; skos:prefLabel "Weinzieher, Salomon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1815–1905), scholar of rabbinic literature. Born in Velké Meziříčí (Ger., Gross-Meseritsch) in the Habsburg province of Moravia, Yitsḥak Hirsh Weiss (known also by the German form of his name, Eisik Hirsch Weiss) attended heder in his native town. At the age of eight, he began studying at the local yeshiva, and spent the years 1828–1834 attending various other yeshivas in Moravia and Hungary."@en ; jlo:title "Weiss, Yitsḥak Hirsh" ; skos:prefLabel "Weiss, Yitsḥak Hirsh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1943), journalist, writer, and translator. Gustav Winter (brother of politician Lev Winter), was born in the Czech village of Radenín near Tábor in southern Bohemia, and studied at Charles University in Prague and at the Sorbonne. Fully integrated into the Czech linguistic and cultural milieu, in 1913 he began to teach Czech and French language and literature at a secondary school in Prague."@en ; jlo:title "Winter, Gustav" ; skos:prefLabel "Winter, Gustav" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1935), economist, Sejm deputy, representative of the Central Office of the Merchants Association in Poland, a Jewish organization committed to cooperation with the Polish authorities. Born in Warsaw and raised in an acculturated environment, Wacław Wiślicki attended the Leopold Kronenberg High School for Commerce and then studied economics in Brussels. In 1907, tsarist authorities arrested him for supporting the revolutionary youth movement."@en ; jlo:title "Wiślicki, Wacław" ; skos:prefLabel "Wiślicki, Wacław" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1755–1830), businessman and public figure. Szymon (Shiml) Wolfowicz was a leading figure among Vilna’s Jews during the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Though born into the wealthy elite (into which he also married), Wolfowicz criticized the ways in which organizational leaders and their subordinates operated, and he demanded changes in the administrative system. When a struggle erupted over the appointment of the young Rabbi Shemu’el ben Avigdor, Wolfowicz stood at the head of those who supported the rabbi, against the members of the city’s kahal."@en ; jlo:title "Wolfowicz, Szymon" ; skos:prefLabel "Wolfowicz, Szymon" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Pseudonym of Rokhl Bernshteyn; 1869–1942), Yiddish poet and writer. Virtually forgotten today, Yehudis is notable for her bold poems, several dramatic pieces, short stories, fragments of a novel, translations from Russian, and a memoir of her youth. Born into a well-to-do merchant family in Minsk, Bernshteyn was educated by private tutors and began working in her parents’ shop at age 12. Her subsequent exposure to the socialist movement, and through it to Russian culture, led her to read widely on her own. She and her husband, Shmuel Bernshteyn (whose family name was the same as hers), a leading Jewish intellectual in Minsk, hosted authors whose involvement in the new Yiddish literature inspired her to write."@en ; jlo:title "Yehudis" ; skos:prefLabel "Yehudis" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1580–ca. 1646), halakhist and grammarian. Yitsḥak ben Shemu’el ha-Levi was born in Ludmir and was a student of Yehoshu‘a Falk. Yitsḥak’s younger brother was David, author of Ture zahav on the Shulḥan ‘arukh and known as Taz. After a period of time in Lwów, Yitsḥak ben Shemu’el served as rabbi of Chełm for an unknown number of years and was appointed rector of the yeshiva in Poznań in 1627. His responsa were published in Neuwied in 1736, and some of his insights are recorded in his brother’s Ture zahav. In his legal decisions, he was considerate of his congregants’ needs and tried to be lenient in rulings connected with running a Jewish household. With respect to other scholars, including great legal authorities, he was not afraid to express dissenting opinions. "@en ; jlo:title "Yitsḥak ben Shemu’el ha-Levi" ; skos:prefLabel "Yitsḥak ben Shemu’el ha-Levi" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1703), rabbi and Talmudist. Born to a rabbinic family in Krzemieniec (Kremenets), Yosef Shemu’el ben Tsevi served as a rabbinic judge in Kraków from 1663 to 1689, when he was appointed rabbi of Frankfurt am Main. There, he established a yeshiva. A scholar of the Talmud and of halakhah, he also had bibliographic and lexicographic interests—along with, apparently, an interest in astronomy and in Kabbalah. "@en ; jlo:title "Yosef Shemu’el ben Tsevi of Kraków" ; skos:prefLabel "Yosef Shemu’el ben Tsevi of Kraków" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1929), Yiddish author and publisher. Kalmen Zingman (last name also rendered Singman) was born in Slobodka, near Kovno. He received a traditional Jewish education, but difficult family circumstances forced him to start working at an early age. In 1909, his poem “Baym Nyeman” (At the Nieman) appeared in the miscellany Shtraln (Rays), edited by A. Litvin (Shmuel Hurvits; 1862–1943). During World War I, Zingman found himself among refugees from the theater of operations. He wound up in Kharkov, where he worked as a small businessman, continuing to dream about a literary career. "@en ; jlo:title "Zingman, Kalmen" ; skos:prefLabel "Zingman, Kalmen" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1949), writer, poet, editor, dramatist, publicist, and member of parliament. As a second-generation contributor to the modernist journal Nyugat (West), Zsolt followed a career path similar to that of writers from Nyugat’s first generation. He began as an admirer and imitator of Endre Ady, and became a journalist and editor in Nagyvárad (mod. Rom., Oradea). In 1925, he moved to Budapest, where he wrote spirited political pieces for several newspapers. In 1929, he became editor in chief of A Toll (The Pen), a bourgeois-liberal periodical. "@en ; jlo:title "Zsolt, Béla" ; skos:prefLabel "Zsolt, Béla" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1682/85–1694), Jewish youth in Prague whose father was accused of murdering him “out of hatred for the Christian faith.” The death of Shim‘on Abeles in February 1694 illuminates the tensions that beset Prague’s Jewish community in the late seventeenth century. Coming at the height of the Catholic Habsburg Counter-Reformation, in which the Jesuit order played a leading role in reshaping Bohemian religion and culture, the case signaled a new stage of repression for Prague’s Jewish community."@en ; jlo:title "Abeles, Shim‘on" ; skos:altLabel "Shim‘on Abeles" ; skos:prefLabel "Abeles, Shim‘on" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1845–1906), historian, journalist, and fiction writer. Ignác Acsády (Adler until 1875) was born in Nagykároly, Hungary, the oldest son of a wealthy landowner. Acsády’s father served as head of the Jewish community of Hajdúszoboszló for almost 30 years and was a member of the board of Hajdú county. Acsády earned a law degree in 1869 and a doctorate in 1877 at the University of Budapest. With his wide interest in the humanities, he decided against limiting his career to law."@en ; jlo:title "Acsády, Ignác" ; skos:altLabel "Ignác Acsády" ; skos:prefLabel "Acsády, Ignác" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1939), paremiologist (collector of proverbs), Polish state official, and advocate for assimilated Jews. Born in Warsaw, Samuel Adalberg received his elementary education at the Szkoła Realna (1878–1888), the first modern school widely attended by Warsaw Jews. There he was regarded highly by the principal, Samuel Dickstein, and also formed a friendship with Shemu’el Poznański, who later became rabbi of a progressive synagogue and a social activist."@en ; jlo:title "Adalberg, Samuel" ; skos:altLabel "Samuel Adalberg" ; skos:prefLabel "Adalberg, Samuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Russian Government Initiatives" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Soviet-Era Colonization" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Impact of Ideology" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Foundation of the Movement" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Organizational Structure" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Operation to murder Jews of the Generalgouvernement in Poland. From March to December 1942 nearly two million Jews were murdered, including most Jews of the Generalgouvernement together with approximately 135,000 Jews from Germany, Austria, Bohemia-Moravia, Slovakia, Holland, France, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Aktion (Operation) Reinhard was headed by Odilo Globocnik, who was Lublin District SS and Police Leader. The aktion received its name in the summer of 1942, apparently in memory of Reinhard Heydrich, who had been assassinated by Czech resistance fighters in late May of that year. "@en ; jlo:title "Aktion Reinhard" ; skos:altLabel "Aktion Reinhard" ; skos:prefLabel "Aktion Reinhard" ; skos:related , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Information and Image: 1800–1881" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Great Migration: 1881–1921" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Soviet and Post-Soviet Period: 1917–2000" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Child Care" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From the End of World War II until the Collapse of the Communist Bloc" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Medicine and Sanitation" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Reconstruction" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Refugees and Emigrants" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Post-Soviet Era" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Soviet Union before World War II" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War II, the Holocaust, and Displaced Persons" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1907–1945), painter. Imre Ámos’s birthplace, Nagykálló, was the first center of Hungarian Hasidism, and the memory and legend of its famous rabbi, Yitsḥak Isaak Taub and his remarkable song, “Szól a kakas már” (Hear the Sound of the Rooster), persist today. Because of his father’s early death, Ámos was raised by his maternal grandfather, the town’s melamed. He completed his studies at the School of the Arts in Budapest, and his initial experiments with style followed the decorative manner of the Nabi group. "@en ; jlo:title "Ámos, Imre" ; skos:altLabel "Imre Ámos" ; skos:prefLabel "Ámos, Imre" ; skos:related , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Expeditions" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Museum Exhibits" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Ashkenazic Traditions" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Folklore" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "After Communism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Before World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Between the World Wars" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Under Communist Rule" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX 1: SELECTED PRINT RESOURCES" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX 2: SELECTED WEB RESOURCES" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Archival Guides" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Inventory and Other Projects" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Libraries and Other Repositories in Eastern Europe" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Libraries and Other Repositories outside of Eastern Europe" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Private Collections" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Resources for Genealogical Research" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The first generation of Jewish artists in Eastern Europe (beginning with Mark Antokol’skii, Maurycy Gottlieb, and their younger contemporaries) received professional training at state art academies and private schools in Warsaw, Vilna, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, and Kraków. By the end of the nineteenth century, Jews had become a visible group in these institutions, and it was already possible to discern signs of ethnic solidarity among them. This tendency was first articulated in Russia in the 1880s, when, goaded by antisemitic sentiment expressed by administrative personnel and attacks by fellow students, Jewish artists were brought together not only by their exceptional position but also by their understanding of their particular artistic and social challenges."@en ; jlo:title "Art Education" ; skos:altLabel "art education" ; skos:prefLabel "Art Education" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1866–1935), Polish historian and diplomat. Szymon Askenazy was born in Zawichost, southwest of Lublin, to a wealthy Orthodox family. He was a descendant of Tsevi Hirsh ben Ya‘akov Ashkenazi (1660–1718), known as Ḥakham Tsevi, who had held positions as a rabbi in Altona, Hamburg, Amsterdam, and Lwów. Askenazy studied law at Warsaw University, graduating in 1887, and subsequently took up history at the University of Göttingen, where he received his doctorate."@en ; jlo:title "Askenazy, Szymon" ; skos:altLabel "Szymon Askenazy" ; skos:prefLabel "Askenazy, Szymon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Bohemia and Moravia" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Elsewhere in Eastern Europe" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Hungary" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Poland" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Russia" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1796–1866), rabbi and halakhic scholar. A leading figure in the Hungarian Orthodox rabbinate during the mid-nineteenth century, Yehudah Aszód achieved renown both as an expert halakhic adjudicator and as an outspoken opponent of educational and religious reform. Unlike some of his younger Hungarian contemporaries, however, Aszód did not promote a uniformly strict and antimodernist approach. Instead, he exemplified a more pragmatic and less doctrinaire Hungarian Orthodoxy than that which later became the norm. Toward the end of his life, he also gained a reputation as one who possessed great mystical abilities."@en ; jlo:title "Aszód, Yehudah" ; skos:altLabel "Yehudah Aszód" ; skos:prefLabel "Aszód, Yehudah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Modern Autobiographical Texts" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Postwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Early Twentieth Century" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Modern Period" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Leading wealthy rabbinic family in Galicia. Beginning in the seventeenth century, many members of the Babad family served in rabbinic posts in Poland and Lithuania; others were quite wealthy and held a variety of leadership positions in their communities. The founder of the line was Yitsḥak Krakover (1650–1705), rabbi of the city of Brody from about the year 1690. His children were called by the name Babad, an acronym for Bene Av Bet Din (Children of the Head of the Rabbinic Court); in state records they are referred to by the name Rabinowitz. Some of Krakover’s sons were merchants; two of them, Mordekhai (d. 1752) and Ya‘akov Yokel (d. 1748), were communal leaders in Brody in the first half of the eighteenth century, as were a number of their descendants."@en ; jlo:title "Babad Family" ; skos:altLabel "Yehoshu‘a Heshel Babad" ; skos:prefLabel "Babad Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1823–1891), Hebrew poet and community leader. A branch of the illustrious Bacharach family settled in Hungary around the last third of the eighteenth century. The Bachers (the shortened form of the family name was used among non-Jewish circles; in Hebrew they continued to be called Bacharach) settled in Liptószentmiklós (now Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia) in northwest Hungary. When Simon Bacher was born, the town had a fairly large Jewish community, and was famous as a seat of traditional learning (El‘azar Löw, author of the Shemen rokeaḥ, had just come to serve as rabbi and maintained an important yeshiva), but was also known for its sympathy for the Haskalah. "@en ; jlo:title "Bacher, Simon" ; skos:altLabel "Simon Bacher" ; skos:prefLabel "Bacher, Simon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Modern Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Middle Ages" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1892–1943), community leader and head of the Białystok ghetto during the Holocaust. Born in Volkovysk, Efrayim Barash was an engineer who had studied in Germany. He was a member of the town council and Jewish community board, president of the Jewish Commerce Bank, and chair of the local Zionist federation. He moved to Białystok in 1934 to become the Jewish community’s executive director."@en ; jlo:title "Barash, Efrayim" ; skos:altLabel "Efrayim Barash" ; skos:prefLabel "Barash, Efrayim" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1770s), Polish communal leader and lobbyist. Barukh ben David Yavan was born at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Konstantynów, Volhynia. He came from an eminent family that descended from Rabbi Shalom Shakhnah of Kraków and received an education encompassing not only traditional Jewish learning (he studied Talmud under Ya‘akov Yehoshu’a Falk) but also an extensive non-Jewish curriculum, including German, French, Latin, and Polish."@en ; jlo:title "Barukh ben David Yavan" ; skos:altLabel "Barukh ben David Yavan" ; skos:prefLabel "Barukh ben David Yavan" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1641–1718), biblical exegete, bibliographer, printer, and cantor. Shabetai ben Yosef Bass was born in Kalisz, Poland. His parents were murdered in wartime violence in 1655; Bass and his older brother, Ya‘akov Strimmers (d. 1686), a renowned kabbalist, survived and fled to Prague. In Prague, Bass received a traditional education; studied secular subjects, including Latin; and, because of his pleasant voice, was taught liturgical singing. He subsequently accepted a position as a basso (bassista) singer in the Altneuschul in Prague, from which the surname Bass (Heb., Meshorer) is derived."@en ; jlo:title "Bass, Shabetai ben Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Shabetai Bass" ; skos:prefLabel "Bass, Shabetai ben Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Between Kabbalah and Modernity" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Hair: His and Hers" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Modern Antisemitism and Its Memories" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "BELARUSIAN WRITERS" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1991), actor, Hebrew writer, poet, and translator. Miriam Bernstein-Cohen was born in Kishinev. Her father, the physician Ya‘akov Bernstein-Cohen (1859–1929), was a Russian Zionist leader. The images and sounds of the 1903 Kishinev pogrom that shocked Bessarabian Jews were embedded in her memory and recorded in her autobiographical work, Ke-Tipah ba-yam (Like a Drop in the Ocean; 1971). After the pogrom her family moved to Kharkov, where Bernstein-Cohen attended the German gymnasium, and where she acted, for the first time, in plays staged at her school. "@en ; jlo:title "Bernstein-Cohen, Miriam" ; skos:altLabel "Miriam Bernstein-Cohen" ; skos:prefLabel "Bernstein-Cohen, Miriam" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1872–1942), Orthodox journalist; Zionist; and Agudas Yisroel politician. Born in Pressburg (Hun., Pozsony; mod. Bratislava), Sámuel (Samu) Bettelheim studied at the renowned yeshiva in his city. In 1897, he was among the founders and the president of the first legally recognized Zionist society in Hungary, the Yagdil Torah Society, renamed Ahavat Tsiyon in 1899. Although its members were hesitant to call themselves Zionists, Rabbi Simḥah Bunem Sofer permitted students from the yeshiva to join and thus eased their way."@en ; jlo:title "Bettelheim, Sámuel" ; skos:altLabel "Sámuel (Samu) Bettelheim" ; skos:prefLabel "Bettelheim, Sámuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1856–1906), painter. Sándor Bihari (known as Alexander in the West) was one of the leading artists of late nineteenth-century Hungary, and a major representative of that country’s realist school of the 1880s. Although Bihari did not use specifically Jewish themes in his work, his career epitomized the contributions of Jews to Hungarian culture. Born in Rézbánya, a small town in Bihar county, he later lived in Debrecen and Nagyvárad (Rom., Oradea). Bihari was among the scores of Jews who freed themselves from the squalor of small-town life by utilizing their cultural and artistic abilities. In 1878, he made his way to Vienna where he studied painting under Carl Wurzinger and other Geneva masters; in Paris, he studied under Jean-Paul Laurens."@en ; jlo:title "Bihari, Sándor" ; skos:altLabel "Sándor Bihari" ; skos:prefLabel "Bihari, Sándor" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1948), novelist, publicist, editor, dramatist, and screenwriter. As was the case with other writers of the second generation of Hungarian Jewish literature, Lajos Bíró saw himself not only as culturally Hungarian but also as a modernist in the artistic sense and as a political and social liberal. Members of his generation were active in the antifeudal opposition, a movement that developed and refined socialist liberal values. Most second-generation writers neither worked within Jewish frameworks nor participated in Jewish cultural affairs. When attacked, they defended the role of Jewish intelligentsia and their own attempts to assimilate; following the revolutions of 1918 and 1919, they responded to the counterrevolutionary regime’s open persecution of Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Bíró, Lajos" ; skos:altLabel "Lajos Bíró" ; skos:prefLabel "Bíró, Lajos" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "The birth of a child in the premodern period was accompanied by many fears, anxiety, and a sense of powerlessness. There were many possible dangers for both the mother and the baby. In traditional Jewish life, these dangers were perceived as connected not only to objective difficulties, but also to the influence of the world of demons and evil spirits."@en ; jlo:title "Birth and Birthing" ; skos:altLabel "birth" ; skos:prefLabel "Birth and Birthing" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1840–1898), Yiddish author. Born in the Latgale region of Latvia in the Russian Empire to a working-class family, Oyzer Bloshteyn spent his early teenage years studying at a yeshiva. At 15, he was attracted to Enlightenment ideas and began studying German and Russian; after briefly becoming a teacher, he subsequently devoted himself to a career as a writer. During the last two decades of the nineteenth century, Bloshteyn was among the most prolific and popular authors of popular Yiddish works in Eastern Europe, publishing more than 50 novels and short stories, generally with the Matz publishing house in Vilna. Although Bloshteyn died in Warsaw in 1898, his work was read widely by Yiddish readers well into the interwar period, particularly in Galicia."@en ; jlo:title "Bloshteyn, Oyzer" ; skos:altLabel "Oyzer Bloshteyn" ; skos:prefLabel "Bloshteyn, Oyzer" ; skos:related , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Cross-Cultural Relations, Conflicts, and New Directions" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Enlightened Absolutism, Cultural Reform, and Emancipation" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Settlement and Population Patterns" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Moravian Exceptionalism: The Political Jewish Community" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Rabbinic Culture and Institutions" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1533), tax collector and financial adviser to Polish kings Aleksander Jagiellończyk and Zygmunt Stary. Known as Abraham of Prague, Abraham Judeus Bohemus moved from Bohemia to Poland at the end of fifteenth century. There he lived in the Kazimierz district of Kraków before settling in Lwów. Along with the Fiszel family and Ozer from Opoczno, Bohemus was one of the chief financiers of the Polish court."@en ; jlo:title "Bohemus, Abraham Judeus" ; skos:altLabel "Abraham Bohemus" ; skos:prefLabel "Bohemus, Abraham Judeus" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1830–1907), Czech rabbi. After completing gymnasium in Prague (one of his teachers was the playwright Václav Kliment Klicpera), Filip Bondy studied philosophy at Prague University. He was simultaneously tutored in Jewish theology and Hebrew literature by Shelomoh Yehudah Rapoport, the city’s chief rabbi, as well as by Daniel Frank, rabbi of Brünn (Brno), who ordained him in 1857. That same year he also earned his doctorate of philosophy. Bondy’s exceptional linguistic gifts enabled him to master not only Czech and German, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Latin and Greek, but also English, Italian, and French."@en ; jlo:title "Bondy, Filip" ; skos:altLabel "Filip Bondy" ; skos:prefLabel "Bondy, Filip" ; skos:related , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Book Design in the Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Jewish Printing in Poland" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Printing in Prague" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Nineteenth-Century Shift toward Modernity" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in the extreme north of Romania, at the foot of Rodna Mountains and on the Vişeu River (157 km east of Baia Mare). The first documentary reference to Borşa (Hun., Borsa) dates to 1365, but a Jewish presence was not noted until 1728, when immigrants from Galicia and Bucovina settled in the area. The first synagogue was founded in 1783, and a burial society was set up in 1815."@en ; jlo:title "Borşa" ; skos:altLabel "Borşa" ; skos:prefLabel "Borşa" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1893–?), agronomist and Soviet Jewish activist. Abram Bragin was a key figure in the movement to establish an official Jewish territory in the Soviet Union. Born in Krasnopole, Ukraine, Bragin studied law at Kiev University and belonged for a time to the socialist Zionist party Tse‘ire Tsiyon. His connection with Tse‘ire Tsiyon’s form of labor Zionism got Bragin interested in movements to the land as “solutions” to the “Jewish question.” Bragin therefore became more interested in agronomy and eventually became a leading agronomist who combined his training in agricultural production with principles of socialist Zionism to devise a program for settling Jews in farming colonies within the USSR."@en ; jlo:title "Bragin, Abram Grigor’evich" ; skos:altLabel "Abram Bragin" ; skos:prefLabel "Bragin, Abram Grigor’evich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1916–2001), writer. While studying law at the University of Warsaw (1934–1939), Kazimierz Brandys, the younger brother of writer Marian Brandys, worked in socialist youth organizations and wrote for leftist journals. He spent World War II in Warsaw, hiding on the Aryan side. After 1945, as a member of the Writers Union and of the editorial boards of Kuźnica and Nowa Kultura, he promoted socialist realism, a new literary doctrine sponsored by the Communist regime. "@en ; jlo:title "Brandys, Kazimierz" ; skos:altLabel "Kazimierz Brandys" ; skos:prefLabel "Brandys, Kazimierz" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1902–1941 or 1942), writer, poet, publicist, and member of the Esperanto movement. Mieczysław Braun (Braunstein, Bronsztejn, or Braunstein) collaborated with both the interwar Polish and Polish Jewish press (Skamander, Wiadomości Literackie, Nasz Przegląd, Nowy Dziennik, Ster). After fighting in the Polish–Soviet war of 1920, he studied law in Warsaw from 1922 to 1926, and then worked as an attorney in Łódź. He died of typhus in the Warsaw ghetto. "@en ; jlo:title "Braun, Mieczysław" ; skos:altLabel "Mieczysław Braun" ; skos:prefLabel "Braun, Mieczysław" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883–1925), popular entertainer, circus strongman, and folk hero. Billed as “the strongest man in the world” in the 1920s, Zishe (Siegmund) Breitbart was better known to his Yiddish-speaking audiences as Shimshn-hagibr (Samson the Mighty). Breitbart was born into a family of blacksmiths in Łódź. According to his autobiography, he began casting iron in his father’s workshop at the age of four. Breitbart eventually embarked upon a career as a circus acrobat and strongman, as well as an actor on the Yiddish stage."@en ; jlo:title "Breitbart, Zishe" ; skos:altLabel "Zishe Breitbart" ; skos:prefLabel "Breitbart, Zishe" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "A brivnshteler (letter-writing manual; Heb., igron) is a collection of formulas for composing letters on topics ranging from business to courtship to family life. In addition to providing templates for composition, the collections were widely used for teaching handwriting skills. Because many of the manuals were bi- or even trilingual, they served as textbooks for learning Hebrew, German, Russian, Polish, and respectable, educated Yiddish."@en ; jlo:title "Brivnshtelers" ; skos:altLabel "brivnshteler" ; skos:prefLabel "Brivnshtelers" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Rabbinic family, originating in Bohemia, that settled in Galicia, Lithuania, and Hungary. The surname Broda (Braude, Broide, Braudo) indicates that the family’s origins were likely in the city of Brod, though the name could also be a Hebrew acronym for bene rabanim ve-dayane emet (the sons of rabbis and judges of truth). "@en ; jlo:title "Broda Family" ; skos:altLabel "Broda" ; skos:prefLabel "Broda Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1942), Yiddish prose writer. Rokhl Brokhes was born in Minsk. With the encouragement of her father, Volf Brokhes, a maskil, she learned Hebrew and could read modern literature in that language. Her father died when she was nine, and soon after his death, Brokhes went to work as a seamstress. Later she taught needleworking at the Minsk Jewish Vocational School for Girls. "@en ; jlo:title "Brokhes, Rokhl" ; skos:altLabel "Rokhl Brokhes" ; skos:prefLabel "Brokhes, Rokhl" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1812–1889), rabbi and Talmudic scholar. Jacob Brüll was born in Rousínov (Ger., Neu-Raussnitz) in the Habsburg province of Moravia. He attended several yeshivas in Hungary (Bonyhád, Pressburg, and Buda) before returning to Moravia, where he was ordained by Michael Wronik, rabbi of Rousínov, and Neḥemyah Trebitsch, chief rabbi of Moravia. He later married Trebitsch’s daughter, Regina. Brüll served as rabbi of Kojetín (Kojetein), Moravia, from 1844 until his death."@en ; jlo:title "Brüll, Jacob" ; skos:altLabel "Jacob Brüll" ; skos:prefLabel "Brüll, Jacob" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Acculturation" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Community and Religious Life" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early History" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Occupations" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Politics, Power, Antisemitism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Population" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Postwar and Contemporary Jewry" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Settlement and Residential Clustering" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The War Years" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1919–2004), scientist and Jewish community leader. Nicolae Cajal was born in Bucharest, the son of Marcu Cajal (1885–1972), a professor and one of the first specialists in pediatrics in Romania. Cajal graduated as a doctor in medicine and pharmacy from the Faculty of Medicine at Bucharest University (1946) and eventually took his degree as a doctor of medical sciences (1959). Specializing in microbiology and virology under the guidance of Ştefan Nicolau (1896–1967), Cajal became his professor’s spiritual heir and collaborator in 1945."@en ; jlo:title "Cajal, Nicolae" ; skos:altLabel "Nicolae Cajal" ; skos:prefLabel "Cajal, Nicolae" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "A family of physicians, pharmacists, community leaders, and Jewish scholars in Poland from the second half of the sixteenth century until the twentieth century. Branches of the Calahora family were also known by the names Kalahora, Kolahari, Kalafri, Landsberg, and Pozen."@en ; jlo:title "Calahora Family" ; skos:altLabel "Calahora family" ; skos:prefLabel "Calahora Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: CANTORS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Dissemination of East European Cantorial Music" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "East European Cantorial Music in the United States" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Formation of an East European Style" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Intersections between East and West" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Meshorerim and the Choir" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Musical Styles and Composed Music" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Training and Duties" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The Provisional Government that succeeded the tsars in March 1917 abolished censorship. However, two days after the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917, they reintroduced censorship and extended it to films, art, and music. Though labeled a “temporary measure,” censorship lasted until the late 1980s. Even labels on bottles were subject to censorship; the knowing eye could discern the censor’s individual number, stamp, and date of issue. Violation of censorship rules could be construed as “divulging state secrets,” a crime punishable by imprisonment."@en ; jlo:title "Censorship in the USSR (Censorship)" ; skos:altLabel "censorship" ; skos:prefLabel "Censorship in the USSR (Censorship)" ; skos:related , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Assistance for Nonresidents" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Local Assistance" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Sources of Funding, Collection, and Distribution" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Poor of the Land of Israel" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Avraham Landau of Chekhanov (Ciechanów; 1784–1875) was an important rabbi and Hasidic leader in central Poland. He was primarily a disciple of Fishel of Strikov (1743–1822), one of the founders of Hasidism in central Poland. Landau became rabbi of Chekhanov in 1820 and remained there for the rest of his life, despite offers from larger communities. He did not formally become a tsadik until after the death of his friend, Yitsḥak Me’ir of Ger (1789–1866), when many of the latter’s Hasidim came to him. "@en ; jlo:title "Chekhanov Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:altLabel "Chekhanov" ; skos:prefLabel "Chekhanov Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Pseudonym of Aleksandr Mikhailovich Glikberg; 1880–1932), Russian poet. Born to a pharmacist’s family in Odessa, Sasha Chernyi was baptized at the age of 10 in order to bypass the numerus clausus. In 1895 he ran away from home to Saint Petersburg. In 1904 Chernyi debuted as a feuilletonist in the Zhitomir newspaper Volynskii vestnik (Volhynian Messenger). In 1905, his poem “Chepukha” (Gibberish) appeared in the satirical magazine Zritel’ (The Spectator), signed Sasha Chernyi. Although his first poetry collection, Pestrye motivy (Sundry Themes [or Sundry Tunes]), came out in 1906, Chernyi considered the next collection, Satiry (Satires; 1910), his true entrance into literature. "@en ; jlo:title "Chernyi, Sasha" ; skos:altLabel "Sasha Chernyi" ; skos:prefLabel "Chernyi, Sasha" ; skos:related , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: PROMINENT JEWISH CHESS PLAYERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: JEWISH FILM PERSONALITIES" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "After Communism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Cinema" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Post–World War II Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War I and After" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Yiddish Talkies" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Żydokomuna" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jews and Communism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jews and Radicalism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Post–World War II Era" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Christian Conversions to Judaism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Conversions to Christianity after 1772" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Converts to Christianity in Pre-Partition Poland (before 1772)" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Compendia of instructions for the preparation of Jewish food or addressed to the Jewish reader constitute the single largest body of literature written by and for Jewish women. These cookbooks initially arose during the first half of the nineteenth century in response to the social aspirations of those who wished to add culinary refinement to the kosher kitchen. Among the earliest extant examples are several small Yiddish manuscripts from Bohemia, Moravia, or neighboring areas; they were in all likelihood intended to teach young brides to cook or to supervise a servant in the kitchen."@en ; jlo:title "Cookbooks" ; skos:altLabel "cookbooks" ; skos:prefLabel "Cookbooks" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Characterization and Background" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Regional Councils" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Council of Four Lands" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Decline and Disappearance of the Councils" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Revolutionary Activity and Terrorism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Violations of Restrictive Legislation" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Violations of the Criminal Code" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: CZECH WRITERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Antisemitism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Culture" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Demographic Structure" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "National Identity" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Political Affiliation" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Religious Identity" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Holocaust" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Postwar Period" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1760–1854), merchant, leading member of the Warsaw Jewish community, and its chief rabbi. Ḥayim Dawidsohn was born in Pińczów and, after the death of his father, grew up at the home of the wealthy Tsentseminer family, Warsaw bankers to whose daughter he was wed as a young man. Thanks to an inheritance from his father-in-law and to the sharp business acumen of his wife, Dawidsohn’s family amassed a great fortune, acquired among other means by obtaining the leasehold for taxes on kosher meat. His teacher, Ya‘akov Lorbeerbaum of Lissa (Leszno), ordained him. In 1797, on the basis of the Prussian law regarding Jewish surnames, Ḥayim became the first member of his family to assume the family name of Dawidsohn."@en ; jlo:title "Dawidsohn, Ḥayim" ; skos:altLabel "Ḥayim Dawidsohn" ; skos:prefLabel "Dawidsohn, Ḥayim" ; skos:related , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Burial Society" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Cemetery" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Salt-mining town in northwestern Romania, on the Someş River 60 km northeast of Cluj. The first documented reference to Dej (Ger, Desch; Hun., Dés) dates to 1061. After legislation in 1693–1700 had prohibited Jews from settling in mining towns, authorities in Dej decided in 1722 to forbid Jewish residence. No Jews lived there until 1834; and just three were mentioned in 1838."@en ; jlo:title "Dej" ; skos:altLabel "Dej" ; skos:prefLabel "Dej" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1820–1892), Orthodox community leader, religious court judge, and chronicler. Ḥayim Natan Dembitzer was born in Kraków, where he served from 1849 as a dayan (religious court judge) and magid (preacher); by 1856 he was appointed head of one of the community’s religious courts. In the 1850s, he was active in the first stages of Galician Orthodoxy’s response to the challenges of modern culture, organizing a group of rabbis who took defensive stands in several public halakhic controversies. The leader of the group was Dembitzer’s teacher, the dayan Shelomoh Kluger of Brody. "@en ; jlo:title "Dembitzer, Ḥayim Natan" ; skos:altLabel "Ḥayim Natan Dembitzer" ; skos:prefLabel "Dembitzer, Ḥayim Natan" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1858–1884), early Polish socialist, writer, and editor. Szymon Dickstein, who used the pseudonym Jan Młot, was born in Warsaw to a lower middle-class Jewish family. In 1872, he completed gymnasium and then studied medicine at Warsaw University. Even as a university student, Dickstein took an active role in illegal socialist circles."@en ; jlo:title "Dickstein, Szymon" ; skos:altLabel "Szymon" ; skos:prefLabel "Dickstein, Szymon" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1907–1978), journalist, editor, and Zionist activist. Born in Riga, Aryeh Disenchik studied at the local university and then at the school of international commerce in Vienna. He served as the parliamentary correspondent for the Riga newspaper Dos folk and as an editor of the newspapers Morgen post and Ovent post. Active in the Jewish scouting movement, in 1923 he was among the founders of Betar, eventually joining its international leadership in Paris. For a time, he worked as an aide to Vladimir (Ze’ev) Jabotinsky, the leader of Revisionist Zionism. "@en ; jlo:title "Disenchik, Aryeh" ; skos:altLabel "Aryeh Disenchik" ; skos:prefLabel "Disenchik, Aryeh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Prominent Moravian family that took its name from its patriarch, Jacob Moses Wimer (d. 1763), who came from Dobruschka, a small town near Königgrätz (Hradec Králové) in Bohemia. In 1730 Wimer moved to Brünn (Brno) as a widower with two children, and despite the fact that Jews were forbidden to live in that city, was given permission to settle and to deal first in precious stones and jewelry, and later in spices and tobacco. In 1750 he was granted a monopoly on the tobacco trade for the royal cities of Moravia. Dobruschka’s daughter Esther married Adam Oppenheimer of Vienna, a relative of the court purveyor Samuel Oppenheimer. Dobruschka’s son Solomon (1715–1774) married Schöndl, daughter of Löbl Hirschl of Rzeszów and Güttel Jacobi of Prossnitz."@en ; jlo:title "Dobruschka-Schönfeld Family" ; skos:altLabel "Dobruschka" ; skos:prefLabel "Dobruschka-Schönfeld Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1940), literary historian and teacher. Oskar Donath was a proponent of coexistence for Czechs, Germans, and Jews in the Czech lands (and later in Czechoslovakia). Born in Újezd, near Přeřov (Prerau) in the Habsburg province of Moravia, Donath studied Slavic languages and philology at the University of Vienna, where he earned his doctorate. He taught the Czech language at the German gymnasium in Hodonín (Göding) from 1907 to 1913, then in Brno (Brünn) from 1913 to 1930, and finally in Prague from 1930 to 1940. While in Brno, he also was an adjunct instructor at the Jewish gymnasium, which opened in 1920."@en ; jlo:title "Donath, Oskar" ; skos:altLabel "Oskar Donath" ; skos:prefLabel "Donath, Oskar" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Founded in 1869 as a coal and steel center by the Welsh engineer John Hughes, Donets’k was originally named Iuzovka (Hughes’ Town), but took on the name Stalino between 1924 and 1962. The city is the capital of the Donets’k Oblast’ (region) in southeastern Ukraine. Its population of 164 in 1870 grew to more than one million by 1989. The steel and coal industries continue to dominate its economy today."@en ; jlo:title "Donets’k" ; skos:altLabel "Donets’k" ; skos:prefLabel "Donets’k" ; skos:related , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Men’s Clothing" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Men’s Headgear" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Women’s Clothing" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Women’s Headgear" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1908–1971), Soviet Yiddish poet. Born in Krosno (Vinnitsa region) and named after his father, who died before his birth, Shike (Ovsei, in Russian) Driz was raised by his grandfather, a tinsmith. Driz first studied with a private melamed and later transferred to a Soviet Yiddish elementary school. Later he moved to Kiev, where he worked in a factory and studied at the Kiev Art School and later at the Kiev Art Institute. An aspiring sculptor, perhaps inspired by his grandfather’s craftsmanship, he turned to writing Yiddish poetry in the late 1920s. Some 20 years later, he was forced to rely on his practical skills, working at menial masonry works when public Yiddish literary activity was forbidden. Driz’s first collection of Yiddish verse, Likhtike vor (Radiant Life), appeared in Kiev in 1930 and his second, Shtolener koyakh (Might of Steel), was published in 1934. "@en ; jlo:title "Driz, Shike" ; skos:altLabel "Shike Driz" ; skos:prefLabel "Driz, Shike" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1910–1993), Soviet government figure. The son of a white-collar worker, Veniamin Dymshits was born in Feodosiia. In 1931, he began working as a construction foreman at the Kuznetsk Metallurgical Plant, and later participated in building the Azov (Azovstal’) and Krivoi Rog (Ukr., Kryvyy Rih) metallurgical plants. In 1941, he was appointed director of the Magnitostroi Trust, which constructed blast furnaces at metallurgical sites. From 1946 to 1950 he headed the Zaporozhstroi Trust, which rehabilitated large-scale industry in Zaporozh’e (Ukr., Zaporizhzhia). In 1945 and again in 1950, he was awarded a Stalin Prize."@en ; jlo:title "Dymshits, Veniamin Emmanuilovich" ; skos:altLabel "Veniamin Dymshits" ; skos:prefLabel "Dymshits, Veniamin Emmanuilovich" ; skos:related . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "A Possible Motivation for the Translations" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Readership" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Identity of the Translators" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Ideology of the Translators" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Link between the Translations and the Muscovite Heresy" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Banking and Finance" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Other Occupations" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Production" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Supply and Distribution" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Holocaust and After" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1963), Estonian community activist and philanthropist. Born in Pinsk, Belorussia, Hirsch (Grigori) Eisenstadt studied economics at the Kiev Institute of Commerce between 1908 and 1913. After graduation, he joined his parents in Riga, Latvia, working for an oil company. In 1914, he was transferred to Tallinn, Estonia, where he had a business career and was active in local Jewish life."@en ; jlo:title "Eisenstadt, Hirsch" ; skos:altLabel "Hirsch (Grigori) Eisenstadt" ; skos:prefLabel "Eisenstadt, Hirsch" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1942), Hungarian community leader. Sándor Eppler was born in Pest into a family affiliated with the Neolog movement. His father served as chief secretary of the Shas Ḥevrah (Talmud Study Society), and his uncle Viktor Sussmann was an Orthodox rabbi in Budapest. Eppler remained stringently observant his entire life. After completing elementary school, he spent three years at a commercial academy, where he gained financial and business training. The many statistical tables accompanying Eppler’s writings testify that his early training was valuable. At age 18, he became an employee of the Neolog Pest Israelite Community (PIH), thanks in large part to his personal contacts."@en ; jlo:title "Eppler, Sándor" ; skos:altLabel "Sándor Eppler" ; skos:prefLabel "Eppler, Sándor" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1913–1996), mathematician. Born in Budapest to parents who taught mathematics and physics at the high-school level, Pál Erdős became interested in mathematics and showed exceptional talent at an early age. In college, he belonged to a group of students, most of them Jews, who became lifelong friends, all renowned mathematicians, such as Tibor Gallai (Grünwald), György Szekeres, Géza Grünwald, and Pál Turán. Their talents were stimulated and nurtured by their superior education; they were also decisively influenced by the Hungarian mathematical monthly Középiskolai Matematikai Lapok (Mathematical Journal for Secondary Schools), which was dedicated to problem-solving. "@en ; jlo:title "Erdős, Pál" ; skos:altLabel "Pál Erdős" ; skos:prefLabel "Erdős, Pál" ; skos:related , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Legacies of Estate-based Integration" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Reform Era" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Interwar Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Medieval and Early Modern Periods" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Habsburg Empire" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Holocaust" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Russian Empire" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1866–1918), literary and intellectual figure. Berta Fanta (née Sohr) came from an assimilated, well-to-do Jewish family living in the small town of Libochovice (Libochowitz), near Prague. She was an intellectual who hosted a famous philosophical salon. The gatherings that took place in the Fanta family’s home over the two-decade period before World War I were attended by professors at the German university in Prague, including Albert Einstein and Christian von Ehrenfels; intellectuals of the younger generation, such as Franz Kafka and Max Brod; and occasional visitors, such as the anthroposophist Rudolf Steiner."@en ; jlo:title "Fanta, Berta" ; skos:altLabel "Berta Fanta" ; skos:prefLabel "Fanta, Berta" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1802–1884), rabbi, theologian, and scholar. Born in Boskovice (Ger., Boskowitz) in the Habsburg province of Moravia, Hirsch Bär (Hebrew name, Tsevi Hirsh) Fassel attended yeshivas in Boskovice and Pressburg (mod. Bratislava). Upon his return to Moravia, he married Jozefa Arnstein, with whom he had eight children. In 1836, he was offered the rabbinate of Prostĕjov (Ger., Prossnitz) despite strident opposition from Moravia’s chief rabbi, Neḥemyah Trebitsch (1779–1842), who was wary of Fassel’s predilection for religious reform."@en ; jlo:title "Fassel, Hirsch Bär" ; skos:altLabel "Hirsch Bär Fassel" ; skos:prefLabel "Fassel, Hirsch Bär" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1912), Hebrew literary critic. Born in a village in Crimea, Menaḥem Feitelson received a traditional and secular education from his father, a maskil who worked as a melamed. In 1884, while still an adolescent, Feitelson published articles and impressions in the local press. He then turned to literary criticism as the main focus of his writings. Feitelson’s most significant early essays were about Mendele Moykher-Sforim (Sholem Yankev Abramovitsh; 1891) and Ben-Avigdor (Avraham Leib Shalkovich; 1893). In 1891, he issued his only published book, a booklet titled Meḥkarim be-divre yeme Yisra’el (Studies on Jewish History). At various points he lived in Melitopol, Ukraine, as well as in Galicia and Austria. "@en ; jlo:title "Feitelson, Menaḥem Mendel" ; skos:altLabel "Menaḥem Mendel Feitelson" ; skos:prefLabel "Feitelson, Menaḥem Mendel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1877–1972), economist, politician, writer, and publisher. Miksa Fenyő—who changed his name from Fleischmann in 1895—was raised in Mélykútin in modest circumstances (his father was a tailor) but graduated from the prestigious Lutheran Central Gymnasium of Budapest. After finishing his legal studies, he maintained a law practice in Budapest from 1900. In 1903, he became vice secretary of the Magyarországi Gyáriparosok Országos Szövetségének (Hungarian Federation of Industrialists; GyOSz), its secretary from 1904, acting director from 1907, and director from 1918. From 1912, he was the director of the Center for Hungarian Customs Policy and the editor of the periodical Magyar Gyáripar. In 1913, he converted to Catholicism. "@en ; jlo:title "Fenyő, Miksa" ; skos:altLabel "Miksa Fenyő" ; skos:prefLabel "Fenyő, Miksa" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1873–1933), neurologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst. Sándor Ferenczi was born and raised in Miskolc, though his family had roots in Galicia. His father, Bernát (Baruch) Fraenkel, who changed the family name to Ferenczi in 1879, ran a well-known bookshop and publishing house. Ferenczi graduated from the medical faculty of the University of Vienna and settled in Budapest in 1895. There he worked as a physician at several hospitals, opening a private surgery practice in 1900. As a physician, Ferenczi developed ideas that went beyond the dominant, purely positivistic, and reductionist biological and medical thinking of his age, and sought philosophical and psychological explanations for the “secrets” of life and matter, as well as for unconscious phenomena. In 1903, he opened a neurological practice at the outpatients’ clinic of the Workers Health Insurance Association."@en ; jlo:title "Ferenczi, Sándor" ; skos:altLabel "Sándor Ferenczi" ; skos:prefLabel "Ferenczi, Sándor" ; skos:related , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Collecting Folk Songs" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Origins" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Songs of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Structure and Poetic Devices" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Beverages" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Bread and Baked Goods" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Culinary Repertoire" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Eating Out" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Festive Fare" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Hunger" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Ritual Requirements and Customary Practices" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1847–1916), rabbi and historian. Born in Kromĕříž (Ger., Kremsier) in the Habsburg province of Moravia, Adolph (Abraham) Frankl-Grün attended yeshiva in Lipník nad Bečvou (Leipnik), where he studied with Moses Bloch (1815–1909). Thereafter he attended the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau, where his teachers included Zacharias Frankel and Heinrich Graetz."@en ; jlo:title "Frankl-Grün, Adolf" ; skos:altLabel "Adolf Frankl-Grün" ; skos:prefLabel "Frankl-Grün, Adolf" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1794–1881), rabbi, Torah scholar. Born in Křenice (Krimnitz) near Touškov (Tuschkau) in western Bohemia, Samuel Freund was noted for his keen intellect and unusual memory. He studied at the Triesch (now Ťrešt’) yeshiva under El‘azar Löw (1758–1837), in Leipnik, Moravia under Barukh Fränkl-Te’omim (1760–1828), and in Prague under Betsal’el Ranschburg (1760–1820). While in Prague, he lived in the house of Koppel Frankel, the father of Zacharias Frankel, the latter of whom became the head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau, and whom Freund assisted in Talmudic studies."@en ; jlo:title "Freund, Samuel" ; skos:altLabel "Samuel Freund" ; skos:prefLabel "Freund, Samuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1808–1874), rabbi and Hasidic leader in Hungary. Born in Sátoraljaújhely, Tsevi Hirsh Friedman grew up in the house of Mosheh Teitelbaum and ultimately became his foremost disciple. Friedman continued his Talmudic studies at the yeshiva of Tsevi Hirsh Heller (Ḥarif) in Bonyhád. He was also close to Ḥayim Halberstam of Sandz."@en ; jlo:title "Friedman, Tsevi Hirsh" ; skos:altLabel "Tsevi Hirsh Friedman" ; skos:prefLabel "Friedman, Tsevi Hirsh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Pseudonym of Aleksandr Arkad’evich Ginzburg; 1918–1977), poet, songwriter, playwright, screenwriter, and prose writer. Born in Moscow and raised in Sebastopol, Galich was celebrated in the 1940s and 1950s for his dramatic works (including Vas vyzyvaet Taimyr [The Taimyr Is Calling You]) and screenplays (Vernye druz’ia [Eternal Friends]; Na semi vetrakh [To Seven Winds]). His lasting fame, however, rested on the songs—widely understood as countercultural and satirical—that he wrote and performed beginning in the early 1960s. Accompanying himself on guitar, Galich staged shows throughout the Soviet Union at universities, clubs, and private apartments. "@en ; jlo:title "Galich, Aleksandr" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksandr Galich" ; skos:prefLabel "Galich, Aleksandr" ; skos:related , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From Annexation until Emancipation (1772–1867)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From Emancipation through the End of Empire (1867–1918)" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1804–1886), Hungarian rabbi and author. Born in Ungvár and orphaned at the age of eight, Shelomoh Ganzfried was raised by the chief rabbi of that city, Tsevi Hirsh Heller, and later followed him to Bonyhad. After his marriage he turned to commerce, but the failure of his business drew him to a rabbinical career."@en ; jlo:title "Ganzfried, Shelomoh ben Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Shelomoh Ganzfried" ; skos:prefLabel "Ganzfried, Shelomoh ben Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1906–1968), Soviet mathematician. Born in Saint Petersburg into a family of physicians, Aleksandr Gel’fond studied at the Bauman Higher Technical School in Moscow, and later at the physics and mathematics faculty of Moscow State University. After completing his studies in 1927, he entered a postgraduate program. During his university and postgraduate years, Gel’fond worked under the guidance of Viacheslav Stepanov and Aleksandr Khinchin."@en ; jlo:title "Gel’fond, Aleksandr Osipovich" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksandr Gel’fond" ; skos:prefLabel "Gel’fond, Aleksandr Osipovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1881–1914?), Czech poet, caricaturist, and journalist. Gellner was born in the town of Mladá Boleslav, southwest of Prague, into the family of a small textile factory owner whose business had just collapsed. As a secondary school student, Gellner began writing poetry, drawing, and translating Goethe and Heine for school magazines. His subsequent studies were erratic: over the next decade he abandoned studies at a technical university in Vienna, a mining academy in Příbram, and art schools in Munich and Dresden. While living in Příbram, Gellner often visited the circle of anarchists in nearby Prague, led by the poet Stanislav Kostka Neumann, and contributed poems and drawings to his magazine Nový kult. After 1905, Gellner lived mainly in Paris; in 1911, he settled down in the Moravian city of Brno, where he joined the newspaper Lidové noviny and edited its Sunday supplement Večery. He became known for his satiric poetry and caricatures. "@en ; jlo:title "Gellner, František" ; skos:altLabel "František Gellner" ; skos:prefLabel "Gellner, František" ; skos:related , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Beginnings" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Farther East" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jews in Eastern German Lands" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Habsburg Monarchy" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Range of Inquiry" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1853–1944), director of the Girls’ Orphanage of the Pest Israelite Women’s Association and cofounder of the first Zionist girls’ association in Budapest. Katalin Gerő’s mother was Zsófia Benkő, whose family had been successful and respectable residents in the village of Hévízgyörk northeast of Budapest from the eighteenth century. Katalin’s father, László Gerő, was an intellectual and son of a Polish freedom fighter who had found shelter for his family in Hungary. The early death of Zsófia left László with six children and little experience in running the farm. As a result, he quickly became impoverished and abandoned his children."@en ; jlo:title "Gerő, Katalin" ; skos:altLabel "Katalin Gerő" ; skos:prefLabel "Gerő, Katalin" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1908), a founding member of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party and one of the leaders of its Combat Organization. Grigorii Gershuni was born near Kaunas, Lithuania. Some sources describe him as a chemist, while others call him a pharmacist. He joined the revolutionary movement, and by the late 1890s had become an important promoter of socialist and anarchist ideas."@en ; jlo:title "Gershuni, Grigorii Andreevich" ; skos:altLabel "Tsevi (Grigorii) Gershuni" ; skos:prefLabel "Gershuni, Grigorii Andreevich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in Ukraine, close to the Romanian border; now part of the region of Chernivtsi. Jews settled in Gertsa (Rom., Herța) in the second half of the seventeenth century, the result of a privilege granted in 1672 by Prince Gheorghe Duca (renewed in 1817 and 1824). A yeshiva had been founded there in the eighteenth century. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, Rabbi Eli‘ezer Volf, a Hasid, settled in the town."@en ; jlo:title "Gertsa" ; skos:altLabel "Herța" ; skos:prefLabel "Gertsa" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1871–1939), historian and social activist. Iulii Gessen was born in Odessa and graduated from the commercial school in that city; he also studied history independently. In 1895 he was employed by the newspaper Odesskie novosti (Odessa News); a year later he moved to Saint Petersburg, where he worked in a bank until 1905. Apparently heavily influenced by social activists such as Ahad Ha-Am and Simon Dubnow, from 1905 Gessen was active in the work of the Society for the Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia (OPE). "@en ; jlo:title "Gessen, Iulii Isidorovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iulii Gessen" ; skos:prefLabel "Gessen, Iulii Isidorovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1816–1878), chief rabbi of the Warsaw community, businessman, and Talmudic scholar. The son of a wealthy merchant, Ya‘akov Gesundheit grew up in the Warsaw suburb of Praga. He worked as a merchant and became one of the most outspoken opponents of Hasidism during the period in which the movement grew into the leading force among observant Jews in Warsaw."@en ; jlo:title "Gesundheit, Ya‘akov" ; skos:altLabel "Ya‘akov Gesundheit" ; skos:prefLabel "Gesundheit, Ya‘akov" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(From Yid., Gezelshaft kultur; Culture Society), the All-Ukrainian Society for Promoting the Development of Jewish Culture, an independent organization, Communist in ideology, that worked mainly in Yiddish. Gezkul’t was founded in Kiev on 26 September 1926 (the date of its charter) and was active until the early 1930s."@en ; jlo:title "Gezkul’t" ; skos:altLabel "Gezkul’t" ; skos:prefLabel "Gezkul’t" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The establishment of the 800 to 900 ghettos in Poland, the Soviet Union, and Romania between late 1939 and mid-1942 introduced radical and rapid changes in Jewish communal and individual life, and was a multifaceted and complicated phenomenon. Those changes and the coping strategies Jews invented in response can best be examined from three perspectives—physical space; social welfare; and educational, cultural, and religious activity."@en ; jlo:title "Life in Ghettos (Ghettos)" ; skos:altLabel "ghetto life" ; skos:prefLabel "Life in Ghettos (Ghettos)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "David Gintsburg" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Evzel’ Gintsburg" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Goratsii Gintsburg" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Rise of the Family" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Gintsburg Circle and the Legal Position of Russian Jewry" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1904–1977), activist, teacher, journalist, and memoir writer. An ardent member of the Communist Party who was arrested during the purges of the 1930s and sentenced to 18 years in the gulag, Evgeniia Ginzburg is renowned for her compelling articulation of that ordeal in her two-volume memoir Krutoi marshrut. Translated as Journey into the Whirlwind and Within the Whirlwind, her account ranks with and complements Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s fiction in its suspenseful, introspective description of one woman’s “journey” through the Stalinist gulag. "@en ; jlo:title "Ginzburg, Evgeniia Semenovna" ; skos:altLabel "Evgeniia Ginzburg" ; skos:prefLabel "Ginzburg, Evgeniia Semenovna" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1915), Hebrew writer. Ezra Goldin was born in Luna, a town in the Grodno region. In 1886 he moved to Warsaw, and a year later published his first book, Shire no‘ar (Poetry of Youth). This was an anthology of both original and translated poems from Russian, with nationalist themes and emotional tones that were typical of Ḥibat Tsiyon poetry. He soon abandoned poetry and turned his attention to prose, publishing stories and articles in Hebrew and Yiddish in the local press. "@en ; jlo:title "Goldin, Ezra" ; skos:altLabel "Ezra Goldin" ; skos:prefLabel "Goldin, Ezra" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1932–2002), prose writer, playwright, and screenwriter. Fridrikh Gorenshtein was born in Kiev; his father, a professor, was repressed in 1935. A graduate of the Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute (1955), Gorenshtein also completed a course in screenwriting (1963). Between 1963 and 1980, he wrote 15 screenplays, including Solaris (dir. Andrei Tarkovskii; 1972) and Raba liubvi (Slave of Love; dir. Nikita Mikhalkov; 1976). In the Soviet Union, Gorenshtein was permitted to publish just one piece, the story “Dom s bashenkoi” (House with a Turret; 1964); however, his novella, Stupeni (Steps), was included in a celebrated “unofficial” collection, Metropol’ (1979). In 1980 he emigrated to Germany, where he remained until his death in 2002. "@en ; jlo:title "Gorenshtein, Fridrikh Naumovich" ; skos:altLabel "Fridrikh Gorenshtein" ; skos:prefLabel "Gorenshtein, Fridrikh Naumovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1906–2001), Yiddish prose writer. Born in the Lithuanian town of Krakes, Shira (or Shirke; original surname unknown) grew up in poverty, with little attention from her parents. She moved to Palestine in 1924, but in 1929 arrived in Odessa with a group of disillusioned members of the Gedud ha-‘Avodah labor corps. Led by Mendl Elkind, they attempted to recreate their commune in the Soviet Union by establishing the agricultural settlement of Vojo Nova (“New Way [of life]” in Esperanto) in Crimea. At that point, Shira Kushnir (as she was known then; Kushnir may not have been her surname at birth) was a single mother of three daughters."@en ; jlo:title "Gorshman, Shira" ; skos:altLabel "Shira Gorshman" ; skos:prefLabel "Gorshman, Shira" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883–1912), Bundist, writer, and theorist on Jewish nationalism. Bronisław Grosser was born in Miechów, Congress Poland, to a middle-class Jewish family. Raised in a wholly Polish cultural milieu, he regarded himself as fully Polish during his childhood. Even though Grosser’s parents had not converted, they had severed their ties to the Jewish community to such an extent that Grosser did not know about his Jewish origins until the second decade of his life. During his years at a gymnasium in Warsaw, Grosser first began to wrestle with his Jewish background, gradually moving away from the assimilationist spirit in which he was raised. At 13, he studied Hebrew with his uncle."@en ; jlo:title "Grosser, Bronisław" ; skos:altLabel "Bronisław Grosser" ; skos:prefLabel "Grosser, Bronisław" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1866–1940), lawyer, communal advocate, and chief counsel of Mendel Beilis. Born in Ekaterinoslav, in 1876 Gruzenberg moved with his family to Kiev, where he attended a Russian gymnasium. Upon earning a law degree from Saint Vladimir University in 1889, Gruzenberg moved to Saint Petersburg to begin his profession. Despite his talents, he remained an apprentice lawyer until 1905 because of a government decree that admitted non-Christians to the bar only by personal authorization from the minister of justice."@en ; jlo:title "Gruzenberg, Oskar Osipovich" ; skos:altLabel "Oskar Gruzenberg" ; skos:prefLabel "Gruzenberg, Oskar Osipovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Advocates of the Haskalah and then of Polish Jewish assimilation. Abraham Gumplowicz (1803–1876) was a wealthy merchant and politician. His son Ludwik (1838–1909) was a legal historian and sociologist. Abraham’s grandson, Maksymilian Ernest (1864–1897), was an attorney, historian, and Slavic studies specialist. Maksymilian’s son Władysław (1869–1942), a physician by training, was a geographer and journalist."@en ; jlo:title "Gumplowicz Family" ; skos:altLabel "Ludwik Gumplowicz" ; skos:prefLabel "Gumplowicz Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1994), variety artist. Born in Kharkov, Anna Guzik was the daughter of Iakov Guzik, founder of the Yiddish Traveling Folk Ensemble of Musical Comedy. She first appeared in her father’s troupe in 1924, acting in Avrom Goldfadn’s comedies and operettas and appearing in stage versions of Sholem Aleichem’s works. She sang, danced, acted, read feuilletons from the stage, and performed Jewish folk songs. In the mid-1930s Guzik toured the USSR with a Jewish folk music ensemble and also appeared on the Russian stage in musical comedies. In 1939 she won a national contest for variety performers."@en ; jlo:title "Guzik, Anna Iakovlevna" ; skos:altLabel "Anna Iakovlevna Guzik" ; skos:prefLabel "Guzik, Anna Iakovlevna" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1770–1804), Hebrew playwright and poet. Born in Troplowitz (Pol., Opawica), Silesia, Yosef Ha-Efrati (also known as Joseph Troplowitz) served as a private tutor for a wealthy household in Ratibor (Pol., Racibórz) until 1791. Between 1791 and 1794, he lived in Prague. Many of his poems were printed in the Hebrew periodical Ha-Me’asef, which also published his translation (from German) in 1788 of works by Heinrich Von Kleist. "@en ; jlo:title "Ha-Efrati, Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Yosef ha-Efrati" ; skos:prefLabel "Ha-Efrati, Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "He-Ḥaluts and Youth Movements" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "He-Ḥaluts in Russia" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in northeastern Moldavia, located within 50 kilometers of Botoşani and 73 kilometers of Iaşi. A Jewish presence in Hârlău apparently existed during the reign of Stephen the Great (1475–1504), as the prince hired the Jewish doctor Şmil of Hârlău to work at his court in Suceava. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Jewish craftsmen and merchants, encouraged by Moldavian rulers, began to arrive from Poland, some settling in Hârlău."@en ; jlo:title "Hârlău" ; skos:altLabel "Hârlău" ; skos:prefLabel "Hârlău" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "By the end of the eighteenth century, Hasidism, in its various groupings, was striking a responsive chord in ever-broadening circles of East European Jews. The central feature of Hasidism from its inception has been allegiance to a holy master (rebbe or tsadik) who has loyal followers. People do not qualify as Hasidim, no matter how great their admiration for Hadisic ideas, unless they are loyal to a particular rebbe, whether Belz, Satmar, Bobov, Lubavitch, Ger, or the like. The place where the rebbe resides defines where his “court” is located (the regal analogy holds), whence the Hasidim of that dynasty receive particular rules and acquire their individual identity and contribute to the upkeep according to their means. Thus, in pre-Holocaust times, the Belzer rebbe resided in Bełz in Galicia and the Gerer rebbe in Gur (Ger in Hasidic parlance) in Poland; the Belzer Hasidim, in the larger towns, had their Belzer prayer houses and the Gerer theirs. After the Holocaust, the rebbes who survived retained their old town names but, of course, lived elsewhere: the Belzer rebbe, for example, in Jerusalem, and the Gerer rebbe in Ashkelon. "@en ; jlo:title "Everyday Life (Hasidism)" ; skos:altLabel "Hasidic society" ; skos:prefLabel "Everyday Life (Hasidism)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Berlin Haskalah" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Haskalah" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Haskalah and Jewish Nationalism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Haskalah in Galicia" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Haskalah in Russia" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1874–1938), Zionist leader, rabbi, and Polish consul in Palestine. Born in Czortków, Galicia, Bernard Hausner was involved in Zionist activity during his high school years. He was ordained by the rabbinical seminary in Vienna and received a doctorate in philosophy from the German University in Prague. When he returned to Galicia in 1903, he taught Jewish studies at the government high school in Lemberg (Lwów) and also participated in Zionist activities. As an administrator, he granted financial aid to needy students, and initiated programs to encourage the involvement of Galician Jewry in the fields of crafts, industry, and agriculture."@en ; jlo:title "Hausner, Bernard Dov" ; skos:altLabel "Bernard Hausner" ; skos:prefLabel "Hausner, Bernard Dov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1787), Hasidic leader. Ḥayim Ḥaykl ben Shemu’el was a leading disciple of Dov Ber, the Magid of Mezritsh, and did much to introduce Hasidism in Lithuania. According to Hasidic tradition, he had begun his career as a cantor in Karlin, and had been a close disciple of Eliyahu, the Gaon of Vilna, before coming to Hasidism."@en ; jlo:title "Ḥayim Ḥaykl of Amdur" ; skos:altLabel "Ḥayim Ḥaykl of Amdur" ; skos:prefLabel "Ḥayim Ḥaykl of Amdur" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Health Care Facilities" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Health Care Personnel" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Professionalization and Nationalization of Jewish Medicine" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: HEBREW WRITERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Early Twentieth Century" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Galician Haskalah" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Generation of Transition (1880–1900)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Interwar Years" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Russian and Lithuanian Haskalah" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Modernization" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Melamed" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1951), journalist and Zionist activist. Leo Herrmann was born in Landškroun (Landskron), Bohemia. After studying law in Prague, he joined the Bar Kochba Association, the organization of Prague Zionists, in 1906, and served as its chairman between 1908 and 1909. That year, he invited Martin Buber to Prague to deliver his famous “Three Speeches on Judaism,” a presentation that had a decisive influence on Zionism in that city. Herrmann was editor of the Prague Zionist weekly Selbstwehr (Self-Defense) from 1910 to 1913; under his editorship it became a respected political and literary journal. He also contributed to the Jüdische Volksstimme (Jewish People’s Voice) in Brünn (Brno) and the Jüdische Zeitung (Jewish News) in Vienna. "@en ; jlo:title "Herrmann, Leo" ; skos:altLabel "Leo" ; skos:prefLabel "Herrmann, Leo" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1859–1916), early Polish socialist. Born in Warsaw in 1856 to a well-to-do assimilated Jewish family that had taken part in the 1863 Polish uprising, Helena Heryng (née Kon) was a member of the first circle of socialists in Warsaw. The older sister of Feliks Kon, a Polish socialist, Heryng was among a circle of women who helped to found the socialist movement in the second half of the 1870s. Arrested in 1878 along with her mother, Paulina Kon, for socialist activity, Heryng was sentenced to Siberian exile, where she met and married her husband, Zygmunt Heryng."@en ; jlo:title "Heryng, Helena" ; skos:altLabel "Helena Kon (Heryng)" ; skos:prefLabel "Heryng, Helena" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1854–1931), early Polish socialist, economist, translator, and publicist. Zygmunt Heryng was born in Warsaw to a middle-class assimilated Jewish merchant family that “had been Polonized for several generations,” according to his memoirs. Heryng claimed to have taken part in patriotic demonstrations in Warsaw during the Polish uprising of 1863. In 1868–1869, while a gymnasium student in Warsaw, he first encountered socialist literature and became an activist. After graduation, Heryng studied briefly at the Commercial Academy in Vienna and subsequently, in 1875–1878, at the Mining Academy in Saint Petersburg."@en ; jlo:title "Heryng, Zygmunt" ; skos:altLabel "Zygmunt Heryng" ; skos:prefLabel "Heryng, Zygmunt" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1873–1953), Hebrew and Yiddish writer. Shelomoh Hillels was born in the town of Bar, Podolia. When he was six years old, his family moved to Soroca, Bessarabia, where he received a traditional Jewish education. Following his marriage, he began to read Haskalah literature, including the works of Kalman Schulman, Avraham Mapu, and Yehudah Leib Gordon. In 1891, he published his first story, “Ikar ‘ivri” (A Hebrew Farmer), in the Hebrew periodical Ha-Tsefirah. The story reflected his interest in agricultural settlement in Argentina. "@en ; jlo:title "Hillels, Shelomoh" ; skos:altLabel "Shelomoh Hillels" ; skos:prefLabel "Hillels, Shelomoh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1823–1891), ophthalmologist and president of the Jewish Community of Pest. Ignác Hirschler was born in Stomfa, where his father was a merchant. The family moved to Pest in the 1830s, and Hirschler studied at the prestigious Piarist secondary school, where he experienced antisemitism firsthand. In his autobiography, he wrote: “Sitting at the Jewish desk in the back of the classroom, I felt the poisoned sting of humiliation, which influences a person’s spirit and frame of mind more adversely than is generally believed.”"@en ; jlo:title "Hirschler, Ignác" ; skos:altLabel "Ignác Hirschler" ; skos:prefLabel "Hirschler, Ignác" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1815–1887), historian, publicist, and businessman. Simon (Sinai) Hock was born into family that had been in Prague for several generations. He studied at the city’s yeshiva and the Jewish Normalschule. In 1835, he helped found Aurora, the Prague society for youth participating in morning prayers, a group committed to blending religious tradition and ideas of the Enlightenment. During the 1840s, Hock wrote about the impact of political conditions on Jewish life in Bohemia and on religious reform; his articles were printed anonymously in the newspapers Die Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums and Der Orient."@en ; jlo:title "Hock, Simon" ; skos:altLabel "Simon Hock" ; skos:prefLabel "Hock, Simon" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1893–1945?), poet and translator. One of the most important Yiddish writers in Hungary, Yoysef (Hun., József) Holder was born to a Hasidic family in Nagybocskó (Rom., Bocicou Mare; Hun., Veliky Bichkif; the town is now divided between Romania and Ukraine) near Máramarossziget (Rom., Sighet Marmației, in Maramureş), where Yiddish was spoken as a matter of course. He left the Hasidic milieu quite early, yet continued to speak his first language. At age 15, he wrote Hebrew poems and a story about the famous yeshiva of Pressburg; he published this story in the Kraków monthly Ha-Mitspeh. After writing for other Hebrew papers such as Ha-‘Olam (London), Ha-Tsefirah (Warsaw) and ‘Al ha-mishmar (Jerusalem), Holder found his calling as a Yiddish poet. "@en ; jlo:title "Holder, Yoysef" ; skos:altLabel "Yoysef Holder" ; skos:prefLabel "Holder, Yoysef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1808/12?–1878), bookseller, printer, and journalist. Little is known about Leon (Leib ben David) Hollaenderski’s family background, childhood, and adolescence. As a printer and bookseller of Polish literature in the border region of Suwałki near Lithuania, Hollaenderski was vulnerable to police persecution and decided in 1843 to move to France."@en ; jlo:title "Hollaenderski, Leon" ; skos:altLabel "Leon Hollaenderski" ; skos:prefLabel "Hollaenderski, Leon" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "During World War II, Jews produced art in concentration camps, in ghettos, or while in hiding. Unlike artistic production undertaken by outsiders in the name of propaganda, or to confirm the events after the killing had ended, art created by victims under Nazi domination may be viewed as a form of documentation, witnessing, and spiritual resistance that plays a very important historical role as evidence from the victim’s perspective."@en ; jlo:title "Art and the Holocaust (Holocaust)" ; skos:altLabel "Art" ; skos:prefLabel "Art and the Holocaust (Holocaust)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The sufferings of Jews under the Nazi regime were reflected in their music and musical life. Music offered Jews a way to express their humanity in inhuman conditions, to escape from reality and give voice to their yearning for freedom, and to find comfort and hope."@en ; jlo:title "Music and the Holocaust (Holocaust)" ; skos:altLabel "Holocaust: Music and the Holocaust" ; skos:prefLabel "Music and the Holocaust (Holocaust)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "After World War II, Holocaust survivors found consolation in the claim that Jews had heroically resisted the Nazis on a large scale, and that even if not every Jew had engaged the enemy in armed combat, all Jews had exhibited high moral standards. Survivors from Eastern Europe demonstrated their solidarity and identification with the myth of Jewish valor by censuring the questionable conduct of a small fraction of Jews suspected of collaboration with the Nazi regime. During the war, the Jewish underground in Eastern Europe had assassinated several Judenrat functionaries, ghetto policemen, and informers, while concentration camp inmates had occasionally killed brutal former kapos stripped by the Germans of their authority. After liberation there were survivors who wanted to settle scores with Jewish collaborators still alive. This wish for revenge led to prosecutions of putative collaborators in Jewish honor courts, administrative tribunals mandated by local Jewish communities to investigate individuals whose behavior under Nazi occupation was called into question, and to condemn and sanction those whose actions were deemed reproachable."@en ; jlo:title "Honor Courts" ; skos:altLabel "honor courts" ; skos:prefLabel "Honor Courts" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(fl. 18th century), scholar and liturgical poet. Leah Horovitz (her entire first name was Sarah Rivkah Raḥel Leah) was a descendant of a family that had had distinguished rabbis and scholars in its ranks for centuries. Her father, Ya‘akov ben Me’ir Horovitz (1680–1755), was the rabbi of Bolechów and later of Brody, where he was also a member of the elite kloyz (circle) of scholar-mystics. Three of Leah’s five brothers also functioned as rabbis. Leah was married twice, first to Aryeh Leib, son of the rabbi of Dobromil, and then to Shabetai ben Binyamin Rapoport, the rabbi of Krasny. It is not known if she had children. "@en ; jlo:title "Horovitz, Leah" ; skos:altLabel "Leah Horovitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Horovitz, Leah" ; skos:related , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: HUNGARIAN WRITERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "A Defining Cultural Role: The Second and Third Generations" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Flowering: The First Generation" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1861–1922), Hebrew essayist and editor. Born near Gomel in White Russia (mod. Homel’, Belarus), Sha’ul Hurwitz (also known as Shai Ish Hurwitz) received an enlightened Talmudic education and emulated the progressive tendentious scholarship of such authors as Mosheh Leib Lilienblum in Hebrew and Il’ia Orshanskii in Russian. After attending university classes in Saint Petersburg, Hurwitz studied Jewish laws concerning women, a project that culminated in his monograph Ha-‘Ivriyah veha-yehudiyah (Hebrew Woman, Jewish Woman; 1892). "@en ; jlo:title "Hurwitz, Sha’ul Yisra’el" ; skos:altLabel "Sha’ul Yisra’el Hurwitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Hurwitz, Sha’ul Yisra’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Extremely wealthy Jewish dzierżawcy (estate lessees) in Lithuania. Presumably born at the turn of the eighteenth century, Shmuel (known in Polish as Szmojło) and his younger brother Yoysef Gdalye (known as Gdal), were the sons of a businessman from Ołyka on the Radziwiłł estates in Volhynia. In 1726, they moved to the town of Biała Podlaska, and began to lease estates from Anna Radziwiłłowa. "@en ; jlo:title "Ickowicz Brothers" ; skos:altLabel "Shmuel Ickowicz" ; skos:prefLabel "Ickowicz Brothers" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1949), writer, poet, critic, and editor. Hugó Ignotus’s father, Leo Veigelsberg (1846–1907) was a publicist and editor in chief of the leading German-language Hungarian daily Pester Lloyd. Ignotus (he formally adopted this pseudonym) was born in Pest but spent his childhood with his maternal grandfather in the Hungarian great plains. He went to high school in Budapest and completed law studies. While still young, he joined the editorial staff of the modernist literary weekly Hét (The Week), founded by József Kiss in 1890, and worked there between 1891 and 1906. Ignotus’s first book, A slemil keservei (Complaints of the Schlemiel; 1891), a narrative poem, received a favorable review by the leading literary critic of the time, Pál Gyulai. "@en ; jlo:title "Ignotus, Hugó" ; skos:altLabel "Ignotus" ; skos:prefLabel "Ignotus, Hugó" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1898–1968), physicist. The son of a shoeshop owner, Leopold Infeld was born in Kraków. He studied at the Jagiellonian University with Władysław Natanson between 1916 and 1921 and was later able to study briefly in Berlin. Infeld was an assistant to the chair of theoretical physics at the Jagiellonian University between 1921 and 1924, when he went again to Berlin, and at the Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów from 1932, where until 1934 he held the position of docent (lecturer)."@en ; jlo:title "Infeld, Leopold" ; skos:altLabel "Leopold Infeld" ; skos:prefLabel "Infeld, Leopold" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Yeraḥmi’el Ze‘ev Volf; 1898–1979), Soviet microbiologist and immunologist. Born in the town of Mglin, Chernigov province, in the Pale, Vladimir Ioffe grew up in Perm. The education given in the Ioffe home was Jewish in character. The family read books on Jewish history and culture, written mostly in Hebrew and Yiddish. From his childhood Vladimir showed a particular interest in Hebrew, and at 10, together with his two brothers, he issued a children’s magazine in Hebrew called Kitme diyo (Ink Stains), comprising 32 pages of prose and verse. Ioffe’s study of Hebrew did not prevent him from graduating with honors from the local boys’ high school. "@en ; jlo:title "Ioffe, Vladimir Il’ich" ; skos:altLabel "Vladimir Ioffe" ; skos:prefLabel "Ioffe, Vladimir Il’ich" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Signed into law by U.S. President Gerald Ford in 1975, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment to the Trade Act of 1974 was instrumental in eliminating barriers to the emigration of Soviet Jewry. Officially known as the [Wilbur] Mills–[Charles] Vanik Bill in the House of Representatives and as the [Henry] Jackson Amendment in the Senate, this amendment required that nonmarket economy countries comply with specific free emigration criteria as a prerequisite for receiving economic benefits in trade relations with the United States. These benefits included Most Favored Nation (MFN) status—now known as Normal Trade Relations—and access to U.S. government financial facilities."@en ; jlo:title "Jackson-Vanik Amendment" ; skos:altLabel "Jackson-Vanik Amendment" ; skos:prefLabel "Jackson-Vanik Amendment" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Original surname Agatstein; 1903–1983), poet and essayist. Mieczysław Jastrun studied German and Polish philology and subsequently worked as a high-school teacher, publishing poetry in literary journals. After World War II, which he survived on the so-called Aryan side in Warsaw, Jastrun joined the Communist Party and edited the government-sponsored journal Kuźnica (1945–1949). After breaking with the party in 1957, he belonged to the group of writers actively defending freedom of speech. "@en ; jlo:title "Jastrun, Mieczysław" ; skos:altLabel "Mieczysław Jastrun" ; skos:prefLabel "Jastrun, Mieczysław" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1881–1943), engineer, researcher, translator, and educator. Józef Jaszuński was born in Grodno to a wealthy family that provided him with both a traditional Jewish and a general education. Jaszuński studied physics and mathematics at Saint Petersburg University and at the Berlin Polytechnikum. Politically, he sympathized early on with the Zionist movement, but later identified with the Bund."@en ; jlo:title "Jaszuński, Józef" ; skos:altLabel "Józef Jaszuński" ; skos:prefLabel "Jaszuński, Józef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Established in 1999, the Jewish Confederation of Ukraine (Evreiskaia konfederatsiia Ukrainy; EKU) is an association of national, regional, and local organizations with a focus on “philanthropy, the reconstruction of the Jewish national way of life, and the support of humanitarian values.” It was set up by four umbrella organizations: the Union of Jewish Religious Organizations of Ukraine (Ob”edinenie Iudeiskikh Religioznykh Organizatsii Ukrainy; OIROU), the Society for Jewish Culture / Jewish Council of Ukraine (Obshchestvo Evreiskoi Kultury / Evreiskii Sovet Ukrainy; ESU), the Association of Jewish Organizations and Communities-VAAD of Ukraine (Assotsiatsiia Evreiskikh Organizatsii i Obshchin–VAAD Ukrainy; VAAD-AEOOU), and the Kiev City Jewish Community."@en ; jlo:title "Jewish Confederation of Ukraine" ; skos:altLabel "Jewish Confederation of Ukraine" ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Confederation of Ukraine" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1506), customhouse leaseholder. Josko (Josef) of Hrubieszów (the son of Lea and Shakhnah of Hrubieszów; husband of Golda; brother of Szania, Mordusz, and Iczchan (Yitsḥak?); father of Pesaḥ and Shakhnah) was the most important customhouse leaseholder of Red Russia during the reigns of Casimir IV, Jan Olbracht, and Aleksander; he also served the royal court as financier and supplier."@en ; jlo:title "Josko" ; skos:altLabel "Josko" ; skos:prefLabel "Josko" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1886–1935), journalist. Ber Karlinski was born in the provincial town of Kolno, in the Białystok district. He also used the first name Boaz, as well as the aliases B. Karlinius, B. K-I, and B. Karliner. The son of a wealthy and learned family, Karlinski received a traditional Jewish education. Subsequently, he acquired a general education independently, in Warsaw as of 1904."@en ; jlo:title "Karlinski, Ber" ; skos:altLabel "Ber Karlinski" ; skos:prefLabel "Karlinski, Ber" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1949), Hebrew poet. Yehudah Karni was born in Pinsk and received a Hebrew and general education. At the age of 13 he published his first poem, “Gemul ha-meshorer” (The Poet’s Recompense; 1897) in Ha-Tsefirah and continued to write poetry in Hebrew and Yiddish for the organs of the Zionist socialist Po‘ale Tsiyon movement. His true “arrival” as a poet came when his piece “Yesh na‘arah temimah” (There Is an Innocent Young Girl) was published by Ḥayim Naḥman Bialik in Ha-Shiloaḥ in 1909. "@en ; jlo:title "Karni, Yehudah" ; skos:altLabel "Yehudah Karni" ; skos:prefLabel "Karni, Yehudah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1856–1937), rabbi and editor. Born in the Hungarian town of Nagybörsöny, David Katzburg studied at several yeshivas and was a favored disciple of Simḥah Bunim Sofer, the head of the Pressburg (Bratislava) yeshiva. After Katzburg married, he worked in the business world, though without success. Between 1884 and 1891, he served as a rabbi in two small towns. Katzburg then moved to Waitzen (Hun., Vác), a centrally located town with an active Jewish community that was, in his mind, sufficiently removed from the rush of larger cities. Soon after his arrival, he began to publish Tel Talpiyot, modeled on the first Orthodox periodical Shomer Tsiyon ha-ne‘eman (the latter had appeared between 1846 and 1856). The first issue was produced in the winter of 1891. "@en ; jlo:title "Katzburg, David Tsevi" ; skos:altLabel "David Tsevi Katzburg" ; skos:prefLabel "Katzburg, David Tsevi" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1796–1868), rabbi, teacher, commentator, public figure. Born in Vilna, Tsevi Hirsh Katzenellenbogen received a traditional Jewish education and even as a youth was recognized as a talented Torah scholar. His early teachers were the rabbis Sha’ul Katzenellenbogen (who gave his surname to Tsevi Hirsh as a marriage present) and Abele Posvoler."@en ; jlo:title "Katzenellenbogen, Tsevi Hirsh" ; skos:altLabel "Tsevi Hirsh Katzenellenbogen" ; skos:prefLabel "Katzenellenbogen, Tsevi Hirsh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1846–1917), Russian and Hebrew writer. Born in Chernigov, Russia, Yehudah Leib-Binyamin Katzenelson, who adopted the pseudonym Buki ben Yogli (the name of the head of the biblical tribe of Dan), grew up in Gomel. In 1861, he began his yeshiva education in Bobruisk, and while there he grew interested in the Haskalah."@en ; jlo:title "Katzenelson, Yehudah Leib-Binyamin" ; skos:altLabel "Yehudah Leib-Binyamin Katzenelson" ; skos:prefLabel "Katzenelson, Yehudah Leib-Binyamin" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1918–2000), Yiddish poet, lyricist, and literary editor. Yoysef Kerler was born in Haysyn (Rus., Gaisin), southern Ukraine. He was named after his grandfather, who was a tailor and a badkhn (wedding jester and rhymester). In 1930, his family moved to Mayfeld, a Jewish kolkhoz (collective farm) in northern Crimea, where Kerler worked and continued his secondary education. In 1934, he attended a Yiddish machine-building technical school in Odessa, and also studied Yiddish literature and creative writing with Irme Druker (1906–1982). Kerler’s first poems appeared in the newspaper Odeser arbeter in 1935. "@en ; jlo:title "Kerler, Yoysef" ; skos:altLabel "Yoysef Kerler" ; skos:prefLabel "Kerler, Yoysef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1917–1997), Soviet photojournalist. Among a small number of photographers whose images have become iconic representations of key moments in Soviet history, Khaldei remains less well-known than his works. His photograph of Russian soldiers raising the Soviet flag above a burning Reichstag has been reproduced countless times, though for many years his name was not attached to it. His photographs of the Nuremberg Trials, of Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam, and of the progress of the war from Murmansk to the south of Russia and throughout Eastern Europe were widely reproduced. Khaldei’s photographs are remarkable for their aching beauty (a cityscape of Nuremberg, destroyed; a lone reindeer against a night sky filled with warplanes) and their appreciation of human endurance. While Khaldei also photographed Jews in Budapest during World War II, Soviet censorship prevented their exhibition until recently."@en ; jlo:title "Khaldei, Evgenii Anan’evich" ; skos:altLabel "Evgenii Khaldei" ; skos:prefLabel "Khaldei, Evgenii Anan’evich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1904–1996), physicist; one of the creators of the Soviet atom bomb and scientific director of the hydrogen bomb project. Iulii Khariton was born into a middle-class Jewish family. Both of his parents left Russia before he completed his education. His mother lived in Berlin from 1910 and moved to Tel Aviv in 1933. His father, a journalist who was expelled from Soviet Russia in 1922 with many Russian intellectuals, lived in Riga and perished during World War II."@en ; jlo:title "Khariton, Iulii Borisovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iulii Khariton" ; skos:prefLabel "Khariton, Iulii Borisovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1715/16–1781), rabbinical scholar. Born in Zamość, Poland, to wealthy parents from well-known families, Shelomoh ben Mosheh was regarded as a prodigy, and showed interest in secular knowledge in addition to his religious studies; he studied mathematics, logic, and a number of foreign languages. In 1742, before he had turned 25, he was elected to the position of rabbi of Chełm (Yid., Khelm or Khelem) and its nine satellite communities. From then on, he was known as Rabbi Shelomoh Khelm."@en ; jlo:title "Khelm, Shelomoh ben Mosheh" ; skos:altLabel "Shelomoh ben Mosheh Khelm" ; skos:prefLabel "Khelm, Shelomoh ben Mosheh" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1908–1984), physicist; one of the creators of the Soviet atomic bomb. Isaak Konstantinovich (patronymic originally Kushelevich) Kikoin was born into the family of a teacher. His father had both an excellent traditional Jewish education and secular training in languages and mathematics. At the beginning of World War I, the family was evacuated from the Pale of Jewish Settlement to Pskov. After graduating from high school in 1923, Kikoin studied at a specialized land surveying school and then entered the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute (1925). He soon joined Abram Ioffe’s famous team in the neighboring Physical-Technical Institute."@en ; jlo:title "Kikoin, Isaak Konstantinovich" ; skos:altLabel "Isaak Kikoin" ; skos:prefLabel "Kikoin, Isaak Konstantinovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1985), lawyer and historian. Guido Kisch (son of Rabbi Alexander Kisch and an older brother to noted medical scholar Bruno Kisch) was born in Prague; he studied law at the German university there and received his habilitation from the University of Halle in 1915. Kisch became professor of the history of German law in Königsberg in 1920; he returned to Prague in 1921; and from 1922 he taught at the University of Halle. He was forcibly retired in November 1933 by the Hitler regime and worked thereafter as a professor at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau. In 1935, Kisch moved to the United States, where he taught Jewish history at the Jewish Institute of Religion in New York. He moved to Basel in 1962."@en ; jlo:title "Kisch, Guido" ; skos:altLabel "Guido Kisch" ; skos:prefLabel "Kisch, Guido" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1972), Zionist leader and publicist. Moyshe Kleinbaum (Sneh) was born in Radzyn Podlaski, Poland, to a traditional Zionist family. In 1935, he graduated as a physician from the University of Warsaw. During his college years he had chaired the Warsaw Zionist youth organization Jardenia, while at the same time starting his career in journalism and public affairs. In 1931, he was appointed editor of Nowe Słowo, a Zionist daily, which was issued as a weekly under the title Opinia after 1933. "@en ; jlo:title "Kleinbaum, Moyshe" ; skos:altLabel "Moyshe Kleinbaum" ; skos:prefLabel "Kleinbaum, Moyshe" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "A branch of Lithuanian Hasidism founded by Shelomoh Ḥayim Perlov (1797–1862) after the death in 1832 of his uncle, Noaḥ Jaffe of Lakhovits. Koidanov has, for most of its history, been the smallest of the three Lithuanian Hasidic dynasties (the others being Slonim and Karlin-Stolin). Before the Holocaust, its centers of influence were in the regions of Koidanov and Minsk in Belorussia."@en ; jlo:title "Koidanov Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:altLabel "Koidanov" ; skos:prefLabel "Koidanov Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1892–1945), architect and Zionist leader. Ottó Komoly was born as Ottó (Nathan) Kohn into a middle-class family in Budapest. His father participated in the First Zionist World Congress in Basel in 1897, and Ottó followed his example by becoming a Zionist. Komoly served in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I. Because he earned medals for bravery and was a reserve captain, he was exempted from discriminatory anti-Jewish laws. Komoly became deputy chairman of the Hungarian Zionist Association in 1940, and in 1941 was chairman of the organization. He wrote two books on Zionism: A zsidó nép jövője (The Future of the Jewish People; 1919), and Cionista életszemlélet (Zionist View of Life; 1942). "@en ; jlo:title "Komoly, Ottó" ; skos:altLabel "Ottó Komoly" ; skos:prefLabel "Komoly, Ottó" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "City in central Poland about two-thirds of the way on the east–west route from Warsaw to Poznań. The Jews of Konin probably arrived from Poznań and Kalisz (about 50 km due south of Konin) and are first mentioned in a Polish court record of 1397. The community gained full autonomy from Kalisz in 1810. It is likely that a Jewish burial ground existed at the beginning of the sixteenth century, though the town’s “old” cemetery was first used in the eighteenth century. The Jewish population had reached 180 in the fifteenth century, but destruction by the Swedes (in 1656 and 1707) and plague (especially during the cholera epidemics of 1628–1631 and 1662) kept the numbers of inhabitants lower. It was estimated that 168 Jews lived in Konin in 1764–1765 (making up 24% of the town’s population); by 1827, the numbers had grown to 872 (24.4%) and in 1897 to 2,482 (31.7%). In 1939, it was approximately 3,000 (23%)."@en ; jlo:title "Konin" ; skos:altLabel "Konin" ; skos:prefLabel "Konin" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1942), dramatist, expressionist writer and theorist, and stage director. Born and raised in Prague in the generation of Franz Kafka, Paul Kornfeld moved to Germany and made an important contribution to German expressionism on the stage. While he must be considered an assimilated Jew, as was the case with many of his German-speaking Jewish counterparts in the so-called Prague Circle, he and his friends made much of his descent from Orthodox rabbis, including a prominent great-grandfather. Jewish themes and biblical language were central instruments of his universalist, expressionist vision. While he left Prague for Frankfurt at the age of 25 and much of his contribution was made during a career in Germany proper, his background as a Jew from Prague is deeply relevant to that contribution."@en ; jlo:title "Kornfeld, Paul" ; skos:altLabel "Paul Kornfeld" ; skos:prefLabel "Kornfeld, Paul" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1905–1969), army general. Iakov Kreizer was born in Voronezh, the son of a petty trader. He completed a road construction course and for a while worked as a foreman. In 1921, Kreizer joined the Soviet army and fought against antigovernment military insurgents. After completing his studies at the Voronezh Infantry School, he was appointed platoon commander of a unit in the Moscow garrison. Kreizer joined the Communist Party in 1925. Over a period of slightly more than 13 prewar years, he followed a steady course that led him from platoon commander to commander of the Moscow Proletarian Division."@en ; jlo:title "Kreizer, Iakov Grigor’evich" ; skos:altLabel "Iakob Kreizer" ; skos:prefLabel "Kreizer, Iakov Grigor’evich" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1818–1879), journalist, politician, and poet. Born in Prague, David Kuh studied medicine and law there and in Vienna. From 1842 to 1844 he was a private tutor, first in Vienna and then briefly in Moravia. Kuh spent some time traveling with a group of itinerant actors. He subsequently founded German-language newspapers in Budapest and Pécs (Fünfkirchen). His agitation against the Slavs led to a two-year jail sentence (1848–1850)."@en ; jlo:title "Kuh, David" ; skos:altLabel "David Kuh" ; skos:prefLabel "Kuh, David" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Line of rabbinic leaders that emphasized the centrality of music and melody. Its founder, Yeḥezkel ben Tsevi Hirsh Taub (1772–1856), was born in Płońsk. He was a disciple of Ya‘akov Yitsḥak Horowitz (the Seer of Lublin), and Simḥah Bunem of Pshiskhe (Przysucha), and became a rebbe in Kuzmir (Kazimierz) in 1827. Taub grew famous for his musical talents and composed many Hasidic melodies. His teachings are collected in Neḥmad mi-zahav (1909). "@en ; jlo:title "Kuzmir-Modzits Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:altLabel "Modzits" ; skos:prefLabel "Kuzmir-Modzits Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Bankers and industrialists in Bohemia. Simon von Lämmel (1766–1845) was a financier and supplier of the Austrian army. His son Leopold (1790–1867) continued Lämmel’s financial activities and helped to organize a credit institution. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the Lämmel (also Lämel) family played a significant role in developing industries in the Czech lands."@en ; jlo:title "Lämmel Family" ; skos:altLabel "Lämmel" ; skos:prefLabel "Lämmel Family" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1861–1929), poet, literary critic, and translator. Born into an assimilated, patriotic Polish family in Warsaw, Antoni Lange first studied sciences in Warsaw, then spent 1886–1890 in Paris, studying oriental languages, philosophy, and literature. There he met members of the French literary elite, including Stéphane Mallarmé. Back in Warsaw, he wrote literary criticism, popular essays on history, philosophy, and aesthetics, as well as poetry, literary translations, and plays."@en ; jlo:title "Lange, Antoni" ; skos:altLabel "Antoni Lange" ; skos:prefLabel "Lange, Antoni" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The planning of Yiddish, insofar as both formulation and implementation are concerned, has primarily come from nongovernmental sources (as is also the case with English, German, Italian, and many other languages), except as will be briefly noted in this article with respect to the Soviet Union. Thus, any discussion of language planning for Yiddish is necessarily restricted to corpus planning (i.e., to changes within the language per se, for example, in reviews of older terms, selections among alternatives and synonyms, development of neologisms, and revisions of orthography), rather than extended to status-planning efforts that deal with societal forces (schools, publishers, theaters, government agencies, etc.) outside of language per se."@en ; jlo:title "Planning and Standardization of Yiddish (Language)" ; skos:altLabel "“purer” Yiddish" ; skos:prefLabel "Planning and Standardization of Yiddish (Language)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Settlement" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Interwar Years" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Postwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War II" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1966), poet, satirist. and aphorist. Stanisław Lec, whose surname means jester in Hebrew (lets), was born in Lwów into a family of wealthy landowners and bankers. With an aristocratic title and socialist views, and his education at the best academic institutions in his home city and Vienna, Lec represented a unique combination of now-extinct Austro-Hungarian, Jewish, and Polish cultures. "@en ; jlo:title "Lec, Stanisław" ; skos:altLabel "Stanisław Lec" ; skos:prefLabel "Lec, Stanisław" ; skos:related , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Courts and Jewish Autonomy" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Courts in the Modern Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Regional Judicial Institutions" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Breadth and Scope of Judicial Autonomy" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1814–1884), painter, sketch artist, illustrator, art critic, and amateur researcher of antiquities. Lesser holds a place in the chronicles of Polish art as an outstanding representative of his country’s historical school. He was also one of the first artists to paint scenes from the modern history of Polish Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Lesser, Aleksander" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksander Lesser" ; skos:prefLabel "Lesser, Aleksander" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Throughout East European Jewish history, the letter was an important vehicle of written communication about everyday concerns. Letters were written to serve many practical purposes: to communicate about Jewish law; to report on communal affairs; to engage in commerce; and to discuss personal matters, among others. Naturally, letters could be written with more than one purpose in mind. Singly and in constellations, they also served as a literary form."@en ; jlo:title "Letters and Letter Writing" ; skos:altLabel "letters" ; skos:prefLabel "Letters and Letter Writing" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1900–1969), Yiddish poet. Born in Ekaterinoslav (mod. Ukr., Dnipropetrovs’k) to the family of an undertaker, Khane Levin was educated at a school for poor children. She worked as a seamstress and a sales assistant. Initially, Levin wrote poems in Russian, but under the influence of Leyb Naydus, who lived in Ekaterinoslav in 1915, she switched to Yiddish. While living in Kharkov, she made her literary debut in the almanac Kunst-ring (Art Circle) in 1917. The following year, her poems appeared in the Petrograd weekly Folksblat (People’s Paper), edited by Nokhem Shtif. "@en ; jlo:title "Levin, Khane" ; skos:altLabel "Khane Levin" ; skos:prefLabel "Levin, Khane" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1971), rabbi. Born in Nikopol’, Ekaterinoslav province, Yehudah Leib Levin studied at the Slobodka yeshiva and then in a Jewish teachers’ seminary in Ekaterinoslav (mod. Dnipropetrovs’k). He taught Jewish studies in Ekaterinoslav until 1923, when he was invited to take up the post of rabbi in Grishino (Krasnoarmeiskoe). He remained in that city until the German invasion of the Soviet Union, subsequently evacuating to Uzbekistan and then returning to Krasnoarmeiskoe in late 1944."@en ; jlo:title "Levin, Yehudah Leib (rabbi)" ; skos:altLabel "Yehudah Leib Levin" ; skos:prefLabel "Levin, Yehudah Leib (rabbi)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1881–1942), Jewish scholar, founder of the Jewish Museum in Prague. Salomon Lieben was born in Prague, studied in Germany and at the German University in Prague, and taught Jewish religion at various secondary schools in Prague. He was actively involved with that city’s Jewish community and in its ḥevrah kadisha’, the burial society. "@en ; jlo:title "Lieben, Salomon Hugo" ; skos:altLabel "Salomon Hugo Lieben" ; skos:prefLabel "Lieben, Salomon Hugo" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1941), lawyer and socialist politician. Born in Drohobycz, Galicia, into an assimilated family, Hermann Lieberman became active in Polish patriotic activities while still a high school student. He studied in Paris and at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków; then practiced law in Przemyśl, where he frequently defended political activists. He became active in the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) of Galicia and Silesia and in 1905 opposed the establishment of a separate Jewish Social Democratic Party, modeled on the Bund in the tsarist empire."@en ; jlo:title "Lieberman, Hermann" ; skos:altLabel "Hermann Lieberman" ; skos:prefLabel "Lieberman, Hermann" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1917–1982), theoretical physicist. Il’ia Lifshits was a distinguished physicist, teacher, and loyal friend—a very dangerous combination in the Soviet Union, especially for a Jew who was not a Communist Party member. Not by chance, all his Soviet honors came much later than deserved, and only once—just six years before his death—was he allowed to travel beyond the Iron Curtain."@en ; jlo:title "Lifshits, Il’ia Mikhailovich" ; skos:altLabel "Il’ia Lifshits" ; skos:prefLabel "Lifshits, Il’ia Mikhailovich" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1911–2003), poet, translator, and fiction writer. Semen Lipkin was born and raised in Odessa, where his first poetic experiments attracted the attention of Eduard Bagritskii, the major romantic revolutionary poet who also lived in that city. Lipkin’s childhood recollections appear in his vibrant autobiographical sketches, Zapiski zhiltsa (Notes of an Inhabitant; 1992). By 1932, Lipkin’s poetry was no longer publishable and he became a translator, having mastered Farsi on his own. He served at the front during World War II, an experience he recounts in his narrative poem “Tekhnik-intendant” (Quartermaster; 1963, published in 1981). "@en ; jlo:title "Lipkin, Semen Izrailevich" ; skos:altLabel "Semen Lipkin" ; skos:prefLabel "Lipkin, Semen Izrailevich" ; skos:related , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Period of Wandering: 1857–1883" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Musar Approach" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Musar Method: The First Stage (1845–1849)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Musar Movement in Vilna and Kovno" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The first Hebrew literary journals appeared in Galicia just when a literary center in that language began to flourish there in the early nineteenth century. The earliest examples were annuals or single publications of limited scope, such as Yosef Perl’s Tsir ne’eman (Tarnopol; 1813–1815) or Me’ir Letteris’s Ha-Tsefirah (Żółkiew; 1823). At the same time, maskilim in Galicia read periodicals that were issued in Vienna or Prague; among these were Shalom ben Ya‘akov ha-Kohen’s Bikure ha-‘itim (1820–1831), and Shelomoh Yehudah Rapoport and Shneur Sachs’s Kerem ḥemed (1833–1843, 1854, 1856). As forums for the expression of ideas and scholarship, polemics and exegesis, the journals devoted limited space to belles lettres; that which was printed was mainly satiric, either translated (from ancient writers such as Lucian) or original (Yitsḥak Erter, Yosef Perl). Maskilim of Galicia also produced the yearbook He-Ḥaluts (Lwów, 1852–1865; then in Frankfurt, Prague, and Vienna until 1889), published by Yehoshu‘a Heshel Schorr, which expressed a radical maskilic line in the battle against rabbinical Judaism. It also influenced the antirabbinic and anti-Talmudic ideas that developed in Russia in the 1860s and 1870s. "@en ; jlo:title "Hebrew Literary Journals (Literary Journals)" ; skos:altLabel "literary journal" ; skos:prefLabel "Hebrew Literary Journals (Literary Journals)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early History" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Interwar Years" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Postwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War II" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1789–1821), Hebrew poet, linguist, and historian. Salomon Löwisohn was born in Mór, Hungary, a small community led by his relatives, the prominent Rosenthal and Saphir families, who played key roles in the Hungarian Haskalah. As a child, he received a traditional education. When he was 12, he studied German and arithmetic at a Capuchin monastery. By the time he celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1802, Löwisohn was well versed in the Bible and began writing poems in Hebrew."@en ; jlo:title "Löwisohn, Salomon" ; skos:altLabel "Salomon Löwisohn" ; skos:prefLabel "Löwisohn, Salomon" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1971), Marxist philosopher and literary critic. György (Georg) Lukács was one of the foremost cultural theorists of the twentieth century; his Hegelian Marxism laid the groundwork for contemporary critical theory. Born György Bernát Lőwinger, in Budapest, Georg Lukács came from a wealthy Hungarian Jewish family that had been granted noble status and was equally fluent in German and Hungarian. József Lukács, his father, was a self-made man who had risen from an impoverished rural background to become director of the Hungarian General Credit Bank in 1906. Although Lukács had a troubled relationship with his father, the elder Lukács remained a warm and generous supporter of his son’s academic ambitions, which he saw as an extension of his own social mobility."@en ; jlo:title "Lukács, György" ; skos:altLabel "György Lukács" ; skos:prefLabel "Lukács, György" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1716–1760), prominent eighteenth-century Karaite scholar and spiritual leader; also known as the Karaite Rashi and ‘Olam Tsa‘ir (meaning microcosm; from an acronym based on the gimatriyah, or mystical substitution of numerical values for the Hebrew letters of his name). Simḥah Yitsḥak Luzki (Lutski) lived in Łuck (Lutsk) until 1754, when the wealthy patron Mordekhai ben Berakhah, one of the leaders of the local community in Chufut-Kale, invited him to become head of that community’s study house, and Luzki taught there for the rest of his life. "@en ; jlo:title "Luzki, Simḥah Yitsḥak ben Mosheh" ; skos:altLabel "Simḥah Yitsḥak Luzki" ; skos:prefLabel "Luzki, Simḥah Yitsḥak ben Mosheh" ; skos:related , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Independent Poland" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Soviet and Post-Soviet Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Austrian Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Premodern Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War II" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1975), Soviet diplomat. Born in Kirillov, Novgorod Province, to the family of an assimilated army doctor and village school teacher, Ivan Liakhovetskii (Maiskii [Maisky] was a pseudonym he later adopted) became involved in revolutionary activities that led to his expulsion from Saint Petersburg University and exile to Siberia in 1902. In Siberia, he gravitated toward the Menshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party (RSDWP). In 1908, he immigrated to Switzerland, and later obtained a degree in economics at Munich University. Proceeding to London in 1912, he adopted Lenin’s militant internationalist position and forged close relations with future Commissars for Foreign Affairs Georgii Chicherin and Maksim Litvinov. Maiskii returned to Russia in February 1917, shortly after the tsar was overthrown, but it was only in 1919 that he renounced his association with the Mensheviks and joined the Bolshevik Party. His command of foreign languages and familiarity with the international scene, clearly bolstered by his friendship with Litvinov, secured his meteoric rise in the Soviet diplomatic service."@en ; jlo:title "Maiskii, Ivan Mikhailovich" ; skos:altLabel "Ivan Maiskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Maiskii, Ivan Mikhailovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1558–1616), rabbinical scholar and authority. Me’ir ben Gedalyah of Lublin, known as Maharam (an acronym for “Our teacher, the Rabbi Me’ir”) or Maharam of Lublin, was a major figure in the Golden Era of Torah study in Poland during the second half of the sixteenth century. He was born in Lublin and was a student of Shalom Shakhnah; he also studied with Yitsḥak ha-Kohen Shapira of Kraków, whose daughter Esther he married. In 1582, he founded a yeshiva in Lublin, and five years later was a rabbi and head of the yeshiva in Kraków. In 1595, he moved to Lwów, where he served as a dayan (rabbinic judge) and head of the yeshiva. "@en ; jlo:title "Me’ir ben Gedalyah of Lublin" ; skos:altLabel "Me’ir ben Gedalyah of Lublin" ; skos:prefLabel "Me’ir ben Gedalyah of Lublin" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1872–ca. 1942), politican and community leader. Maurycy Meisel completed secondary school in Warsaw, where he worked in a large trading house as a manager. Beginning in 1897, he was a board member of the Association of Trade Workers. In 1905, he took part in the fight for the Polish character of schools, and during World War I he was active on a committee assisting refugees. Elected in 1919 to the city council of Warsaw from the lists of the Orthodox and merchant organizations, he was particularly active in the public health commission. From 1927 to 1934 he again served on the council, this time as a representative of the Jewish National Bloc."@en ; jlo:title "Meisel, Maurycy" ; skos:altLabel "Maurycy Meisel" ; skos:prefLabel "Meisel, Maurycy" ; skos:related , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Memory and the Model Person" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Memory and the Model Place" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Liturgy of Remembrance" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Politics of Memory" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Modern Messianism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Medieval Messianism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Modern-Era Messianism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Sabbatianism in Eastern Europe" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1927), community leader, philanthropist, editor, and writer. Ferenc Mezey’s father, Albert Mezey (originally Grünfeld), was a merchant; Ferenc’s mother, Rózsa Fábián, was born into a small landholder’s family. His parents had planned a rabbinic career for him, but Mezey instead went into commerce and later worked as a bank clerk. Dissatisfied, he attended Pázmány Péter University in Budapest, receiving a degree in law. As a law student, he wrote for newspapers and law journals under a pseudonym."@en ; jlo:title "Mezey, Ferenc" ; skos:altLabel "Ferenc Mezey" ; skos:prefLabel "Mezey, Ferenc" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1942), rabbi, scholar, and Polish army chaplain. The elder brother of author and scholar Matthias Mieses, Józef Mieses was born in Przemyśl and lived there until he completed his high school education in 1900. Sent to Vienna to study in the rabbinical seminary and university, he was ordained as a rabbi and received his doctorate in 1907. Since very few posts for modern rabbis existed in Galicia at that time, Mieses accepted a position as instructor in Jewish religion in the first Polish gymnasium established in his hometown."@en ; jlo:title "Mieses, Józef" ; skos:altLabel "Józef Mieses" ; skos:prefLabel "Mieses, Józef" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1902–1938), Communist Party activist. Mikhail Mikhailov (Katsenelenbogen), son of a bookkeeper, was born in Vitebsk (Bel., Vitsyebsk) and subsequently moved with his family, first to Pokrov and later to Moscow. Mikhailov attended gymnasium in all three cities but never graduated. He began working as a photographer at the age of 15 while at the same time continuing his self-education. Mikhailov joined the Komsomol (Communist youth organization) in 1918 and the Communist Party in 1919. While in the Red Army from 1919 to 1921, he served as a political instructor and deputy head of the political division of the western front."@en ; jlo:title "Mikhailov, Mikhail Efimovich" ; skos:altLabel "Mikhail Mikhailov" ; skos:prefLabel "Mikhailov, Mikhail Efimovich" ; skos:related , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "History" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Theology" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1901–1987), philosopher and Communist Party activist. The son of a laborer from Zhitomir, Mark Mitin joined the Communist Party in 1919. In 1929, he completed his studies in the philosophy department at the Institut Krasnoi Professury (Institute of Red Professors; IKP)."@en ; jlo:title "Mitin, Mark Borisovich" ; skos:altLabel "Mark Mitin" ; skos:prefLabel "Mitin, Mark Borisovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1729), Sabbatian preacher. Mordekhai of Eisenstadt was born in Alsace (according to sources in Prague) around 1650. He was a pupil of Natan of Gaza and Avraham Cardozo. In the 1670s, he came to Nikolsburg, the center of Sabbatianism in Moravia. Thereafter he led an itinerant life, traveling through Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, Germany, and Poland. Between 1678 and 1680, he was active as one of the first Sabbatian propagandists in Poland–Lithania. During his wanderings, he acquired the nickname Mokhiaḥ (“Rebuker”) and became famous for his talents as a preacher and for his ascetic conduct."@en ; jlo:title "Mordekhai ben Ḥayim of Eisenstadt" ; skos:altLabel "Mordekhai of Eisenstadt" ; skos:prefLabel "Mordekhai ben Ḥayim of Eisenstadt" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Johan Kemper; d. 1716), Sabbatian kabbalist; after his conversion to Christianity, lector in Hebrew at the University of Uppsala. Little is known about Mosheh ben Aharon’s early activity. It is certain that he was active in one of the groups linked to Yehudah Ḥasid, which around 1695 began to prepare to immigrate to Palestine in order to await Shabetai Tsevi’s second coming in Jerusalem."@en ; jlo:title "Mosheh ben Aharon ha-Kohen of Kraków" ; skos:altLabel "Mosheh ben Aharon ha-Kohen of Kraków" ; skos:prefLabel "Mosheh ben Aharon ha-Kohen of Kraków" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Mugur Legrel; 1934–1991), journalist, editor, and writer. The son of a journalist with democratic anticommunist political leanings, Florin Mugur worked as a journalist and radio editor at the beginning of his career. While his father faced difficult times when the Communist regime came to power in Romania after World War II, Mugur made his literary debut at 19, sincerely believing in the potential of the new political regime and its leftist ideology (he had already started publishing poems at the age of 14). Under the impact of the 1956 anticommunist revolution in Hungary, he protested the Romanian regime; as a result, with other young writers, he was prevented from publishing until the mid-1960s."@en ; jlo:title "Mugur, Florin" ; skos:altLabel "Florin Mugur" ; skos:prefLabel "Mugur, Florin" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1830–1907), Hebrew author. Me’ir (Adolf) Munk’s autobiography, Sipure korot ḥayai (My Life’s Histories), completed in 1899, is a unique document in the history of Hungarian Jewry. Few book-length autobiographies or memoirs written by Jews in nineteenth-century Hungary have come down to us, and Munk’s composition is additionally the only extant example of the genre to have been written in Hebrew. "@en ; jlo:title "Munk, Me’ir Avraham" ; skos:altLabel "Me’ir Avraham Munk" ; skos:prefLabel "Munk, Me’ir Avraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1937), Hungarian linguist, ethnographer, and pedagogue. Born in Oradea (Rom., Nagyvárad; Ger., Grosswardein), then located in Hungary, Bernát Munkácsi was the son of Me’ir Avraham Munk, a Hebrew writer. Munkácsi began his education in a traditional heder but later was sent to the local gymnasium. He started his university training in medicine but switched his concentration to Hungarian and German language and literature."@en ; jlo:title "Munkácsi, Bernát" ; skos:altLabel "Bernát Munkácsi" ; skos:prefLabel "Munkácsi, Bernát" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The history of Jewish exhibitions, both of ceremonial objects and memorabilia (generally known as Judaica) and of Jewish painting and sculpture, begins in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Essentially a postemancipation phenomenon, the founding of Jewish museums housing permanent collections, as well as the periodic display of Jewish exhibits, started in Western Europe. A portion of Isaac Strauss’s collection of Judaica was displayed at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1878 and, 10 years later, at the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, opened at Royal Albert Hall as well as at three other London venues. Praised by the Russian art critic V. V. Stasov in a review published in the literary journal Evreiskaia biblioteka (The Jewish Library), these forays into what the historian Richard Cohen has called “self-exposure” came to have special significance for East European Jewish culture, associated even by Western Jews with the institutionalization of memory that Jewish museums came to exemplify. Although the phenomenon of Jewish museums and exhibitions remained limited prior to World War II, it expanded considerably in the West after 1945 and moved eastward after 1989; in the twenty-first century nearly every East European capital and regional center will have its own Jewish museum. "@en ; jlo:title "Museums and Exhibitions" ; skos:narrower ; skos:prefLabel "Museums and Exhibitions" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "MAJOR JEWISH MUSEUMS IN EASTERN EUROPE" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1862–1887), Russia’s most popular poet in the three decades preceding the 1917 Revolutions. Nadson was the first Russian poet of Jewish origin to achieve national fame and to reach a large, popular audience. Following the collapse of the revolutionary movement in the 1870s, his writing captivated younger readers during the reign of Alexander III. Oscillating between the poetry of pure art and social reflection (the former exemplified by Afanasii Fet and Aleksei Apukhtin), Nadson bridged the styles that marked the civic poetry of Nikolai Nekrasov and early Russian Symbolism. Emotionally evocative, his verses showcase a disillusioned poet’s quest for a liberal ideal of humanity. His first collection, Stikhotvoreniia (Poems; 1885), was reprinted 29 times before 1917 and sold more than 200,000 copies. "@en ; jlo:title "Nadson, Semen Iakovlevich" ; skos:altLabel "Semen Nadson" ; skos:prefLabel "Nadson, Semen Iakovlevich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1978), Soviet mathematician. Born in Odessa into the family of an artist, Mark Naimark graduated from the Odessa Physics and Chemistry Institute in 1933 and became a graduate student at Odessa University. He began his scientific work under the guidance of Mark Krein. After completing graduate studies in 1936, Naimark was awarded the degree of candidate in physics and mathematical sciences. He worked at Odessa University from 1933 to 1938, and from 1938 to 1950 at the USSR Academy of Sciences."@en ; jlo:title "Naimark, Mark Aronovich" ; skos:altLabel "Mark Naimark" ; skos:prefLabel "Naimark, Mark Aronovich" ; skos:related , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Family Names" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Personal Names" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1819–1894), writer. Born in Lomnice (Lomnitz), Moravia, to a family of rabbis, Fanny Schmiedl Neuda was the daughter of Juda Schmiedl (d. 1855), a rabbi. Her brother, Adolph Schmiedl (1821–1913), was a rabbi in Prostějov (Prossnitz) and Vienna. Fanny was married to Abraham Neuda (1812–1854), a rabbi in Loštice (Loschitz)."@en ; jlo:title "Neuda, Fanny Schmiedl" ; skos:altLabel "Fanny Schmiedl" ; skos:prefLabel "Neuda, Fanny Schmiedl" ; skos:related , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Print Media in Other National Languages" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Socialist and Revolutionary Periodicals" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Hebrew Press" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Yiddish Press" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1942), rabbi and Zionist leader. Born in Bobruisk, Belorussia, Yitsḥak Nissenbaum studied at various yeshivas, including in Volozhin and Vilna. In 1889, he settled in Minsk and was among the founders of the Safah Berurah association for the dissemination of the Hebrew language. When the Volozhin yeshiva closed in 1892, the clandestine national religious association Netsaḥ Yisra’el moved to Minsk, and Nissenbaum was appointed as one of its directors. In 1894, he moved to Białystok, where he served as the secretary of Ha-Merkaz ha-Ruḥani (an Orthodox organization that disseminated the ideas of Ḥibat Tsiyon [Love of Zion]) and as assistant to Rabbi Shemu’el Mohilewer. After Mohilewer’s death in 1898, Nissenbaum began to act as an itinerant preacher for Ḥoveve Tsiyon (Lovers of Zion, as the followers of Ḥibat Tsiyon were known), a position he filled for 11 years. In 1900, he moved to Warsaw and preached regularly in synagogues there."@en ; jlo:title "Nissenbaum, Yitsḥak" ; skos:altLabel "Yitsḥak Nissenbaum" ; skos:prefLabel "Nissenbaum, Yitsḥak" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1895–1943), Yiddish writer and journalist. Born in Lutomiersk (near Łódź) into a poor Hasidic family and orphaned at a young age, Perets Opotshinski (name also rendered Peretz Opoczinski) received only a traditional Jewish education in heder and at various yeshivas. In Kalisz, where he joined a circle of breakaway former yeshiva students, Opotshinski came under the spell of the Yiddish poet and enlisted soldier Osher Shvartsman, who convinced him to switch from Hebrew to Yiddish."@en ; jlo:title "Opotshinski, Perets" ; skos:altLabel "Perets Opotshinski" ; skos:prefLabel "Opotshinski, Perets" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1930–2001), literary historian and editor. Zigu Ornea (Orenstein) was born in Frumuşica, a village near Botoşani in northern Moldavia. In 1941, when racial laws enforced by Antonescu’s regime forcefully transferred Jewish inhabitants from their villages to the administrative center of each county, Ornea’s family moved to Botoşani, where he attended a Jewish high school. He studied philosophy at Bucharest University between 1951 and 1955, graduating after writing a dissertation on Romanian thought in the mid-nineteenth century."@en ; jlo:title "Ornea, Zigu" ; skos:altLabel "Zigu Ornea" ; skos:prefLabel "Ornea, Zigu" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1908–1994), Yiddish poet. Hirsh Osherovitsh was born in Ponevezh (Panevėžys, Lith.). Together with thousands of other Jews who lived in the Russian border region, his family was exiled at the outbreak of World War I to the Donbass in eastern Ukraine. In 1921, the family returned to Ponevezh, and in 1928 Osherovitsh graduated from the local Hebrew high school. He studied law at Kaunas (Kovno) University, graduating in 1933. Osherovitsh began to write poetry at a very young age, and began publishing in 1934, when he worked for various newspapers, in particular Kaunas’s Di yidishe shtime."@en ; jlo:title "Osherovitsh, Hirsh" ; skos:altLabel "Hirsh Osherovitsh" ; skos:prefLabel "Osherovitsh, Hirsh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Artists in the “Great Utopia”" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The “Other Art”" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Genealogy of Jewish Art in Eastern Europe" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Vision in Time of Revolution" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Impact of the Pale" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Modifications of the Pale" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Origins of the Pale" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Public Debate on the Pale" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1913–2002), poet. Sesto Pals (Simion Şestopali) was born in Odessa. His family fled to Galați, Romania, after the Russian Revolution. Having obtained the status of Italian subject, his father changed the family name from Sestopali and moved in 1920 to Bucharest, where Pals completed high school. During this period he became friends with Gherasim Luca, Geo Bogza, and Paul Păun, future prominent avant-garde poets. With Aurel Baranga and the painter Jules Perahim, Pals edited the avant-garde literary review Alge (1930; 1933). From that point on, he adopted Sesto Pals as his pen name. "@en ; jlo:title "Pals, Sesto" ; skos:altLabel "Sesto Pals" ; skos:prefLabel "Pals, Sesto" ; skos:related , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Social, Religious, and Geographical Divisions" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Final Years (1944–1948)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Interwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Parties in Ebb and Flow (1900–1914)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War II" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in the Romanian region of Moldavia (known in Yiddish as Peshkan). In 1845, there were 17 Jewish families living in Paşcani. Numbering 85 persons, they were among the founders of the town and were involved in timber, cereal, and the cattle business. Many Jews from neighboring towns attended fairs in Paşcani; and the extension of roads and the building of railways contributed to its economic development. Jews built a synagogue and a ritual bathhouse, as well as a cemetery."@en ; jlo:title "Paşcani" ; skos:altLabel "Paşcani" ; skos:prefLabel "Paşcani" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "At the Crossroad of Languages" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Forging a Modern Literature" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "In Service of Cultural Autonomy" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "After the Holocaust" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Pogroms in the Russian Empire" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Wartime Pogroms" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Between the Two World Wars" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "POLISH WRITERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Long Shadow of the Holocaust" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Maskilim in Search of Integration" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Slow Beginnings" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "State-funded theater established in November 1949 as a result of the merger and nationalization of two Yiddish theater companies based in Wrocław and Łódź. Headed by celebrated actress and stage director Ida Kamińska (Kaminski; 1899–1980), the theater toured between both cities. In 1955 it moved to Warsaw, where it has performed since 1970 in its own building on Plac Grzybowski. It is currently called Teatr Żydowski im. E. R. Kaminskiej (Ester-Rokhl Kaminski Yiddish Theater)."@en ; jlo:title "Polish State Yiddish Theater" ; skos:altLabel "Poland" ; skos:prefLabel "Polish State Yiddish Theater" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "After World War I, the two countries with the largest numbers of Jews were Poland (2.8 million in 1921) and the Soviet Union (2.7 million in 1926). (See Table 1: Jewish Population by Country, 1920s-1930s) For this period numerical data are based mostly on religious affiliation as recorded in national censuses, except for the Baltic States and the Soviet Union, where they are based on ethnicity data from the censuses. Conceptually, these numbers correspond to what has been defined in Jewish demography as the “core” Jewish population. The “core” Jewish population is the aggregate of all those who, when asked, identify themselves as Jews or, in the case of children, are identified as such by their parents; it does not include persons of Jewish origin who report another ethnicity and/or religion in the census."@en ; jlo:title "Population since World War I (Population and Migration)" ; skos:altLabel "population" ; skos:prefLabel "Population since World War I (Population and Migration)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Preachers" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Sermons and Sermonic Literature" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Legendary Jewish merchant (the name signifies a gunpowder merchant) who supposedly was declared king of Poland. The story is set in the ninth century, when the legendary king, Piast, ascended to the Polish throne (ca. 860), thus establishing a medieval dynasty."@en ; jlo:title "Prochownik, Abraham" ; skos:altLabel "Abraham Prochownik" ; skos:prefLabel "Prochownik, Abraham" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "At the beginning of the nineteenth century, shortly after the focal point of maskilic literature had shifted from Central to Eastern Europe, modern Hebrew fiction was invented in Galicia. This unprecedented event sprang from a literary void: creative fiction writing—unknown in Hebrew literature for generations—had been replaced by the folk story in all its various incarnations. During the course of the eighteenth century, Germany’s producers of maskilic Hebrew literature focused energy on cultivating the poem, the biblical epic, the allegory, and the lyrical drama, using models from traditional Hebrew and modern European literature as sources of inspiration. These writers resisted the urge to try their hands at belles lettres, however, even though they were intimately familiar with outstanding examples of contemporary European short stories and novels. They justified their resistance on two grounds: Hebrew literature was not meant to give concrete prosaic expression to present realities; and the linguistic tools then available were inadequate for this task. Indeed, the history of 120 years of Hebrew fiction in Eastern Europe may be described as a continuing struggle over the capacity of Hebrew—a language that was not used in daily conversation—to be able to depict landscapes, society, characters, spoken dialogue, and internal monologues, and to be able to create imaginary worlds representing reality in a satisfactory and credible manner."@en ; jlo:title "Hebrew Prose (Prose)" ; skos:altLabel "Hebrew prose" ; skos:prefLabel "Hebrew Prose (Prose)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1820–1902), historian and musician. Iacob Psantir (originally surnamed Zelig) was born in Botoşani, Romania, where his father, Asher, worked as an interpreter for the nobleman Scarlat Calimachi, and then for the French consulate in Iaşi. An orphan at the age of 11, Psantir finished his education at the Israelite Confessional Elementary School in Iaşi, where he learned to pray in Hebrew; the rest of his education was in Yiddish."@en ; jlo:title "Psantir, Iacob" ; skos:altLabel "Iacob Psantir" ; skos:prefLabel "Psantir, Iacob" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1876–1941), politician and public figure. Naḥman Rachmilewitz (Nachmanas Rachmilevičius) was born in Volkovysk, close to Hrodna (now in Belarus). In 1896, he graduated from classical secondary school in Bensheim, south of Hessen, Germany, and from 1896 to 1900 studied humanities and sciences at universities in Königsberg and Heidelberg, receiving his doctorate. After graduation he settled in Vilna, where he was active in Jewish public life."@en ; jlo:title "Rachmilewitz, Naḥman" ; skos:altLabel "Naḥman Rachmilewitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Rachmilewitz, Naḥman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1939), international revolutionary activist and publicist. Born in Lwów, Karl Radek (originally surnamed Sobel’son) grew up in Tarnów, in his mother’s family, where the German culture was dominant. In gymnasium he was attracted by the ideas of Polish nationalism, which influenced his choice of pseudonym. The surname Radek was adopted after the name of the hero of a novel about Polish students’ revolutionary struggle. Later Radek became acquainted with German social-democratic literature and launched social-democratic propaganda in his gymnasium, which led to his expulsion from school in 1901. "@en ; jlo:title "Radek, Karl" ; skos:altLabel "Karl Radek" ; skos:prefLabel "Radek, Karl" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1911–1988), Soviet comic and variety actor. Born in Riga, Raikin grew up in an assimilated family, the son of a businessman, although his paternal grandfather tried to send him to heder. After World War I and the revolution, Raikin’s family moved to Leningrad. Raikin took part in the young people’s drama circle headed by the actor and director Iurii Iurskii. In 1930 Raikin entered the Leningrad Institute of Stage Arts; his teacher, director Vladimir Solov’ev, had studied with Meyerhold but also valued Stanislavskii’s Method. Raikin absorbed the Russian theatrical culture of the early twentieth century, with its interest in farce and commedia dell’arte."@en ; jlo:title "Raikin, Arkadii Isaakovich" ; skos:altLabel "Arkadii Raikin" ; skos:prefLabel "Raikin, Arkadii Isaakovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1865–1955), educator, Zionist, and feminist. Puah Rakovsky was born in Białystok, the oldest of 15 children, into a traditional Jewish family. Although most Jewish girls of her time received little Jewish education, her prosperous parents enrolled her in a heder and subsequently hired a tutor for her in Hebrew and Yiddish texts, as well as for secular subjects. Her studying came to an end when she was married off, much against her will, at the age of 16 to a yeshiva student, even though she had lost her faith. By the time she was 20, she had a son and a daughter. Persuading her parents and husband to allow her to study as an extern for a teaching license with the claim that she could then support the family, she finally succeeded in becoming a teacher. She then secured a divorce from her first husband. She subsequently married twice more for love and gave birth to another daughter in 1903."@en ; jlo:title "Rakovsky, Puah" ; skos:altLabel "Puah Rakovsky" ; skos:prefLabel "Rakovsky, Puah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Life" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Major Achievements" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Although the Hungarian parliament emancipated Jews as individuals in 1867 (Act Seventeen), it was only later legislation, Act Forty-Two of 1895, that made Judaism equal to other received religions (religiones receptae). The Law of Reception was deemed necessary because in the nineteenth century the legal standing of various religions was defined by their position in the hierarchical structure as either received, recognized, or tolerated. Received religions benefited from protection of the state. "@en ; jlo:title "Reception, Law of" ; skos:altLabel "Law of Reception" ; skos:prefLabel "Reception, Law of" ; skos:related , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Bohemia and Moravia" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Galicia" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Hungary" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Russia" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Twentieth Century" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1838–1929), rabbi and Orthodox leader. Born to a well-known rabbinic family, Koppel Reich grew up in Vérbo (now Vrbové, Slovakia) and studied at the Pressburg yeshiva under his relative Avraham Shemu’el Binyamin Sofer (Ketav Sofer). In 1880, Reich returned to Vérbo as chief rabbi. He was an outstanding orator and a skillful and energetic organizer. These qualities, along with his longevity, elevated him to the pinnacle of Hungarian Jewish leadership during his extended tenure as rabbi of the independent Orthodox community in Budapest (1890–1929)."@en ; jlo:title "Reich, Koppel" ; skos:altLabel "Koppel Reich" ; skos:prefLabel "Reich, Koppel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(also known as Jakob Backofen or Back; ca. 1670–1733), rabbi, halakhic authority, and author. Probably born in Prague to a rabbinical family, Reischer studied under Rabbi Aharon Shim‘on Spira (presiding judge of the rabbinical court of Prague; 1610–1680) and Spira’s son Binyamin Volf Spira (d. 1715), the chief rabbi of Bohemia. Reischer married the latter’s daughter."@en ; jlo:title "Reischer, Ya‘akov ben Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Ya`akov Reischer" ; skos:prefLabel "Reischer, Ya‘akov ben Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(also Reizeles; Raices; and Ickowicz), rabbis and martyrs. Ḥayim ben Yitsḥak Reizes (1687–1728), a wealthy and educated man who knew Latin, served as a rabbi in Kamionka and a rabbinic judge in Lwów, and was a delegate to the Ruthenian Jewish council. His brother Yehoshu‘a ben Yitsḥak (1697–1728) was head of a yeshiva in Lwów."@en ; jlo:title "Reizes Brothers" ; skos:altLabel "Reizes brothers" ; skos:prefLabel "Reizes Brothers" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Title bestowed by Yad Vashem (the Israeli Holocaust remembrance authority) on certain gentiles who rescued Jews in opposition to Nazi efforts to annihilate them. The distinction is granted according to stringent criteria requiring conclusive evidence. Depending on the nature and extent of help, special kinds of recognition are bestowed upon Christians who saved Jews. To qualify for any one of the distinctions, Christian actions had to involve “extending help in saving a life; endangering one’s own life; absence of reward, monetary and otherwise; and similar considerations which make the rescuers’ deeds stand out above and beyond what can be termed ordinary help.” In part ambiguous, the criteria leave no doubt that those who saved Jews primarily because of payment do not fit the definition of righteous Christians."@en ; jlo:title "Righteous Gentiles" ; skos:altLabel "Righteous Gentiles" ; skos:prefLabel "Righteous Gentiles" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Culture and Education" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Holocaust Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Politics after World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jews in the Old Kingdom (Regat)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Political Antisemitism in Greater Romania" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Postcommunist Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Relations with the Romanian Population" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Romanian Jews after World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Social Structure and Domestic Politics" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Communist Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: JEWISH ROMANIAN WRITERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Dilemmas of Double Identity" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Romanian Writing after World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Modernism" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Communist Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Image of Jews in Romanian Literature" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1901–1971), film director, scriptwriter, and educator. In 1925, Mikhail Romm graduated from the Moscow Higher Art–Technical Institute and worked as a sculptor and translator. From 1928 to 1930, he held a fellowship at the Institute for Methods of Extracurricular Work, where he did research on issues relevant to cinema. Starting in 1929, he wrote screenplays, completing the texts for Revansh (Revenge; 1930), Riadom s nami (Next to Us; 1931), and Konveier smerti (The Conveyor of Death; 1933). He served as an assistant at the Mosfilm Cinema Studio in 1931 and became a director two years later. From 1938, he taught at the Actors and Directors Workshop of the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography and in 1948 became its director. "@en ; jlo:title "Romm, Mikhail Il’ich" ; skos:altLabel "Mikhail Romm" ; skos:prefLabel "Romm, Mikhail Il’ich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1941), Yiddish poet and short-story writer. Born in Shumiachi, Belorussia, into the family of a village trader and coachman, Shmuel Rosin received a traditional Talmudic education, but around 1905 was influenced by socialist ideas and became involved in the Bundist movement. He settled in Ekaterinoslav (mod. Dnipropetrovs’k) and worked as a painter and tinsmith. Subsequently, in the second decade of the 1900s, he spent time in Odessa, Kharkov, Penza, and Jewish agricultural colonies in southern Russia."@en ; jlo:title "Rosin, Shmuel" ; skos:altLabel "Shmuel Rosin" ; skos:prefLabel "Rosin, Shmuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1944), Yiddish prose writer. Born in Tshartorisk (mod. Staryi Chartoriisk), Ukraine, Yona Rozenfeld received a traditional Jewish education that was interrupted when his parents both died of cholera in 1893. Shortly thereafter, under arrangements made by his older brother, 13-year-old Yona began an apprenticeship with a turner in Odessa—an experience vividly depicted in his autobiographical novel Eyner aleyn (All Alone; 1940). Rozenfeld showed his early writings to Y. L. Peretz when the latter visited Odessa in 1902. As a result, Rozenfeld’s first (autobiographical) story, “Dos lernyingl” (The Apprentice), was published in Der fraynd in 1904. "@en ; jlo:title "Rozenfeld, Yona" ; skos:altLabel "Yona Rozenfeld" ; skos:prefLabel "Rozenfeld, Yona" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1961), chess grand master, often called the greatest player not to have become a world champion. The youngest of 12 children born to an Orthodox Jewish family in Stawiski, Russian Poland, Rubinstein learned chess moves relatively late, at about age 16. Most notable players learn to play at a significantly earlier age, and Rubinstein’s delayed start was blamed for the number of major blunders he occasionally made."@en ; jlo:title "Rubinstein, Akiba" ; skos:altLabel "Akiba Rubinstein" ; skos:prefLabel "Rubinstein, Akiba" ; skos:related , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "APPENDIX: RUSSIAN WRITERS" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Attitudes toward Jews in Nineteenth-Century Russian Literature" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Dissidence, Renewal, and Emigration in Late Soviet Jewish Writing" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Early Soviet Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From the 1930s to the Death of Stalin" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Post-Soviet Jewish Literatures" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Russian Jewish Writing from the Late Nineteenth to the Early Twentieth Century" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Writers with Roots in the Early Twentieth Century" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1911–1998), novelist and screenwriter. Anatolii Rybakov was born into an educated family Chernigov (Ukr., Chernihiv); the family moved to Moscow when he was eight years old. He attended the local high school and, in his last two years, an experimental “commune-school” staffed by outstanding teachers, many of them Civil War veterans. After working as a loader and driver for a chemical plant, he enrolled in the Moscow Transportation Economic Institute in 1930. Arrested for “subversion” in 1933, he spent three years in Siberian exile before working as a transport engineer in places that did not require citizens to have an internal passport (having been exiled, he was not entitled to one). After serving in the army in World War II, he turned to literature, first writing the novella Kortik (The Dagger; 1948) for children, followed by a novel based on his work experience, Voditeli (The Drivers; 1950). "@en ; jlo:title "Rybakov, Anatolii Naumovich" ; skos:altLabel "Anatolii Rybakov" ; skos:prefLabel "Rybakov, Anatolii Naumovich" ; skos:related , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "After the Apostasy" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Before the Apostasy" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Imperial Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Late Soviet Period and Beyond" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Wars and Revolutions (1917–1945)" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1936), liberal politician and economist. Pál Sándor studied in Budapest at the Commercial Academy, the alma mater of many Hungarian Jewish youngsters at that time. He supplemented his education with studies in Dresden and a later trip to Antwerp. After continuing his father’s commercial enterprise in corn trading, he became a manager at a number of Budapest-based firms, serving most significantly as chief executive of the city’s communal electric street railway company (Budapesti Közúti Villamosvasút Rt.). He was a member of the Budapest Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the City Council, and the Stock Exchange Council, and was chairman of the Civil Club of the City of Budapest (Lipótvárosi Polgári Kör). As a participant in the national commercial congresses of the early 1900s, in 1906 Sándor founded the National Hungarian Commercial Union (Országos Magyar Kereskedelmi Egyesülés), which he then led for several decades. Within the Jewish community, he was notably the chairman of the Országos Magyar Izraelita Közművelődési Egyesület (National Hungarian Israelite Cultural Society)."@en ; jlo:title "Sándor, Pál" ; skos:altLabel "Pál Sándor" ; skos:prefLabel "Sándor, Pál" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1928–2003), film director and writer. Born in Paris of a Jewish mother and Romanian father, both Romanian immigrants, Săucan spent his early childhood among Jewish immigrants in France. The family moved to Prague, where his father studied at the Polytechnical University, and then, in 1934, returned to Romania, settling in the town of Carei in northern Transylvania. In 1940, when this region of Romania was transferred to Hungary, they fled to Sibiu and Sighişoara. From 1948 to 1952, Săucan studied in Moscow at the USSR Institute of Cinematography (VGIK); among his teachers were Sergei Eisenstein, Mark Donskoi, and Sergei Gerasimov."@en ; jlo:title "Săucan, Mircea" ; skos:altLabel "Mircea Săucan" ; skos:prefLabel "Săucan, Mircea" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1744–1808), rabbinic scholar of mathematics and natural sciences, popularly known as Reb Barukh of Shklov. Schick was the son of the rabbi of Shklov and the nephew of Aryeh Leib Gintsburg of Minsk (author of the Sha’agat Aryeh), one of the foremost rabbinic authorities in eighteenth-century Poland–Lithuania. Schick moved to Minsk in 1760, received rabbinic ordination, and served as a dayan (rabbinic judge) and parnas (leader) of the Minsk kahal. In his youth, he pursued the study of science and Latin as well as Talmudic studies and Kabbalah. "@en ; jlo:title "Schick, Barukh ben Ya‘akov" ; skos:altLabel "Barukh Schick" ; skos:prefLabel "Schick, Barukh ben Ya‘akov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1823–1904), cantor and composer. Barukh Schorr was born in Lemberg. As a boy he reportedly traveled to Odessa with the famed cantor Betsal’el Shulsinger (Tsalel Odesser; d. ca. 1873) to become part of his choir, eventually joining the choir of Cantor Yeruḥam Blindman (Yeruḥam ha-Katon). Upon his return to Lemberg for his bar mitzvah, Schorr was sufficiently skilled to be able to lead services in the central synagogue. He then joined the synagogue choir in Jassy (Iaşi), Romania, where he met his wife."@en ; jlo:title "Schorr, Barukh" ; skos:altLabel "Barukh Schorr" ; skos:prefLabel "Schorr, Barukh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1837–1904), Hebrew short-story writer, journalist, and Yiddish researcher. El‘azar Schulman was born in the district town of Kretinge, in the Kovno province of Lithuania. In 1867, he published a two-part novel, Ha-‘Ovdim veha-nidaḥim (The Lost and the Lonesome), in imitation of Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables. When the book received negative reviews, Schulman destroyed most of the printed copies. "@en ; jlo:title "Schulman, El‘azar" ; skos:altLabel "El‘azar Schulman" ; skos:prefLabel "Schulman, El‘azar" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1979), jurist. Arnold Schwefelberg grew up in Brăila, Romania, where his father, Isac, was a teacher and headmaster of the Romanian-Israelite school, which Arnold and his four brothers attended. Schwefelberg’s paternal grandfather, Iancu Pecetaru Schwefelberg, originally from Galicia, was a well-known engraver (seal maker) in Iaşi. Arnold’s maternal grandfather, Velvl Stein, had been a melamed (teacher) in Galați. "@en ; jlo:title "Schwefelberg, Arnold" ; skos:altLabel "Arnold Schwefelberg" ; skos:prefLabel "Schwefelberg, Arnold" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1949), writer and poet. Born in Białystok, where his father was an unsuccessful merchant and the family frequently suffered deprivation, Zusman Segalovitsh received his education in heder and from private tutors. Between 1903 and 1905, he was a member of Bundist underground circles, an affiliation that led to his imprisonment. Following a pogrom in Białystok in 1906, Segalovitsh’s family moved to Łódź."@en ; jlo:title "Segalovitsh, Zusman" ; skos:altLabel "Zusman Segalovitsh" ; skos:prefLabel "Segalovitsh, Zusman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Breslau" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Budapest" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Vilna and Zhitomir" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1908–1943), Yiddish poet. Born in Tykocin, Khayim Semyatitski was raised in a rabbinic family, and was educated at a heder and several yeshivas, among them the Yeshiva of Mir. He was ordained as a rabbi but chose not to assume an official position. In 1929, he settled in Warsaw and worked at intermittent jobs. He apparently began to write poetry a number of years before his first pieces were published in the daily Haynt in 1932. Thereafter and until the outbreak of World War II, he published poems, stories, and critical reviews in daily newspapers and literary journals in Warsaw, Vilna, Białystok, and New York. "@en ; jlo:title "Semyatitski, Khayim" ; skos:altLabel "Khayim Semyatitski" ; skos:prefLabel "Semyatitski, Khayim" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1905–1981), Yiddish writer. Born in Trisk (Turiysk), Ukraine, Dovid Sfard spent his childhood in Ozeryany, where his father was a rabbi. Having received a traditional Jewish education, Sfard studied in Kovel’ at secondary schools that taught Hebrew and Polish; he then attended school in Luts’k from 1919 to 1926. After publishing some Hebrew poems in a periodical produced by young Hebraists in the latter city, he decided to devote himself to literature."@en ; jlo:title "Sfard, Dovid" ; skos:altLabel "Dovid Sfard" ; skos:prefLabel "Sfard, Dovid" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1943) Hebrew writer. Ḥavah Shapira was born in Slavuta, Ukraine, to a scholarly and affluent family of Hasidic ancestry. Despite being raised in a traditional environment, she received a rich Jewish and secular education and even enjoyed the support of her family while pursuing her literary goals. From 1899, she received the encouragement and patronage of the writer Re’uven Brainin. Though their relationship intensified after she separated from her husband in 1903, it ended painfully. In 1900, Shapira had moved to Warsaw to begin her literary career, and in December 1901 her first story, “Ha-Shoshanah” (The Rose), was published in David Frishman’s weekly Ha-Dor. From 1903 she studied in Vienna and in 1906 moved to Bern, where four years later she received her Ph.D. "@en ; jlo:title "Shapira, Ḥavah" ; skos:altLabel "Ḥavah" ; skos:prefLabel "Shapira, Ḥavah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1943), historian of Hebrew literature, author, and translator. Ḥayim Naḥman Shapira was born in Minsk. His father was the chief rabbi of Kovno (Lith., Kaunas) and his mother came from a distinguished family of rabbis. Shapira received his education at a heder and at several yeshivas. In 1921 he began to study Semitic philology in Vienna, earning his doctoral degree in 1925. That year, he began lecturing in that field at the University of Kaunas, and was promoted to professorial rank in 1931. He was also involved in Lithuanian Zionist activities and served on the boards of numerous cultural and literary societies. In 1935, he was a delegate to the Zionist Congress."@en ; jlo:title "Shapira, Ḥayim Naḥman" ; skos:altLabel "Ḥayim Naḥman Shapira" ; skos:prefLabel "Shapira, Ḥayim Naḥman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1971), Hasidic writer and memoirist. Born Reyzl Malke Hapstein in Kozienice (Kozhenits), Poland, Malkah Shapiro was the daughter of Yeraḥmi’el Mosheh Hapstein (1860–1909), a descendant of the Magid of Kozhenits (ca. 1737–1814), one of the founders of Polish Hasidism. Her mother was Brakha Tsipora Gitl Twersky (1861–1930), a descendant of Menaḥem Naḥum of Chernobil (1730?–1797). In 1908, Shapiro married her first cousin Avraham Elimelekh Shapiro of Grodzisk."@en ; jlo:title "Shapiro, Malkah" ; skos:altLabel "Malkah Hapstein Shapiro" ; skos:prefLabel "Shapiro, Malkah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1977), Yiddish journalist and cultural activist. Born in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Borekh Shefner moved to Łódź with his family while he was still an infant. After receiving a traditional education, he traveled to Vilna in 1913 to study, but returned to Łódź a year later. There he became an active member of the Bund."@en ; jlo:title "Shefner, Borekh" ; skos:altLabel "Borekh Shefner" ; skos:prefLabel "Shefner, Borekh" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1908–1996), Yiddish writer. Born in Voskovichi in Ukrainian Polesye, Eli Shekhtman began writing in Yiddish at the age of 12, before entering a yeshiva in Zhitomir in 1921. His first publication—two poems—appeared in 1928 in the Kharkov literary monthly Di royte velt. Shekhtman studied at the literary department of the Yiddish Teachers Institute in Odessa from 1929 to 1933. He spent the following three years in Kharkov, later moving to Kiev. "@en ; jlo:title "Shekhtman, Eli" ; skos:altLabel "Eli Shekhtman" ; skos:prefLabel "Shekhtman, Eli" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. ca. 1817), Hebrew printer of kabbalistic, Hasidic, halakhic, and ethical works. Shemu’el ben Yisakhar Ber Segal was a major Hebrew-language printer in Poland–Russia at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. In the third and final volume of his edition of the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides (Berdichev, 1817), which appeared shortly before Segal’s death, prominent rabbis testified that he had trained generations of printers and was “the father of all printing craftsmen.” He carried out his career in six cities, sometimes in several at the same time. "@en ; jlo:title "Shemu’el ben Yisakhar Ber Segal" ; skos:altLabel "Shemu’el ben Yisakhar Ber Segal" ; skos:prefLabel "Shemu’el ben Yisakhar Ber Segal" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1913–2005), Yiddish writer. Born in the Bessarabian town of Vad-Rashkev, Yekhiel Shraybman was educated in a heder, at a Romanian primary school, by private teachers, and in the Czernowitz Hebrew Teachers Seminary. In the 1930s he lived in Bucharest, working as a prompter at a Yiddish theater. Affiliated with illegal socialist circles, he took part in Komsomol underground work. Shraybman was also fascinated by Soviet Yiddish cultural life: as he recalled in 1990, even the reformed Soviet spelling “stirred up the flight of my fancy.”"@en ; jlo:title "Shraybman, Yekhiel" ; skos:altLabel "Yekhiel Shraybman" ; skos:prefLabel "Shraybman, Yekhiel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1968), biologist and physiologist. Born in Russian-controlled Courland, which later became part of Latvia, Lina Shtern studied at Geneva University, where she also later worked, becoming a full professor—the university’s first female professor—in 1917. She settled in the Soviet Union in 1925 and held leading academic positions. In her first post (1925–1948) she served as head of the physiology department at the Second Moscow University (after a reorganization of 1930, the department was part of the Second Moscow Medical Institute). Simultaneously, Shtern was director of the Physiology Institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences from 1929 to 1948 and became the first female member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1939. She joined the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1944."@en ; jlo:title "Shtern, Lina Solomonovna" ; skos:altLabel "Lina Shtern" ; skos:prefLabel "Shtern, Lina Solomonovna" ; skos:related , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "After the Holocaust" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Defining the Shtetl" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Origins of the Shtetl" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Imagined Shtetl" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Transformation of the Shtetl: Poland and the Soviet Union" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The World of the Shtetl" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1854–1936), Hebrew and Yiddish writer. David Yesha‘yahu Silberbusch was born in Zaleszczyki, in eastern Galicia, and was raised in a Hasidic environment. At the age of 20 while still living in his father-in-law’s well-appointed home in the village, he was given the opportunity to study German. He thus became acquainted with modern European literature and eventually also with the literature of the Hebrew Haskalah. Among those who encouraged him to pursue this path was the playwright Avrom Goldfadn. After becoming a widower in 1876, Silberbusch married his second wife and settled in Kolomea (Pol., Kołomyja)."@en ; jlo:title "Silberbusch, David Yesha‘yahu" ; skos:altLabel "David Silberbusch" ; skos:prefLabel "Silberbusch, David Yesha‘yahu" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1857–1930), halakhist and Orthodox leader. Born in the southern Hungarian town of Zenta, Yesha‘yahu Silberstein was two years old when his family moved to Jerusalem. There he received his initial formal education within the framework of the traditionalist Yishuv system. He returned to Hungary as an 11-year-old, when his father was appointed rabbi of Bodrogkeresztúr. Throughout his early adulthood he continued to study under his father’s tutelage and to assist him in his rabbinical positions and in his yeshiva. Upon his father’s death in 1884, Silberstein succeeded him as chief rabbinical judge of the Orthodox community in Vác (Waitzen), not far from Budapest."@en ; jlo:title "Silberstein, Yesha‘yahu" ; skos:altLabel "Yesha‘yahu Silberstein" ; skos:prefLabel "Silberstein, Yesha‘yahu" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1874–1943), cantor, concert singer, and recording celebrity. Gershon Sirota was born in 1874 in Podolia; little is known about his early years. His first appointment as a cantor was in Odessa, and he also served in Vilna. In 1908, he became cantor of the Tłomackie Street Synagogue in Warsaw, a position that he left in 1927 to devote himself to a concert career. He toured the United States several times and in 1935 became the cantor at Warsaw’s Nożyk Synagogue. He died with his family in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943."@en ; jlo:title "Sirota, Gershon" ; skos:altLabel "Gershon Sirota" ; skos:prefLabel "Sirota, Gershon" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1902–1941), military pilot and air force lieutenant general. Iakov Smushkevich (Vol’fovich) was born in Rokishkes, Lithuania, the son of an itinerant tailor. As a child, he studied in a heder. In 1915, together with other World War I refugees, Smushkevich and his family were evacuated to Russia. There he joined the Red Army and the Communist Party in 1918, and participated in fighting on the western front. He became commissar of a battalion and then of a regiment. In 1922, Smushkevich joined the air force and in 1931 was appointed commander and commissar of an air force brigade."@en ; jlo:title "Smushkevich, Iakov Vladimirovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iakov Smushkevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Smushkevich, Iakov Vladimirovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1926), poet, essayist, and short-story writer. Born into an impoverished Jewish family in Saratov, Andrei Sobol’ (Iulii Mikhailovich [Izrail’ Moiseevich]; early pseudonym Andrei Nezhdanov) left for Vilna in 1904. He was arrested for participating in an illegal Zionist group, and consequently spent four years in Siberia in forced labor. His first poem was published in 1904, followed by the short stories “Broshenny” (Rejected; 1905) and “Machekha Rudi” (The Stepmother Rudi; 1906)."@en ; jlo:title "Sobol’, Andrei" ; skos:altLabel "Andrei Sobol’" ; skos:prefLabel "Sobol’, Andrei" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "East European Jewish civilization generated constantly evolving concepts of social conduct formed in relation to class, regional character, ideology, gender, and Jews’ relationships to non-Jews and non-Jewish culture. There was a continual tension between behavior that might be considered dictated by Jewish law and conduct beyond the strict scope of the law, and between that which was regarded as ethics and what was merely etiquette."@en ; jlo:title "Social Conduct" ; skos:altLabel "social relations" ; skos:prefLabel "Social Conduct" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Sarah bat Tovim; 18th century), author of women’s prayers (Yid., tkhines; from Heb., teḥinot). Sore, daughter of Mordekhai (though various editions list her as the daughter of Yitsḥak or Ya‘akov), of Satanów in Podolia, Ukraine, was a great-granddaughter of Rabbi Mordekhai of Brisk (on this, all editions agree). She became the emblematic tkhine author, and one of her works, Shloyshe sheorim (Three Gates), was perhaps the most beloved of all tkhines. Unusual for this genre, her works contain a strong autobiographical voice. She refers to herself as “I, the renowned woman Sore bas Toyvim, of distinguished ancestry,” and tells the story of her fall from a wealthy youth to an old age of poverty and wandering, attributing her fate to the sin of talking in synagogue. "@en ; jlo:title "Sore bas Toyvim" ; skos:altLabel "Sore bas Toyvim" ; skos:prefLabel "Sore bas Toyvim" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1857–1942), historian, medievalist, and editor. Born in Güssing (Burgenland), Austria, to the family of an estate agent, Samuel Steinherz spent his childhood in Vienna and Graz. At the latter city’s university, he studied German literature and history, and his first job was at the Institute for Austrian History in Vienna. He later returned to Graz, where he studied law."@en ; jlo:title "Steinherz, Samuel" ; skos:altLabel "Samuel Steinherz" ; skos:prefLabel "Steinherz, Samuel" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1873–1941), revolutionary, Soviet historian, and publicist. Born Ovsii Moiseevich Nakhamkis, and subsequently known by the pseudonym Nevzorov, Iurii Steklov was the son of a Jewish merchant from Odessa. In 1893 he joined the Social Democratic movement and spread propaganda to workers’ circles. Arrested the following year, he was sentenced to 10 years in Siberia. He spent his first five years of exile in Iakutsk and fled abroad in 1899, living in Paris from 1900 to 1905."@en ; jlo:title "Steklov, Iurii Mikhailovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iurii Steklov" ; skos:prefLabel "Steklov, Iurii Mikhailovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1905–1996), writer, playwright, and translator. Born Pesaḥ Stark to an Orthodox family in the town of Stryj, Julian Stryjkowski studied Polish literature in Lwów, earning a doctorate in 1932. He later worked as a teacher in Płock and as a canvasser in Warsaw. Initially associated with the Zionist youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa‘ir, he joined the Communist Party in 1934 and was briefly jailed for political activism in 1935–1936."@en ; jlo:title "Stryjkowski, Julian" ; skos:altLabel "Julian Stryjkowski" ; skos:prefLabel "Stryjkowski, Julian" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1952), Soviet diplomat. Born in Dvinsk (Lat., Daugavpils), Iakov Surits became involved in revolutionary activities as early as 1899. A Bundist in 1902 and 1903, he was a Menshevik from 1903 to 1914 and an Internationalist from 1914 to 1917. Repeatedly arrested, he spent 1907 to 1910 in Siberian exile. He then emigrated abroad and studied philosophy at Berlin University. A member of the Bolshevik Party from 1917, in 1918 and 1919 he was a deputy plenipotentiary of the Bolshevik regime in Denmark and, for a short time, a member of the State Control Collegium, a body that controlled the activities of the Soviet state apparatus."@en ; jlo:title "Surits, Iakov Zakharovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iakov Surits" ; skos:prefLabel "Surits, Iakov Zakharovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1901–1945), novelist, critic, and literary historian. Like a number of modern Hungarian literary artists of Jewish origin, Antal Szerb saw himself as a Hungarian writer only, with no significant ties to Jewish culture and religion. Indeed, his only connection to the Jewish people was that he was killed as a Jew. Some of his close writer friends and contemporaries (e.g., György Sárközi, Gábor Halász, László Fenyő), however, were also assimilated Jews, or converts to Christianity, who became victims of the Holocaust."@en ; jlo:title "Szerb, Antal" ; skos:altLabel "Antal Szerb" ; skos:prefLabel "Szerb, Antal" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1936–1992), eighth world chess champion. Born in Riga, Mikhail Tal’ learned to play chess from his father, a physician, at the age of seven. A meeting with chess master Aleksandr Koblents (1916–1993) played a decisive role in his life. His brilliant career started when he was 21, when he won the first of his six USSR chess champion titles. Tal’ became the youngest world champion in chess history after winning the title from Mikhail Botvinnik in 1960; however, he lost the return match against Botvinnik the next year. Nevertheless, his legendary skill in creating elaborate strategic combinations granted Tal’ a unique place in the chess pantheon. "@en ; jlo:title "Tal’, Mikhail Nokhem’evich" ; skos:altLabel "Mikhail Tal’" ; skos:prefLabel "Tal’, Mikhail Nokhem’evich" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Among the social dialects of Yiddish are the argots or slangs of various professions. Unlike regional dialects, which may differ from the standard language in pronunciation, grammar, and lexicon, argots are distinctive primarily in their vocabulary. The best documented Yiddish argots are those of musicians (klezmer-loshn) and of the underworld (ganovim-loshn [thieves’ language] or hentshke-loshn [lit., glove-language]), but in the linguistic literature on Yiddish there are accounts of, or at least references to, the slang of wagon drivers and coachmen (balagole-loshn), actors, cantors, typesetters, tailors, shoemakers, merchants, butchers, jewelers, barbers, and soldiers. "@en ; jlo:title "Argots (Talk)" ; skos:altLabel "argot" ; skos:prefLabel "Argots (Talk)" ; skos:related . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "As psycho-ostensive expressions that are highly characteristic formulaic utterances in Yiddish, blessings and curses are typically inserted parenthetically into longer statements and purport to reflect the speaker’s emotional attitude to the topic of conversation. Yiddish psycho-ostensives, like those in other languages (e.g., Greek, Turkish, Arabic, Irish) fall into several categories according to the psychic stance of the speaker toward the good or evil that may befall either the person talking or others. The passive acceptance of good or evil may be called recognitive; the active attitude of seeking or desiring is petitive; while that of shunning or fearing is fugitive. This terminology, along with the Greek roots for “self” and “others” (auto- and allo-), and the Latin roots for “good” and “evil” (bono- and malo-), allows us to classify all the speech acts expressed by Yiddish psycho-ostensives. "@en ; jlo:title "Blessings, Curses, and Other Expressions (Talk)" ; skos:altLabel "blessings" ; skos:prefLabel "Blessings, Curses, and Other Expressions (Talk)" ; skos:related , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Opposition to Pilpul" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Pilpul in Eastern Europe" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Talmud Study after 1800" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Small town in the Moldavian region of Romania, near Iaşi. A Jewish-owned inn stood in the village that preceded Târgu Frumos as early as 1755, and in 1763, when the Moldavian prince decided to develop the town, Jewish inhabitants were exempted from taxes. In 1774, there were 15 Jewish families; the total fluctuated from 70 in 1803 to 60 in 1830, and to 225 in 1845 (representing 17.7% of the population). The number of Jews grew in the second half of the nineteenth century to 1,258 in 1859, peaking at 2,123 in 1899. Later, the population diminished as a result of railway construction, a factor that reduced the need for local merchants and craftsmen. Hence, there were 2,106 Jews in 1910 and just 1,608 in 1930."@en ; jlo:title "Târgu Frumos" ; skos:altLabel "Târgu Frumos" ; skos:prefLabel "Târgu Frumos" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in the Moldavian region of Romania, at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains. Jewish settlement in Târgu Neamț (also Tîrgu Neamț) dates from the second half of the seventeenth century: Jews were first mentioned in a document from 1685, and the oldest tombstones in the Jewish cemetery are dated 1677 and 1689. A synagogue was built in 1737."@en ; jlo:title "Târgu Neamţ" ; skos:altLabel "Târgu Neamț" ; skos:prefLabel "Târgu Neamţ" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Appellation for individuals and groups who attributed messianic significance to the Hebrew year 5600 (1840), which is represented in abbreviated form by the Hebrew letters tav, resh, and can be pronounced tar. The “Tarniks” expected that the redemption of the Jews would take place in that year—or, at least, that the process of redemption would begin, continue, and materialize sometime during the seventh century of the sixth millennium of creation. "@en ; jlo:title "Tarniks" ; skos:altLabel "Tarniks" ; skos:prefLabel "Tarniks" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1945), Hasidic rabbi. Born in Nagyhalász in northeastern Hungary and educated in Hasidic yeshivas in Poland and Hungary, Yisakhar Shelomoh Teichthal studied in several Hasidic kloyzn (small study and prayer houses) in Poland during his teen years, most notably in the kloyz of the Sandz Hasidim in Tarnów, before returning to Hungary. There he became a close disciple of Mosheh Grünwald (1853–1910) at the renowned yeshiva of Chust, the second largest Orthodox yeshiva in the country. "@en ; jlo:title "Teichthal, Yisakhar Shelomoh" ; skos:altLabel "Yisakhar Shelomoh Teichthal" ; skos:prefLabel "Teichthal, Yisakhar Shelomoh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1687), physician and surgeon. The inscription on Yisakhar Ber Teller’s tombstone in the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague gives his father’s name as Leib Berouns (derived from the Bohemian town of Beroun), although the introduction to his work refers to his father more formally as Yehudah. The name Teller, undoubtedly acquired from the emblem of the Barber-Surgeons Guild—a plate—does not appear on his tombstone but is in the epitaph of his son, Yehudah Leib Teller, who followed him in both the medical profession and the service of the Prague burial society."@en ; jlo:title "Teller, Yisakhar Ber" ; skos:altLabel "Yisakhar Ber Teller" ; skos:prefLabel "Teller, Yisakhar Ber" ; skos:related . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Hebrew theatrical activity in Eastern Europe began as part of the larger project of transforming Hebrew into a national language. By the end of the nineteenth century, sporadic attempts had been made in Łódź and Riga to put on performances in Hebrew. With the establishment of the Agudat Ḥoveve Sefat ‘Ever (Society of Lovers of the Hebrew Language) in Saint Petersburg in 1909, such initiatives received organizational support. The society encouraged Hebrew theatrical performances in order to spread the knowledge of the language and to raise funds for the society. Most performances were staged in the context of banquets that marked holidays and anniversaries of various sorts. Such performances were a significant tool in the modernization of the Jewish educational system. Organized and staged by teachers and students at the new Hebrew-language secular schools, they spread the new culture to the children’s families and communities. Indeed, the first Hebrew theater activists in Eastern Europe were schoolteachers who were both devoted to the revival of spoken Hebrew and had artistic ambitions."@en ; jlo:title "Hebrew Theater (Theater)" ; skos:altLabel "theater" ; skos:prefLabel "Hebrew Theater (Theater)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Part of the Polish landscape—both real and imagined—for centuries, the figure of the Jew is also rooted in the history of Polish theater. The żydek (little Jew), a figure typically associated with laughter and entertainment, appears throughout Polish folk theater. With grotesque physiognomy, dressed in an exaggerated version of traditional Jewish attire, often with a hump, the żydek gesticulates, shouts, wails over the wrongs done to him, and dances and sings. In the theatrical interludes, monologues, farces, and sketches of the Polish gentry as early as the sixteenth century, the żydek is also common. This stage tradition flowered in the nineteenth century when many celebrated Polish comic actors were skilled purveyors of the żydek. The tradition also developed specialists, foremost among them Aleksander Ładnowski (1815–1891), whose Berek Kugelman was called “the personification of persecuted innocence” (Prokopówna, 1998, p. 133). By the end of the century, the żydek, singing couplets in a mixture of broken Polish and stylized Yiddish (a combination known as żydłaczenie) and performing a Jewish dance known as majufes, was a fixture of the popular Polish stage, recognizable even when transformed, in the plays of Feliks Schober (Szober, 1846–1879), into the figure of Józio Grojseszyk, an urban dandy privy to all the good-time secrets of the modern city. "@en ; jlo:title "Polish Theater (Theater)" ; skos:altLabel "Polish theater" ; skos:prefLabel "Polish Theater (Theater)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Despite early governmental prohibitions against Jewish participation in the theater, the period of the late nineteenth to early twentieth century saw strong and even leading Jewish contributions to all aspects of theatrical production, as performers, writers, and directors. This degree of involvement, as well as the changing depiction of Jews on stage over time, in many ways mirrors the history of relations between Russians and Jews and, later, of the Soviet government stance toward Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Russian Theater (Theater)" ; skos:altLabel "theaters" ; skos:prefLabel "Russian Theater (Theater)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Mosheh Ya‘akov ben Avraham Mandl; 1732–1799), principal lay leader of eighteenth-century Hungarian Jewry. Koppel Theben’s family, alternately called Mandl or Theben (Devény) after a small Hungarian village on the Danube near the Austrian border, played a central role in the leadership of Pressburg (Bratislava, Pozsony), the most important eighteenth-century Hungarian Jewish community. Theben’s father, Avraham (d. 1768) served not only as head of the Pressburg community, but also as nationwide leader and shtadlan (lobbyist or intercessor); he was the sole importer of textile from the imperial Linz factory. The Thebens were related to leading families in Hungary and the nearby Bohemian lands; indeed, the family’s reputation and prestige extended far beyond Hungary. One of Avraham’s daughters married a son of the world-renowned Yonatan Eybeschütz, Mordekhai, whose suspected Sabbatian sympathies embroiled the Thebens in an extended communal conflict. "@en ; jlo:title "Theben, Koppel" ; skos:altLabel "Koppel Theben" ; skos:prefLabel "Theben, Koppel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1958), writer, translator, and teacher. Friedrich Thieberger was born in Golčův Jeníkov (Goltsch-Jenikau), Bohemia, to a rabbinical family. He studied philosophy and philology in Prague, where he also taught modern languages and philosophy in German secondary schools. He was dismissed from his job in 1939 and moved to Palestine. There, he worked first as writer and later as a librarian at the B’nai B’rith Lodge in Jerusalem, the city in which he died."@en ; jlo:title "Thieberger, Friedrich" ; skos:altLabel "Friedrich Thieberger" ; skos:prefLabel "Thieberger, Friedrich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "A Changing Role for Later Tkhines" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Characteristics and Early History" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Literary Setting" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Financiers and supporters of the Haskalah in Warsaw. Teodor Toeplitz (1793–1838), advocate of the work of Moses Mendelssohn, was the grandson of Juda Leopold Toeplitz (who had emigrated from the Czech lands to Leszno) and the son of Samuel (Szymon) Toeplitz (1766–1838), a wealthy merchant from Warsaw. Teodor’s son Henryk Toeplitz (1822–1891) was an industrialist, politician, and patron of Jewish education."@en ; jlo:title "Toeplitz, Teodor and Henryk" ; skos:altLabel "Henryk Toeplitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Toeplitz, Teodor and Henryk" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From the Partitions to World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Early Modern Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Holocaust and Postwar Periods" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Interwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Middle Ages" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1861–1941), Polish painter and illustrator. Maurycy (Mojżesz) Trębacz was among the first generation of Jewish painters in Poland who followed in the artistic tradition of Maurycy Gottlieb. Along with Samuel (Szmul) Hirszenberg, Jakub Weinles (1870–1938), and Leopold Pilichowski (1869–1934), Trębacz chose subjects from religion, as well as from Jewish history and Jewish daily life."@en ; jlo:title "Trębacz, Maurycy" ; skos:altLabel "Maurycy Trębacz" ; skos:prefLabel "Trębacz, Maurycy" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1888–1943), merchant; leader of the Warsaw kehilah and Agudas Yisroel; and member of the Polish Sejm and senate. Born in Warsaw to an affluent Hasidic family whose members were followers of the Gerer rebbe, Ya‘akov Trokenheim received a traditional education while also learning Russian and Polish. Following his marriage, he became involved in the textile trade and managed his family’s considerable real estate holdings, located in the center of Warsaw’s Jewish district. "@en ; jlo:title "Trokenheim, Ya‘akov" ; skos:altLabel "Ya‘akov Trokenheim" ; skos:prefLabel "Trokenheim, Ya‘akov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The tsimbl (Eng., cimbalom) is an instrument of the dulcimer family, a trapezoidal box with strings in courses of two to six, some of which are divided into fifths by a partitioning bridge. The cimbaloms played by Jews generally had a range of two and a half octaves and were tuned chromatically; the metal (mainly brass) strings were struck with wooden hammers. Jewish association with the instrument was continuous from the early seventeenth until the early twentieth century in much of Eastern Europe. In Belorussia and Galicia, it was an essential component of the klezmer band until the Holocaust; in Ukraine and in large cities in Russian Poland and Lithuania it had been replaced by brass instruments by the last third of the nineteenth century. (See image at right, top.)"@en ; jlo:title "Tsimbl" ; skos:altLabel "tsimbl" ; skos:prefLabel "Tsimbl" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1926–1982), writer and physician. Leonid Tsypkin’s grandmother and other relatives were murdered in the Minsk ghetto during World War II, a fate he and his parents narrowly avoided when they managed to escape at the last moment on foot. After the war, he returned to Minsk where, in 1947, he graduated from medical school, in keeping with family tradition. For the rest of his life Tsypkin worked as a physician and medical researcher. In the course of his medical career he published nearly 100 articles in Soviet and international professional journals."@en ; jlo:title "Tsypkin, Leonid Borisovich" ; skos:altLabel "Leonid Tsypkin" ; skos:prefLabel "Tsypkin, Leonid Borisovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1910–1976), mathematician. As was the case with many of his contemporary mathematicians, Pál Turán (until 1919, Rosenfeld) entered a problem-solving contest sponsored by the Hungarian monthly journal Középiskolai Matematikai Lapok (Mathematical and Physical Journal for Secondary Schools). By the point at which the finest problem solvers entered the universities, they were already familiar with each other’s mathematical interests and strengths. At Pázmány Péter University, Turán was the student of Lipót Fejér, who came from a similar background. Turán received his Ph.D. in 1935. "@en ; jlo:title "Turán, Pál" ; skos:altLabel "Pál Turán" ; skos:prefLabel "Turán, Pál" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(New Life), published in Budapest, is the official journal of the Hungarian Jewish organized community. Appearing first on 18 November 1945, it was a weekly until 1957 and has been a biweekly ever since. Until 1984, no editor’s name was listed on the masthead. From 1984 until 1991, Rabbi István Domán edited the journal, succeeded by Rabbi Péter Kardos."@en ; jlo:title "Új Élet" ; skos:altLabel "Új Élet" ; skos:prefLabel "Új Élet" ; skos:related , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "1881–1914" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "1914–1939" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "1944–1991" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "After 1991" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "History to 1881" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Holocaust in Ukraine" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Attitude toward Israel" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Chronology" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Conclusion" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Culture" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jewish Identity" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Leadership" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Population" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Relations with Society and the State" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Religion" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Social Structure" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Holocaust" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1757–1826), Hasidic leader. Uri ben Pinḥas lived in eastern Galicia during the period when Hasidism expanded significantly. He was probably born in the town of Janów or nearby, the son of a poor artisan. His main teacher of Hasidism was Shelomoh of Karlin, who lived in Ludmir at the time. After Shelomoh was killed by Russian soldiers in 1792, Uri ben Pinḥas became the leader of a group of Hasidim in Lwów. Later he moved to Strelisk, where he continued as a Hasidic leader, although apparently without establishing a formal court. Among those who traveled to study with him and identified themselves as his students, Shalom Rokeaḥ, founder of the Belz dynasty, stood out."@en ; jlo:title "Uri ben Pinḥas of Strelisk" ; skos:altLabel "Uri of Strelisk" ; skos:prefLabel "Uri ben Pinḥas of Strelisk" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883–1956), philosopher and psychologist. Emil Utitz was born in Prague, studied philosophy at the universities of Prague, Munich, and Leipzig, and started his career in Rostock, Germany, where he became a professor of philosophy and aesthetics in 1916. Beginning in 1925, he lectured at the university in Halle. In September 1933 he was forcibly retired and he moved back to Prague. Thanks to the intercession of Josef Schneider, professor of German studies at the German University in Prague, Utitz was entrusted to catalog the unpublished works of Franz Brentano."@en ; jlo:title "Utitz, Emil" ; skos:altLabel "Emil Utitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Utitz, Emil" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1877–1971), Yiddish writer. Born in Slutsk, Belorussia, into a family of a ritual slaughterer, Zalmen Vendrof (commonly rendered Zalman Wendroff) received a traditional Talmudic education and studied with private teachers, but ultimately failed his secondary school examinations. From the age of 16, he lived in Łódź, where he worked at a factory. From the early 1900s, Vendrof traveled the world, trying different jobs such as peddling, teaching, and typesetting. His peripatetic youth included a stint in England (1901–1905), a brief spell in Moscow as an English teacher (1905), and another period as a Yiddish journalist in America. In London, he became a friend of anarchist leader Rudolf Rocker and wrote for anarchist Yiddish periodicals."@en ; jlo:title "Vendrof, Zalmen" ; skos:altLabel "Zalmen Vendrof" ; skos:prefLabel "Vendrof, Zalmen" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1954), documentary film director and film theoretician. The most radical of Soviet montage theorists and father of cinéma verité was born Dovid (later Denis) Kaufman, the son of a Białystok bookseller and a rabbi’s daughter. A precocious poet and aspiring avant-garde composer who renamed himself Dziga Vertov (a Polish-Ukranian hybrid that suggests “perpetual motion”), he studied medicine first in Moscow and then Saint Petersburg, while continuing to write music. After the October Revolution, Vertov left school to edit a weekly newsreel; during the civil war, he served as a battlefield cameraman. "@en ; jlo:title "Vertov, Dziga" ; skos:altLabel "Dziga Vertov" ; skos:prefLabel "Vertov, Dziga" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1929), Yiddish linguist and dialectologist; creator of the first atlas of Yiddish-speaking regions. Born in Poltava, Ukraine, Mordkhe Veynger moved as a boy to Warsaw, where he went on to study Germanic philology in the faculty of philology at Warsaw University. In 1912 and 1913 he published studies on Yiddish syntax and on the role of Hebrew sounds in Yiddish, and also proposed spelling reforms for Yiddish. His work was included in Shmuel Niger’s Vilna Pinkes (Record Book) of 1913. "@en ; jlo:title "Veynger, Mordkhe" ; skos:altLabel "Mordkhe Veynger" ; skos:prefLabel "Veynger, Mordkhe" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1985), Yiddish linguist. Born in Horodok, Belorussia, into a poor family, Leyzer Vilenkin worked in Kharkov from 1912. In 1917 he moved to Petrograd, where he studied pedagogy, literature, and linguistics at several institutions, including Leningrad (previously Petrograd) University from 1921 to 1925. Simultaneously between 1923 and 1927, he taught at an orphanage and a secondary school. Vilenkin was a research student at the Leningrad Institute for Literature and Languages of the East and West from 1926 to 1929. Subsequently, from 1929 to 1931 he worked at the Yiddish Institute of the Belorussian Academy of Sciences."@en ; jlo:title "Vilenkin, Leyzer" ; skos:altLabel "Leyzer Vilenkin" ; skos:prefLabel "Vilenkin, Leyzer" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Fifteenth–Eighteenth Centuries" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Holocaust (1939–1945)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Postwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Under Russian Rule (1795–1914)" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War I and Its Aftermath" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1990), photographer and biologist. Roman Vishniac’s photographs of East European Jewish life, which he took in the mid- to late 1930s, are today among the most widely familiar images of this “vanished world.” Though these photographs were but a small part of Vishniac’s lifework, they remain his best-known accomplishment as a photographer."@en ; jlo:title "Vishniac, Roman" ; skos:altLabel "Roman Vishniac" ; skos:prefLabel "Vishniac, Roman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1907–1969), Yiddish poet and essayist. Elkhonen Vogler (born Rozhanski) was a symbolist poet and a leading member of the interwar Yiddish literary group Yung-Vilne. His three volumes of Yiddish verse, A bletl in vint (A Leaf in the Wind; 1935), Tsvey beriozes afn trakt (Two Birch Trees by the Highway; 1939), and Friling afn trakt (Springtime by the Highway; 1954) are hymns to the Lithuanian and Belorussian countryside. "@en ; jlo:title "Vogler, Elkhonen" ; skos:altLabel "Elkhonen Vogler" ; skos:prefLabel "Vogler, Elkhonen" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Pseudonym of Ḥayim Leibovich Flekser, 1861–1926), literary critic, historian, editor, and art theoretician (especially of ballet). Born in Zhitomir, Akim Volynskii was the son of a bookseller. He studied in a Russian high school in Zhitomir, but was expelled because of a conflict with a teacher, so that he did his matriculation exams as an extern. His first publication was a letter to the Jewish Russian newspaper Razsvet about an orphanage in Saint Petersburg (published in 1880). During the 1880s, he wrote articles on Jewish themes for the Jewish Russian periodicals Razsvet, Russkie evrei, and Voskhod. In 1884, he served as an editor of the Russian-language anthology Palestina, in which he published a review of Lev Pinsker’s Autoemancipation. In 1885, Volynskii published his essay “Teologo-politicheskoe uchenie Spinozy” (Spinoza’s Theological-Political Teaching) in Voskhod, and also wrote articles on the poet Shimen Frug and on the Bible in Russian poetry. "@en ; jlo:title "Volynskii, Akim L’vovich" ; skos:altLabel "Akim Volynskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Volynskii, Akim L’vovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From 1864 to 1914" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Jews in Warsaw during the Kingdom of Poland" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Nazi Occupation" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Postwar Period" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War I and After" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. after 1819), Polish Jewish memoirist. Born in the mid-eighteenth century in Skoki, near Poznań, the son of a textile and clothing merchant, Mosheh Wassercug seems to have died in Płock. His parents saw to it that he received a broad Jewish education, and he remained traditionally observant all his life. After his father’s death, he tried to continue in his footsteps but was unsuccessful and lost his inheritance."@en ; jlo:title "Wassercug, Mosheh" ; skos:altLabel "Mosheh Wassercug" ; skos:prefLabel "Wassercug, Mosheh" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Ajzyk Wagman; 1905–1982), poet, prose and essay writer, and translator. The brother of Saul Wagman, a poet and publicist associated with the Zionist journal Nasz Przegląd, and Leon Trystam, an actor, film critic, and screenwriter, Adam Ważyk became one of the leading poets of the Polish avant-garde movement. During World War II, Ważyk was in the USSR, where he joined the Polish Army. After the war, he returned to Poland, where he actively participated in Communist-sponsored literary life as a theorist of socialist realism, laureate of state awards, contributor to Kuźnica (1946–1949), and editor in chief of Twórczość (1950–1954). In 1955, he dramatically settled scores with Stalinism in “Poemat dla dorosłych” (Poem for Adults), which marked a literary and ideological turning point in the political thaw of 1956. In 1957, he quit the party and distanced himself from politics. "@en ; jlo:title "Ważyk, Adam" ; skos:altLabel "Adam Ważyk" ; skos:prefLabel "Ważyk, Adam" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1900–1959), Czech novelist and short-story writer. Jiří Weil was born in the village of Praskolesy, near Prague; after World War I, when his father’s frame shop failed, the family moved to Prague, where Weil went to high school and university. Weil soon became involved in the political and cultural left; in 1922 he visited the Soviet Union, and on his return he took a job in the press department of the Soviet mission in Prague. In the 1920s he translated extensively from Russian literature, joined the avant-garde grouping Devětsil, and completed a Ph.D. in Slavic philology, with a dissertation on Gogol and the eighteenth-century English novel."@en ; jlo:title "Weil, Jiří" ; skos:altLabel "Jiří Weil" ; skos:prefLabel "Weil, Jiří" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1751–1817), early maskil and pioneering religious reformer in Hungary. Marcus Nissa Weiss received a strong Talmudic education, and although he was a businessman, would preach on occasion in his community, Ungvár. In an 1808 autobiography, he recorded his sudden transformation wrought by the establishment of the Josephinian school system. Painstakingly, he learned German and discovered Moses Mendelssohn and the Haskalah. He became a lessee on the royal cameral estates of Ungvár and prospered at least until the mid-1780s, when he was embroiled in a debilitating and costly lawsuit that in the decade to come was to drain him financially. "@en ; jlo:title "Weiss, Marcus Nissa" ; skos:altLabel "Marcus Nissa Weiss" ; skos:prefLabel "Weiss, Marcus Nissa" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1801–1870), jurist, publicist, and scholar. Born in Třebíč (Trebitsch), Moravia, to the family of a local leaseholder, Wolfgang (Binyamin Ze’ev) Wessely studied at yeshivas in his hometown, Polná, and Prague. He then studied philosophy and law at Prague’s Charles University and in 1829 was the first Jew to be awarded a doctorate in philosophy from that institution. Four years later, he earned a doctorate in civil law and also applied for one in canon law but was rejected because he was Jewish. After graduating, Wessely was hired as a private tutor for the family of the Viennese merchant Ernst Wertheimer. In 1831 he was appointed teacher of Jewish religion at a secondary school, and from 1837 he taught at the Jewish Normalschule of Prague. "@en ; jlo:title "Wessely, Wolfgang" ; skos:altLabel "Wolfgang Wessely" ; skos:prefLabel "Wessely, Wolfgang" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1930–1994), prose writer, publicist, and critic. Bohdan (originally Dawid) Wojdowski was the founder, in 1991, of the Masada Cultural Foundation for Jewish culture and editor of its journal, Masada (its only issue appeared in 1991). A member of the editorial boards of Przegląd Kulturalny and Współczesność, he also wrote for Teatr. After studying Polish literature in postwar Warsaw, Wojdowski made his literary debut in the 1950s. A Warsaw ghetto survivor, he committed suicide in 1994. "@en ; jlo:title "Wojdowski, Bohdan" ; skos:altLabel "Bohdan Wojdowski" ; skos:prefLabel "Wojdowski, Bohdan" ; skos:related , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Hardship and Relief" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Political Activity" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Population Dislocations" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Relations with the Central Powers" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Revolution, Civil War, and Pogroms" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The War’s Effects" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The War in the East" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1812–1868), historian, teacher, translator, and government-appointed rabbi. Born in Mitau, Courland guberniia (now Jelgava, Lat.), and educated in a traditional heder, Re’uven Yosef Wunderbar adopted a Haskalah (Enlightenment) worldview in spiritual and cultural matters. Self-taught, he acquired a broad general education in addition to a knowledge of German and Russian. In 1835, he passed the official examinations to acquire a teaching certificate for government-sponsored schools, and in 1840 moved to Riga to teach at the Haskalah school under the direction of Max Lilienthal. "@en ; jlo:title "Wunderbar, Re’uven Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Re’uven Yosef Wunderbar" ; skos:prefLabel "Wunderbar, Re’uven Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Finances" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Origins and Founding" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Postwar Adjustment" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Scholarship in Times of Crisis" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "World War II" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1560–1624), son-in-law of Yehudah Leib ben Betsal’el (Maharal of Prague); scholar of midrash. Yitsḥak ben Shimshon ha-Kohen was born and died in Prague. According to family tradition, he served as rabbi in Nikolsburg and Vienna and was also a member of Prague’s rabbinic court. He was one of the circle of scholars in Prague who were colleagues and disciples of his father-in-law, Maharal of Prague. The group shared wide-ranging intellectual interests: halakhah and agadah, Kabbalah and Jewish philosophy, Bible and Hebrew poetry. "@en ; jlo:title "Yitsḥak ben Shimshon ha-Kohen" ; skos:altLabel "Yitsḥak ben Shimshon ha-Kohen" ; skos:prefLabel "Yitsḥak ben Shimshon ha-Kohen" ; skos:related , , , , , , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Links to Larger Organizations" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Major Movements and Subdivisions" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Postwar Youth Movements in Poland" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Youth Movements outside Poland" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1859–1917), ophthalmologist, linguist, and inventor of Esperanto. Ludwik Zamenhof was born in the Polish border city of Białystok. Both his father, Markus, and his grandfather worked as foreign-language instructors. Zamenhof completed heder at 13 and from 1869 on attended a public secondary school. In 1873, his parents moved to Warsaw, where he began studying at a private secondary school that specialized in languages. From his youth Zamenhof occupied himself with poetry and drama; he wrote, among other pieces, a five-act tragedy based on the myth of the Tower of Babel."@en ; jlo:title "Zamenhof, Ludwik" ; skos:altLabel "Ludwik Zamenhof" ; skos:prefLabel "Zamenhof, Ludwik" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1965), Bundist activist and Soviet publicist. Born in Kiev, David Zaslavskii became interested in Russian Jewish literature and Jewish history while still in his youth. In 1899, he took part in a Jewish student organization established by Zionists and socialists at Kiev University and was expelled from the university in 1901 for participating in student riots. He began his activities at the Bund in 1903, simultaneously writing for the Russian-language press. In 1905 and 1906, he worked for the Bund Central Committee, publishing in their press in both Yiddish (Di tsayt) and Russian (Evreiskie vesti). From 1907 to 1917, he also published widely in the general liberal Russian press in Kiev and Saint Petersburg. "@en ; jlo:title "Zaslavskii, David Iosifovich" ; skos:altLabel "David Zaslavskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Zaslavskii, David Iosifovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town 70 kilometers west of Poznań, on the Polish–German border of 1919–1939; population (1938) 5,400, including 360 Germans and 52 Jews. From November 1938 to August 1939 Zbąszyń housed a transit camp for Jews expelled from Germany during the so-called Polenaktion (27–29 October 1938)."@en ; jlo:title "Zbąszyń" ; skos:altLabel "Zbąszyń" ; skos:prefLabel "Zbąszyń" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1841–1901), Czech poet, dramatist, and novelist. Julius Zeyer’s father was a wealthy lumber merchant descended from Alsatian aristocracy; his mother came from a Jewish family in Prague, although she raised her children as Catholics. Zeyer would become one of the most prolific Czech writers of his day—his collected works run to some 30 volumes, including his verse epics drawing on Czech legends (Vyšehrad; 1880)—but his embrace of Czech culture was not automatic. Like other writers from the Czech lands, he grew up speaking German; nevertheless, he published his first stories in Czech, in his early thirties. Still, he was a fierce, if ambivalent, patriot: he loved Czech culture and yearned for independence from Vienna, and yet excoriated Czechs for their provincialism and docile obedience to Habsburg rule. He felt like a literary outsider in Prague, which he called both “queen” and “whore,” and in 1887 moved to the small town of Vodňany, where he spent the next 12 years, except for his frequent trips abroad. Although Zeyer’s relations with established Czech literary life could be prickly, he was widely admired and honored, and in 1901 became the first person to be buried in Slavín, the tomb of great Czechs in the national Vyšehrad cemetery. "@en ; jlo:title "Zeyer, Julius" ; skos:altLabel "Julius Zeyer" ; skos:prefLabel "Zeyer, Julius" ; skos:related , . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "From the First Zionist Congress to World War I" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "The Interwar Years" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Zionism after 1989" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Zionism during the Holocaust" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Zionism in the Age of Empires, 1880–1897" . a skos:Concept ; skos:broader ; skos:prefLabel "Zionism in the Cold War Era, 1944–1989" . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1943), labor and political leader. Born near Chełm, Shmuel (Artur) Zygielbojm spent his childhood in Krasnystaw. To help support his family, he left heder at age 10 and went to work at a factory. After the outbreak of World War I, he became active in the Bund and before long was assigned a prominent role in the party."@en ; jlo:title "Zygielbojm, Shmuel Mordkhe" ; skos:altLabel "Shmuel (Artur) Zygielbojm" ; skos:prefLabel "Zygielbojm, Shmuel Mordkhe" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1972), Yiddish theater historian and lexicographer. Zalmen Zylbercweig (Zilbertsvayg) was born in Ozorków, a small town near Łódź, to a religiously observant but reform-minded father who was a Yiddish and Hebrew writer. Zylbercweig was educated in both a progressive yeshiva and a commercial school. Attracted to the theater at an early age, he first performed with amateur Yiddish and Hebrew groups, then acted in professional companies, directed a troupe that performed in and around Łódź, produced Yiddish translations of European plays, and edited and contributed to numerous Yiddish publications."@en ; jlo:title "Zylbercweig, Zalmen" ; skos:altLabel "Zalmen Zylbercweig" ; skos:prefLabel "Zylbercweig, Zalmen" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1836–1916), writer, journalist, editor, and humorist. Adolf Ágai established his literary reputation in Budapest during the 1870s and 1880s, where he was the pioneer of a new kind of popular urban culture implicitly associated with the city’s assimilated Jewish lower-middle classes. Ágai was born in the west Hungarian town of Jánoshalma into a Polish Jewish family whose language remained Yiddish, even though his father had changed the family name from Rosenzweig to the more Hungarian-sounding Ágai in 1848."@en ; jlo:title "Ágai, Adolf" ; skos:altLabel "Adolf Ágai" ; skos:prefLabel "Ágai, Adolf" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1850–1927), philosopher, aesthetician, literary scholar, and educator. Bernát Alexander completed his high school studies at the Royal Catholic Gymnasium in Pest, Hungary, where he befriended József Bánóczi, with whom he later collaborated on scholarly projects. Alexander’s parents wanted him to become a physician; he himself briefly considered a rabbinical career before choosing to become an educator."@en ; jlo:title "Alexander, Bernát" ; skos:altLabel "Bernát Alexander" ; skos:prefLabel "Alexander, Bernát" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1542), rabbi. The inscription on Avraham ben Avigdor’s tombstone in the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague states that he was a chief rabbi and head of Prague’s yeshiva for more than 20 years. Avraham ben Avigdor is also mentioned in the memorial book of the Altneuschul (fol. 20a) and in David Gans’s chronicle Tsemaḥ David (1592). In the Prague municipal register, Avraham is cited as the author of a legal verdict in a dispute between two parties and as a witness involving the purchase of realty. His name, and the fact that he wrote a liturgical poem, has led to the unsupported view that he was a descendant of Avigdor Kara. "@en ; jlo:title "Avraham ben Avigdor" ; skos:altLabel "Avraham ben Avigdor" ; skos:prefLabel "Avraham ben Avigdor" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in northwestern Romania, on the Săsar River at the foot of the Gutâi Mountains. Baia Mare, a mining town, was known in German as Frauenbach and Neustadt, in Latin as Rivulus Dominarum, and in Hungarian as Asszonypatak and Nagybánya. After several sporadic reports of a Jewish presence there in the second half of the seventeenth century, and after the establishment of Austrian rule, in 1693–1700 Jewish people’s access to mining towns and neighboring areas was forbidden. These restrictions were in place until 1850; in 1855 the presence of Rabbi Tsevi Yehudah Horovitz in Baia Mare is documented."@en ; jlo:title "Baia Mare" ; skos:altLabel "Baia Mare" ; skos:prefLabel "Baia Mare" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1866–1924), Russian artist. Of the many artists of the Russian Silver Age, Léon Bakst (Lev Samoilovich Rozenberg) deserves the highest acclaim for his achievements in studio painting and the applied arts. He was especially successful in portraiture, interior decoration, book illustration, haute couture, and, above all, stage design."@en ; jlo:title "Bakst, Léon" ; skos:altLabel "Léon Bakst" ; skos:prefLabel "Bakst, Léon" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Romanian Sephardic bankers from the Ottoman Empire; descendants included scholars, educators, and writers. Celebi Mentes Bally, a banker from Constantinople, supported the Greek aristocrat Neculai Mavrocordat in becoming the ruler of Walachia. Mavrocordat then brought Bally with him to Bucharest and, in 1715, granted him the title of grand vizier. From 1730, Bally was the founder and leader of the first Sephardic Jewish community in Walachia. His descendants also held privileged positions as bankers and advisers to the Phanariot princes who took the throne of Walachia."@en ; jlo:title "Bally Family" ; skos:altLabel "Davicion Bally" ; skos:prefLabel "Bally Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1932), architect and designer of synagogues. Lipót (Leopold) Baumhorn was born in Kisbér (near Győr, Hungary), and graduated from the Technische Hochschule in Vienna in 1883. Working in the office of the architect Ödön Lechner in Budapest between 1884 and 1894, Baumhorn adopted Lechner’s characteristic combination of plain plastered surfaces and red or yellow wavy brick string courses, string pilasters, gables, and battlements. Baumhorn, however, broke with Lechner’s folkloric style and followed more standard architectural conventions, using patterns that were welcomed by a range of Jewish communities from the more traditional to the ostentatious. Baumhorn opened his own office in 1894, where he worked with his son-in-law György Somogyi. Baumhorn built 25 synagogues and restored numerous others in Austria-Hungary from the 1880s until his death."@en ; jlo:title "Baumhorn, Lipót" ; skos:altLabel "Lipót Baumhorn" ; skos:prefLabel "Baumhorn, Lipót" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(More fully, Jakub Becal, son of Natan; Heb., Ya‘akov Betsal’el ben Natan), factor of Polish King Jan III Sobieski (1629–1696). Probably hailing from Ruthenia, Jakub Becal is said to have lost his father in the Khmel’nyt’skyi uprising, though in court files from 1676 Becal’s home is given as Dybów near Toruń."@en ; jlo:title "Becal" ; skos:altLabel "Becal" ; skos:prefLabel "Becal" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1817–1879), poet and promoter of German-language culture. Karl Beck was born in Baja, a large Jewish community in southern Hungary; his father was a businessman. Beck was a medical student in Vienna until illness forced him to return home. After a brief interlude in the business world, he studied philosophy in Leipzig. There he associated with young radical Austrian writers, including Moritz Hartmann, Ignaz Kuranda, and Alfred Meissner (all of whom went into exile to avoid the severe censorship practiced under Metternich’s government), and made literary contacts within the libertarian Young Germany movement. Beck ultimately opposed nationalism, advocated the dominance of German-language culture throughout the Habsburg Empire, and venerated Bismarck, Germany’s “Iron Chancellor.”"@en ; jlo:title "Beck, Karl Isidor" ; skos:altLabel "Karl Beck" ; skos:prefLabel "Beck, Karl Isidor" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1920–2003), Yiddish poet, journalist, and literary historian. The son of an artisan, Khayim (Efim in Russian publications) Beider was born in the shtetl of Kupel, near Proskurov (mod. Khmel’nyts’kyi), Ukraine. After finishing the local seven-year Yiddish school, Beider studied at the Odessa Yiddish Teachers’ Training College and a rabfak (workers’ faculty) in Zhitomir, and from 1936 to 1940 at the Yiddish department of the Odessa Teachers’ Training Institute. After graduating in 1940, he worked as a teacher in the Stalindorf Jewish National District, one of three such Jewish districts in pre–World War II Ukraine. "@en ; jlo:title "Beider, Khayim" ; skos:altLabel "Khayim Beider" ; skos:prefLabel "Beider, Khayim" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(pseudonym of Avrom Rozin; 1878–1942), socialist leader. A leading figure first in the Jewish Socialist Workers Party (known as SERP, the party’s initials in Russian, or the Sejmists in Yiddish usage), later in the United Jewish Socialist Workers Party (Fareynikte), and ultimately in the territorialist grouping known as the Freeland League (Frayland-lige), Rozin was born in Krucha (Mohilev province; now in Belarus), in the Russian Empire, and received a traditional education. He affiliated with illegal socialist circles in Minsk in the mid-1890s and studied in Paris at the beginning of the twentieth century."@en ; jlo:title "Ben-Adir" ; skos:altLabel "Ben-Adir" ; skos:prefLabel "Ben-Adir" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1921–1988), Yiddish poet, playwright, translator, literary historian, and journalist. Israil Bercovici (Yid., Yisroel Berkovitsh) was born in Botoşani to a poor family and had to earn his own living as a teenager. He was self-taught and studied foreign languages on his own, becoming fluent in Yiddish, Hebrew, and Romanian. He also acquired a thorough literary and humanistic cultural foundation independently."@en ; jlo:title "Bercovici, Israil" ; skos:altLabel "Israil Bercovici" ; skos:prefLabel "Bercovici, Israil" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "A town now in western Ukraine, better known by its traditional Polish name, Brzeżany (also Yid., Berezhan). Brzeżany was originally a village, but it was granted the status of town by the Polish king Sigismund the Old in the sixteenth century. It became part of the Habsburg Empire in 1772."@en ; jlo:title "Berezhany" ; skos:altLabel "Berezhany" ; skos:prefLabel "Berezhany" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1906–1978), psychologist; left-wing Zionist activist, and a leader of the Warsaw ghetto underground. Adolf Berman (who used the code names Adam, Borowski, and Ludwik) studied psychology and philosophy at Warsaw University, receiving his doctorate in 1931. As one of the pioneers of professional counseling in Poland, he headed the Warsaw organization of Jewish counseling clinics, affiliated with Centrala Opieki nad Sierotami (Federation of Associations for the Care of Orphans; CENTOS). He also taught in high schools and published articles on social and educational psychology. While a student, Berman joined the Jewish socialist group Yugnt (Youth). In 1925, he became a member of the Left Po‘ale Tsiyon and was involved in publication of the party’s Polish- and Yiddish-language press organs."@en ; jlo:title "Berman, Adolf Abraham" ; skos:altLabel "Adolf (Avraham) Berman", "Adolf Berman" ; skos:prefLabel "Berman, Adolf Abraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1969), Yiddish writer, critic, and journalist. Born in the shtetl of Ustechko, in Austrian eastern Galicia (now Ukraine), Shloyme Bikl (alternately, Bickel), received a traditional Jewish education and then attended high school in Kołomyja (mod. Ukr., Kolomyia). Between 1915 and 1918, Bikl was an officer in the Austrian army, and from 1919 to 1922 he studied law at Chernivtsi University. From 1922 until 1939 Bikl lived in Bucharest, combining his law practice with journalism, publicistics, and literary activity. In 1939, he immigrated to the United States, and died in New York City 30 years later."@en ; jlo:title "Bikl, Shloyme" ; skos:altLabel "Shloyme Bikl" ; skos:prefLabel "Bikl, Shloyme" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Illustrated humorous weekly published in Warsaw from March through August 1906. Di bin (The Bee) represented the first attempt by Shmuel Yankev Yatskan (1874–1936) to publish a popular Yiddish newspaper, two months before he launched his successful daily Idishes tageblat. Di bin’s copublisher and editor was Eleazar David Finkel (1862–1918), a talented journalist and translator. "@en ; jlo:title "Bin, Di" ; skos:altLabel "Di bin" ; skos:prefLabel "Bin, Di" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1865–1922), cantor, composer, and pedagogue. Avrom Ber Birnboym was born in the city of Pułtusk, north of Warsaw. He reportedly learned music from his Hasidic father, and also studied violin in Łódź with Ḥayim Janowski, the founder of the Hazomir Choral Society. Birnboym’s first position was as a cantor and kosher butcher in Hethar, Hungary, where he studied music theory and German. He then took a cantorial position in Prosnitz (Prostějov), Moravia. Birnboym eventually became the chief cantor for the Choir Synagogue in the Polish community of Częstochowa."@en ; jlo:title "Birnboym, Avrom Ber" ; skos:altLabel "Avrom Ber Birnboym" ; skos:prefLabel "Birnboym, Avrom Ber" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Née Hani Fischer; 1827–1898), philanthropic activist and head of a women’s association. Johanna Bischitz’s father was Moritz (Mór) Fischer (1799–1880), director and owner of the world-famous porcelain factory of Herend and a prominent Orthodox lay leader of Hungarian Jewry (he was the grandfather of Rabbi Stephen Wise). Little is known about her mother, Mária Salzer (1799–1886). Moritz Fischer was ennobled in 1867 and added the Hungarian name Farkasházi to his family name. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–1849, his daughter cared for wounded Hungarian soldiers, whom he had accommodated in his house. In October 1852, Johanna married the widower David Bischitz (1811–1897), a merchant and landowner from Sárbogárd (Fejér county), and moved to Pest. She became the stepmother of her husband’s three children and gave birth to another four."@en ; jlo:title "Bischitz, Johanna" ; skos:altLabel "Johanna Bischitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Bischitz, Johanna" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1848–1929), banker. Maurice Blank was born in Piteşti, Romania, into the family of a Jewish tradesman and entrepreneur, Mauriciu Blanco. Blank studied economics in Vienna and Leipzig, and upon his return to Romania became Iacob Marmorosch’s partner in running the largest bank in Romania, which in 1874 was renamed the Marmorosch-Blank Bank."@en ; jlo:title "Blank, Maurice" ; skos:altLabel "Blank", "Maurice Blank" ; skos:prefLabel "Blank, Maurice" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1911–1995), sixth world chess champion, a title he held from 1948 to 1963. Mikhail Botvinnik became a master in 1927 and a grandmaster in 1935. He was a seven-time USSR champion, and won the special title of absolute champion of that country in 1941. Among his most remarkable victories were Moscow 1935, where he shared first and second places with Salomon Flohr and ranked higher than Emanuel Lasker and José Raúl Capablanca; Nottingham 1936, where he shared first and second places with Capablanca and ranked higher than three world champions; Groningen 1946, where he won first place; and finally the Hague–Moscow 1948, where he became world champion."@en ; jlo:title "Botvinnik, Mikhail Moiseevich" ; skos:altLabel "Mikhail Botvinnik" ; skos:prefLabel "Botvinnik, Mikhail Moiseevich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Important Soviet cultural figures. Liliia (1891–1978) was active in poetic and artistic circles, while Osip (1888–1945) was a literary theorist and playwright."@en ; jlo:title "Brik, Liliia Iur’evna and Osip Maksimovich" ; skos:altLabel "Liliia Brik", "Osip Brik" ; skos:prefLabel "Brik, Liliia Iur’evna and Osip Maksimovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1650–1717), rabbi and Talmudist. Born in Prague, Avraham ben Sha’ul Broda studied in Poland with Yitsḥak ben Ze’ev Ḥarif, later chief rabbi of Kraków. Returning to Bohemia, Broda lived in Bunzlau (Mladá Boleslav). He served as a rabbi in Lichtenstadt (Hroznětín) before 1692, and in Raudnitz (Roudnice) from 1692 to 1693."@en ; jlo:title "Broda, Avraham ben Sha’ul" ; skos:altLabel "Avraham Broda" ; skos:prefLabel "Broda, Avraham ben Sha’ul" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1817–1868), early composer and performer of Yiddish popular songs. Born in Podkamen, three miles from Brody in Austrian Galicia, Berl Broder (also Broder-Margulies) began his public career as a folksinger in 1857, when he gave up his job in the pig bristle business and took up entertaining at inns, with two former synagogue choirboys as members of his troupe. The original repertory was sad, the melodies too, and consisted of the individual monologues of a poor shepherd, night watchman, shingler, drayman, moneylender, wanderer, cantor, matchmaker, Hebrew-school teacher, preacher, or water carrier. Once the routine caught on, each monologue-in-song was performed in appropriate costume, followed by a little dance. “I, poor so-and-so” became the universally popular signature of the Broder Singers, semiprofessional entertainers who wandered through Eastern Europe over the following decades."@en ; jlo:title "Broder, Berl" ; skos:altLabel "Berl Broder" ; skos:prefLabel "Broder, Berl" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883 [1884 according to the Gregorian calendar]–1939), painter, graphic artist, art critic, and educator. Born in Sofievka (Taurida guberniia), Isaak Brodskii studied at the Odessa School of Art from 1896 to 1902. He then attended the Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg until 1908, receiving a grant from this institute to travel in Western Europe between 1909 and 1911. "@en ; jlo:title "Brodskii, Isaak Izrailevich" ; skos:altLabel "Isaak Brodskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Brodskii, Isaak Izrailevich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1940–1996), Russian-born poet and Nobel Prize Laureate in literature in 1987. Joseph Brodsky (as he is known in the West; in Russian, Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodskii) was born in Leningrad. He was the only child of Aleksandr Ivanovich Brodskii, a photojournalist who served for a time in the Soviet Navy, and Mariia Moiseevna Volpert, both assimilated Jews. Because of his Jewish background and growing interest in philosophical and literary questions, Brodsky experienced increasing alienation at an early age."@en ; jlo:title "Brodsky, Joseph" ; skos:altLabel "Joseph Brodsky" ; skos:prefLabel "Brodsky, Joseph" ; skos:related . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1963), rabbi and Zionist leader. Born in Łódź, Shemu’el Yom Tov ha-Levi Brodt studied at a Hasidic yeshiva, and was elected in 1907 to be the rabbi of Brisk Dekuyave (Pol., Brześć Kujawski). Prior to World War I, Brodt was the rabbi of Lipno. He joined the ranks of Mizraḥi at the end of the war, and called on it to strengthen its role in Polish political life as well as to organize immigration to Palestine."@en ; jlo:title "Brodt, Shemu’el" ; skos:altLabel "Shemu’el Brodt" ; skos:prefLabel "Brodt, Shemu’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1863–1924), novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer. Born into a provincial Hungarian Jewish merchant family, Sándor Bródy grew up in the town of Eger. His father was typical of his generation in that he was imbued with Hungarian patriotism while remaining faithful to traditional Judaism. In the 1870s, the elder Bródy’s various business ventures failed, and he moved his family to Budapest. After a rather carefree childhood, Sándor Bródy got to know the seamier side of city life. As a young writer he was among the first in Hungarian literature to focus attention on the urban proletariat, and the first to introduce the coarse and pungent vernacular of the big city into literary works."@en ; jlo:title "Bródy, Sándor" ; skos:altLabel "Sándor Bródy" ; skos:prefLabel "Bródy, Sándor" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1968), Russian playwright, memoirist, and teacher. Aleksandra Brushtein was born in Vilna, where her father, Iakov Vygodskii (Wygodzki; 1857–1941), was a physician and a leading figure in the Jewish community. She graduated from the History–Philosophy Department of the Higher Women’s Courses in Saint Petersburg. After the revolution, Brushtein concentrated on educational work and writing, organizing 173 literacy schools for adults and writing extensively for children and adolescents."@en ; jlo:title "Brushtein, Aleksandra Iakovlevna" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksandra Brushtein" ; skos:prefLabel "Brushtein, Aleksandra Iakovlevna" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1898–1966), poet, satirist, and children’s book author. Jan Brzechwa (Jan Wiktor Lesman), a cousin of the poet Bolesław Leśmian, was born into a family of assimilated Jews; his father converted to Protestantism. Brzechwa fought on the Polish side in the Polish–Soviet War of 1920. After studying law in Warsaw from 1920 to 1924, Brzechwa worked as a lawyer, copyright expert, and legal author. He was a member of the literary circle around the poetry group Skamander and the journal Wiadomości Literackie, and also wrote for cabarets and composed song lyrics. Brzechwa cofounded the Union of Stage Artists and Composers. After World War II, he worked for UNESCO. "@en ; jlo:title "Brzechwa, Jan" ; skos:altLabel "Jan Brzechwa" ; skos:prefLabel "Brzechwa, Jan" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1945), Yiddish novelist and short-story writer. Born in Błonie (Yid., Bloyne) near Warsaw, Mikhoel Burshtin moved to Warsaw in 1912, where he attended high school and studied to be a teacher of history and literature. He first published in Yiddish around 1930, and his earliest book, Iber di khurves fun Ployne (Over the Ruins of Ployne; 1931), received positive reviews from Yiddish literary critics. He contributed to the Warsaw Yiddish dailies Haynt and Moment, as well as the New York newspaper Forverts, the monthly Di tsukunft, and other publications. "@en ; jlo:title "Burshtin, Mikhoel" ; skos:altLabel "Mikhl Burshtin", "Mikhoel Burshtin" ; skos:prefLabel "Burshtin, Mikhoel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Humorous illustrations or cartoons, as a critical visual element of the popular press, appeared in East European Jewish journals relatively late as compared to non-Jewish coterritorial language publications. The small number of Yiddish periodicals that were permitted in the Russian Empire from the mid-nineteenth century to the turn of the twentieth century generally contained few, if any, illustrations."@en ; jlo:title "Cartoons" ; skos:altLabel "Cartoons", "cartoons" ; skos:prefLabel "Cartoons" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The earliest examples of Ashkenazic Judaica (art used in the service of Jewish ceremony in the home or synagogue) date only to the High Middle Ages. Although texts confirm the existence of some types in prior centuries, there are no extant examples before the fourteenth century when the first kiddush cups, Hanukkah lamps (menorahs), and wedding rings were found at various sites in the German lands. Two new types were added in the sixteenth century: the tower-form spice container (used for the Havdalah service) and the Torah shield."@en ; jlo:title "Ceremonial and Decorative Art" ; skos:altLabel "ceremonial objects", "ceremonial silver objects" ; skos:prefLabel "Ceremonial and Decorative Art" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1942), participant in the Russian Jewish revolutionary movement and Soviet Communist official. Born in Bar, Ukraine, Aleksandr Chemeriskii settled in Minsk in the mid-1890s and worked as a photographer. In 1898, he joined the Bund. The following year, he was arrested and sent to Moscow where Sergei Zubatov, head of the secret police, persuaded him to help found a legal Jewish workers’ party. The party would defend professional interests and seek to expand Jewish civil rights, but would not fight against the autocracy."@en ; jlo:title "Chemeriskii, Aleksandr" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksandr Chemeriskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Chemeriskii, Aleksandr" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Along with a value system that encouraged reproduction, various social and demographic factors prevailing in the East European Jewish community led to an extremely high rate of childbirth (until the nineteenth century). The marriage rate in Jewish society was much higher than that of the surrounding Christian population, as was the rate of remarriage among the widowed and divorced. In addition, the marriage age was relatively low, as was the woman’s age at first birth—most Jewish women had their first child before the age of 20. Books of charms from the period, such as the popular Sefer zekhirah (Book of Remembrance) by Zekharyah ben Ya‘akov Simner, mention a few formulas for avoiding pregnancy. It would appear, however, that even these were reserved for cases in which a woman’s health was at risk and were not intended to limit the birthrate. "@en ; jlo:title "Childbearing" ; skos:altLabel "childbirth" ; skos:prefLabel "Childbearing" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Children’s literature produced by Polish-Jewish writers targeted two distinct audiences: a Polish readership and a Polish Jewish readership. Texts intended for the Polish audience generally lacked special references to Jewish life and culture, while texts intended for Polish-speaking Jews mostly featured Jewish themes and motifs. Janusz Korczak (1878/79–1942) wrote for both audiences: his Król Maciuś Pierwszy (King Maciuś the First; 1923) and Kajtuś czarodziej (Kajtuś the Wizard; 1935) were aimed at Poles, whereas stories such as Ludzie są dobrzy (People Are Good; 1938) and Trzy wyprawy Herszka (Herszek’s Three Expeditions; 1939)—which appeared in the book series Biblioteka Palestyńska dla Dzieci (Palestinian Library for Children)—were intended for Polish Jews. "@en ; jlo:title "Polish Literature (Children’s Literature)" ; skos:altLabel "Polish children’s literature", "children’s literature" ; skos:prefLabel "Polish Literature (Children’s Literature)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The period in which modern children’s literature in Yiddish flourished began in the early twentieth century. This era also saw the growth of educational institutions in which Yiddish was the language of instruction. In the Soviet Union as well as in Poland, Yiddish educational textbooks, readers (anthologies), as well as series of booklets for children were published, containing original Yiddish literary writings and translations into that language. A substantial part of children’s literature in Yiddish was first disseminated by means of children’s periodicals, which were edited by educators and writers. In these books and journals, one finds literary selections for different age groups in a variety of genres: nursery rhymes for toddlers; stories about animals, friends, and events for elementary school children; and folklore and travelogues for adolescents."@en ; jlo:title "Yiddish Literature (Children’s Literature)" ; skos:altLabel "Yiddish children’s literature", "children’s books" ; skos:prefLabel "Yiddish Literature (Children’s Literature)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Clandestine Jewish religious organization in the Soviet Union, 1922–1930. The Committee of Rabbis was founded by the Lubavitcher rebbe, Yosef Yitsḥak Shneerson (1880–1950), who was its chairman until his departure from the USSR in October 1927. The Committee was subsequently led by Rabbi Ya‘akov Klemes of Moscow (1880–1953) and the organization’s secretary, Rabbi Shelomoh Yosef Zevin (1890–1978)."@en ; jlo:title "Committee of Rabbis in the USSR" ; skos:altLabel "Committee of Rabbis in the USSR" ; skos:prefLabel "Committee of Rabbis in the USSR" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Port city on the Black Sea, in the Dobruja (Dobrogea) region of Romania. Named for a small Genovese local port from the twelfth century, Constanța (Gk., Tomis; Tk., Küstenje) was annexed to Romania in 1878. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of a small Jewish settlement in the third century. Ashkenazic Jewish traders who accompanied the Russian army as suppliers during the Russian–Turkish war then reestablished Jewish settlement in 1828. In the 1830s, Sephardic Jews from Anatolia settled in the area, set up a community of their own, obtained a plot of land for a cemetery in 1853, and leased land to construct a synagogue in 1867. That same year, Ashkenazic Jews organized as a distinct community."@en ; jlo:title "Constanța" ; skos:altLabel "Constanța" ; skos:prefLabel "Constanța" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1921–2000), critic, literary historian, and writer. Ovid S. Crohmălniceanu (originally Moise Cahn) was born in Galați, attended high school in the same town, and began his studies at the Polytechnical University of Bucharest. He was compelled to suspend his education because of the antisemitic legislation in force in Romania between 1940 and 1944, but he ultimately graduated in 1947 with an engineering degree. He began publishing literary criticism in newspapers and reviews in 1944."@en ; jlo:title "Crohmălniceanu, Ovid S." ; skos:altLabel "Ovid Crohmălniceanu", "Ovid S. Crohmălniceanu" ; skos:prefLabel "Crohmălniceanu, Ovid S." ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1801–1867), publicist, politician, writer, and philosopher. Born in Warsaw into a Christian family of Frankist descent, Jan Czyński became the first recognizably Jewish writer—his family’s origins were well known—to enter the ranks of Polish literature. A veteran of the November uprising of 1830, he joined the exodus of Polish patriots to France after its defeat. There he engaged in politics to champion “universal emancipation.” History, according to this “Polish fourrierist,” was a movement toward the emancipation of all disadvantaged groups."@en ; jlo:title "Czyński, Jan" ; skos:altLabel "Jan Czyński" ; skos:prefLabel "Czyński, Jan" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1930), socialist, editor, publisher, and parliamentarian. Born in Lwów to a middle-class Jewish family, Herman Diamand attended a modern Jewish primary school. After completing Realschule (a modern German secondary school system adopted in several countries) in Lwów, he studied law and political science at the university there and in Vienna, earning a doctorate in 1894. "@en ; jlo:title "Diamand, Herman" ; skos:altLabel "Herman Diamand" ; skos:prefLabel "Diamand, Herman" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1851–1939), mathematician, pedagogue, and historian of science. One of the leading intellectuals in Congress Poland, Samuel Dickstein was born in Warsaw and was an activist in the assimilationist movement. From 1884 to 1918 he served on the executive committee of the Warsaw Jewish Community, responsible mainly for issues related to Jewish schools."@en ; jlo:title "Dickstein, Samuel" ; skos:altLabel "Samuel Dickstein" ; skos:prefLabel "Dickstein, Samuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1891–1956), writer and translator. The son of a teacher of German, Emil Dorian (originally Lustig) received his early education at Jewish schools in Bucharest. After graduating from medical school in that city, he was sent to the front as a physician during World War I, even though, as a Jew, he was not yet a Romanian citizen. After a two-year medical specialization in France, he returned to Romania and worked as a physician until the end of his life, publishing numerous books on popular medicine. After World War II, he became involved in Jewish community life in Bucharest as a secretary general and afterward as director of the documentary library and archives of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania."@en ; jlo:title "Dorian, Emil" ; skos:altLabel "Emil Dorian" ; skos:prefLabel "Dorian, Emil" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1843–1912), rabbi and teacher. Born in Csusz, Hungary, Nathan Ehrenfeld studied at the most prestigious rabbinical schools of that country: Pressburg (Hun., Pozsony; mod. Bratislava) and Eisenstadt. At the latter—and, then, at the rabbinical seminary in Berlin—he was the pupil of the Orthodox rabbi and scholar Esriel Hildesheimer (1820–1899). Ehrenfeld completed his university studies in Vienna and earned a doctorate in Kiel with a dissertation on Yosef Albo’s Sefer ha-‘ikarim (The Doctrine of Joseph Albo on the Principles and Criteria of Religion). Later he was active as a rabbi in the Prussian towns of Brandenburg an der Havel and Prenzlau, and, from 1878, in Gniezno, Poland. "@en ; jlo:title "Ehrenfeld, Nathan" ; skos:altLabel "Nathan Ehrenfeld" ; skos:prefLabel "Ehrenfeld, Nathan" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1817–1889), rabbi, public activist, and early leader of religious Zionism. Mordekhai Eliasberg studied in the Volozhin yeshiva and served as rabbi in Bauska, Latvia, from 1862 until his death. Fluent in German and well versed in contemporary literature, Eliasberg firmly believed that there was no contradiction between faith and the Haskalah (Enlightenment). Nonetheless, he expressed concern about what was at the time called “false enlightenment” (i.e., enlightenment that serves social purposes such as secularizing society), which he felt posed a great danger to faith. He also believed in the importance of improving the economic situation of Russian Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Eliasberg, Mordekhai" ; skos:altLabel "Mordekhai Eliasberg" ; skos:prefLabel "Eliasberg, Mordekhai" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(fl. 16th century), itinerant Hebrew printer. Eli‘ezer ben Yitsḥak learned the craft of printing in Prague, and went from there to Lublin upon the request of the Shaḥor family, who had moved from Prague to Lublin and established the city’s first Hebrew printing house there in 1547. After Yitsḥak ben Ḥayim Shaḥor and his brother-in-law Yosef ben Yakar had worked for 10 years in the trade, they both died of the plague, and their orphaned sons were too young and inexperienced to take on the business. Eli‘ezer thus became their manager in 1557. In 1559 the surviving children, Ḥayim ben Yitsḥak Shaḥor and Ḥanah bat Yosef ben Yakar, received a privilege from King Sigismund II Augustus to print and trade Hebrew books. In addition, they received the sole right to import Hebrew books produced outside of Poland. To defend their right as importers, the privilege stated that anyone found importing Hebrew books from abroad would be fined 20 marks."@en ; jlo:title "Eli‘ezer ben Yitsḥak" ; skos:altLabel "Eli‘ezer ben Yitsḥak" ; skos:prefLabel "Eli‘ezer ben Yitsḥak" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1978), author, poet, and critic. Born in Ostrów Mazowiecka, Yisroel Emyot (originally Goldwasser; Emyot is a combination of the Polish names of his father’s initials: Meylekh Yanowski, “em” and “yot”) descended from two prominent Hasidic families. After his father’s immigration to the United States, Emyot was raised and educated in the home of his maternal grandparents; as an adolescent, he studied at a yeshiva in Warsaw. Emyot’s first poem—signed Y. Yanover—was published in 1926 in the periodical Inzer hofenung (Our Hope), edited by Itshe Meyer Vaysenberg. Emyot’s literary ability was also recognized by Nakhmen Mayzel, editor of Literarishe bleter (Literary Pages), which published his poems, as did other literary journals. "@en ; jlo:title "Emyot, Yisroel" ; skos:altLabel "Yisroel Emyot" ; skos:prefLabel "Emyot, Yisroel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1936), essayist and Zionist activist. Zalman Epstein was born in Lubań, in the Minsk district of Russia. During his adolescence he studied at the Volozhin yeshiva. At age 16, he moved with his family to Odessa, where he acquired a secular education but was not admitted to the university. Though he enjoyed a very fruitful literary career, he drew his main source of income from his lifelong work as a bookkeeper and merchant."@en ; jlo:title "Epstein, Zalman" ; skos:altLabel "Zalman Epstein" ; skos:prefLabel "Epstein, Zalman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Preindustrial European societies were typically divided into hereditary estates, consisting of social groups distinguished by occupation, legal status, and customs. Nobility, clergy, and peasantry are classic examples from the early modern period. Subgroups existed within these categories (including nobles related by blood to the ruling dynasty; monastic clergy; and peasants who worked on lands owned by the monarch) and there were additional estates outside them (town dwellers, merchants, serfs, and so on)."@en ; jlo:title "Estate System" ; skos:narrower , ; skos:prefLabel "Estate System" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Prominent rabbinic family. The Ettinger family originated in the city of Öttingen, Bavaria. One branch was related by marriage to a number of other prominent families, including the Orensteins, Natansons, and Rapoports. Several members of the family distinguished themselves as rabbinic leaders in Poland and Galicia during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries."@en ; jlo:title "Ettinger Family" ; skos:altLabel "Ettinger family", "Mordekhai Ze’ev Ettinger" ; skos:prefLabel "Ettinger Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Sixteenth-century Jewish financiers living in Poland. Three Ezofowicz (or Józefowicz) brothers—Jan Abraham (d. 1519), Michal (d. 1529?), and Ajzyk (Isaac; dates unknown)—were among a number of prominent Jews in medieval and early modern Poland who managed the finances of Polish monarchs."@en ; jlo:title "Ezofowicz Family" ; skos:altLabel "Ezofowicz" ; skos:prefLabel "Ezofowicz Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in central Romania, in the Făgăraş Depression on the Olt River, and northwest of Braşov. The first documented reference to Făgăraş (Ger., Fogarasch; Hun., Fogaras) dates to 1291; in the second half of the seventeenth century it was the seat of the Transylvanian legislative assembly. At the end of the same century (1694–1700), the first factory in Transylvania was established near Făgăraş (the glassworks in Porumbacul de Sus), and was leased to the Jews Iacob Fincz, Abraham Veider, Abraham Naphtali, and Solomon."@en ; jlo:title "Făgăraş" ; skos:altLabel "Făgăraş" ; skos:prefLabel "Făgăraş" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1939), Hebrew scholar and writer. Born in eastern Galicia, Re’uven Fahn received a maskilic as well as a traditional education, which motivated him to embark on a lifelong quest to combine nationalism with a religious spirit. He married at 19 and moved to the town of Halicz, in the Stanislau district, where he lived until World War I. There his acquaintance with the Karaite community prompted him to research and compile facts, stories, and details about their folklore."@en ; jlo:title "Fahn, Re’uven" ; skos:altLabel "Re’uven Fahn" ; skos:prefLabel "Fahn, Re’uven" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1948), Zionist leader. Born in Warsaw, Yehoshu‘a Heshel Farbstein was an active member of the Ḥibat Tsiyon movement and a delegate to the First World Zionist Congress in 1897. Earlier, Farbstein had been involved in ill-fated attempts to gain a commitment from Theodor Herzl that Zionism would not be contrary to Jewish religious law. After the founding of Mizraḥi in 1902, Farbstein participated in its activities and struggled against members of the organization who supported withdrawal from the Zionist Federation."@en ; jlo:title "Farbstein, Yehoshu‘a Heshel" ; skos:altLabel "Yehoshu‘a Heshel Farbstein" ; skos:prefLabel "Farbstein, Yehoshu‘a Heshel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1875–1970), Czech rabbi. Richard Feder was born in Václavice (near Benešov, south of Prague). He studied philosophy in Vienna and also attended the rabbinical seminary in that city; he then served as a rabbi in Kojetín, Louny, and Roudnice nad Labem. From 1917 until 1942, Feder held a rabbinic position in Kolín. Each of these communities was located in the Czech regions of Bohemia and Moravia; sermons were delivered in Czech before World War I."@en ; jlo:title "Feder, Richard" ; skos:altLabel "Richard Feder" ; skos:prefLabel "Feder, Richard" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Known as the Va‘ad (council) of the USSR, the Federation of Jewish Communities and Organizations was founded in late 1989 with the development of an overt Jewish movement under perestroika and glasnost. Unlike the majority of national movements or “fronts” that emerged rapidly between 1988 and 1991, the Jewish movement did not link its aspirations for a national revival with any particular territory in the USSR. It was characterized by two conflicting approaches. One argued that the struggle for aliyah (emigration to Israel) should be its exclusive focus; the other, while insisting on the right to aliyah, also sought a Jewish national and cultural revival in the USSR. After most refuseniks were allowed to depart and mass emigration began, the second position predominated. “Informal” (i.e., unregistered) Jewish clubs and cultural societies arose, like similar groups among other nationalities. By the end of 1989, the number of Jewish organizations exceeded 200. Among these were Evreiskaia Kul’turnaia Assotsiatsiia (Jewish Cultural Association), established in 1988; Soiuz Prepodavatelei Ivrita/Igud Morim (Association of Hebrew Teachers); Evreiskoe Istoricheskoe Obshchestvo (Jewish Historical Society); Obshchestvo Druzhby i Kul’turnykh Sviazei c Izrailem (Association for Friendship and Cultural Ties with Israel); and Irgun Tsiyoni (Zionist Organization), founded in August 1989."@en ; jlo:title "Federation of Jewish Communities and Organizations of the USSR" ; skos:altLabel "Federation of Jewish Communities and Organizations of the USSR", "Federation of Jewish Organizations and Communities of the USSR" ; skos:prefLabel "Federation of Jewish Communities and Organizations of the USSR" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Federatsiia Evreiskikh Obshchin Rossii; FEOR), the umbrella organization of various associations established by the Ḥabad (Lubavitch) movement in 1998–1999. Officially, these associations and their unifying body surfaced later than the other large umbrella organizations—the Federation of Jewish Communities and Organizations of the USSR (Va‘ad), the Russian Jewish Congress (REK), and the Congress of Jewish Religious Communities and Organizations in Russia (KEROOR). In fact, the Ḥabad associations were preceded by a lengthy period during which the movement developed its organizations first in Mikhail Gorbachev’s Soviet Union and then in the Soviet successor states (FSU)."@en ; jlo:title "Federation of Jewish Communities in Russia" ; skos:altLabel "Federation of Jewish Communities in Russia", "Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia" ; skos:prefLabel "Federation of Jewish Communities in Russia" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1959), mathematician. Lipót Fejér was born in Pécs, Hungary. Though he had difficulty with mathematics in elementary school, Fejér excelled at this subject in high school. In particular, he mastered problems presented in the monthly journal Középiskolai Matematikai Lapok (Mathematical Journal for Secondary Schools), established in 1893 by Dániel Arany to advance the teaching of mathematics in general and to nurture talented high school students. This journal, thought to be the first of its kind in the world, had a major impact on Hungary’s contributions to mathematics. "@en ; jlo:title "Fejér, Lipót" ; skos:altLabel "Lipót Fejér" ; skos:prefLabel "Fejér, Lipót" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1950), journalist, publicist, and Yiddish activist involved in socialism. Leo Finkelshteyn (Finkelstein) was born in Radom, where he received a general education and later studied philosophy at Jagiellonian University in Kraków. In 1923, he moved to Warsaw and became a member of the Folkist Party, serving as its representative on the executive committee of the Warsaw Jewish community from 1927 to 1937. "@en ; jlo:title "Finkelshteyn, Leo" ; skos:altLabel "Leo Finkelshteyn" ; skos:prefLabel "Finkelshteyn, Leo" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1944), physician, graphic artist, and writer. Karel Fleischmann was born in Klatovy, Bohemia, and he finished secondary school in České Budějovice, a southern Bohemian town with a small Jewish population, before studying at the faculty of medicine in Prague. In 1925, Fleischmann returned to České Budějovice, where he practiced dermatology and pursued literary and artistic interests. His father, a graphic artist and calligrapher, had long encouraged his son’s talents."@en ; jlo:title "Fleischmann, Karel" ; skos:altLabel "Karel Fleischmann" ; skos:prefLabel "Fleischmann, Karel" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1943), activist, publicist, and official of Agudas Yisroel in Poland. Born in Sochaczew to a Hasidic family, Frydman received a traditional education. In 1914, his family fled to Warsaw. It was there that the young Frydman came under the influence of Emanuel Carlebach, a representative of Frankfurt Orthodoxy who was instrumental in the founding of the Polish branch of Agudas Yisroel in 1916."@en ; jlo:title "Frydman, Aleksander Zysha" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksander Zysha Frydman" ; skos:prefLabel "Frydman, Aleksander Zysha" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1892–1941), journalist, essayist, and translator. Alfred Fuchs first was a Zionist, then a member of the Czech Jewish academic community, and later an active Roman Catholic. In secondary school, he took a keen interest in Jewish mysticism and wanted to become a rabbi. At Prague University he studied philosophy, law, and theology, and earned his doctorate in 1915. He was also an active member of Spolek Českých Akademiků Židů (Association of Czech Academic Jews)."@en ; jlo:title "Fuchs, Alfred" ; skos:altLabel "Alfred Fuchs" ; skos:prefLabel "Fuchs, Alfred" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1942), poet, playwright, essayist, translator, and promoter of Czech culture. After graduating from secondary school, Rudolf Fuchs completed a series of courses at the German Commercial Academy in Prague. From 1909 to 1911, he worked as a clerk in an export firm first in Berlin and then in Prague. He was conscripted in 1917; upon returning from the front, he continued in his job until his emigration to Britain in 1939."@en ; jlo:title "Fuchs, Rudolf" ; skos:altLabel "Rudolf Fuchs" ; skos:prefLabel "Fuchs, Rudolf" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Yiddish term for a Jew who lived in Galicia, a territory that existed from 1772 to 1918, as one of the crown lands of the Austrian Empire. In addition to the adjective that defines geographical origin, Galitsianer became a cultural identifier bearing, for the most part, negative connotations. Among the stereotypes attributed to the Galitsianer were the following: a troublemaker, a shrewd operator, a money grubber, a religious fanatic, a spineless compromiser, a speaker of popular, vulgar Yiddish, and someone ashamed of his or her origins who liked to pose as an Austrian. Jokes about Galitsianer men and women became very popular; some of these continue to exist despite the fact that Galicia itself disappeared long ago. "@en ; jlo:title "Galitsianer" ; skos:altLabel "Galitsianer", "Galitsianers" ; skos:prefLabel "Galitsianer" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Every part of the goose was used by East European Jews, for whom rendered goose fat was a staple and feathers an essential component of bedding. In some regions, Jewish women were responsible for most aspects of the raising, fattening, and selling of geese; women also rendered and sold fat and traded in goose feathers."@en ; jlo:title "Geese" ; skos:altLabel "geese" ; skos:prefLabel "Geese" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1925), historian, literary critic, and anti-Zionist. Born in 1869 in Kishinev, Gershenzon attended a local gymnasium. Unable to gain entrance into a Russian university where there were quotas for Jews, he was sent to study engineering in Berlin. There he audited courses on history, especially those taught by Theodore Mommsen and Heinrich von Treitschke. Returning home, he gained entrance to Moscow University, ironically arriving at the same time that thousands of Jews were forced to evacuate the city."@en ; jlo:title "Gershenzon, Mikhail Osipovich" ; skos:altLabel "Mikhail Gershenzon" ; skos:prefLabel "Gershenzon, Mikhail Osipovich" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Officially called the Jewish Organization for the Maintenance of Public Order (Ger., Jüdischer Ordungsdienst; Pol., Żydowska Służba Porządkowa), Jewish police units were established under Nazi occupation in most East European ghettos. The establishment of a police force usually was connected with the creation of the ghettos, which excluded the Jewish population from general police jurisdiction and thus created a need for an alternative system of ensuring that the Jewish population complied with German occupiers’ orders. The absence of a general German order regarding the establishment of the Jewish police indicates that in all probability, it was the various local occupying forces—and not the Central Reich Government—that took the initiative to set up this force. Indeed, the composition of the Jewish police in different ghettos, their jurisdictional powers, and their status within the Jewish community varied from ghetto to ghetto, according to local conditions. A small ghetto could muster only a handful of individuals to join its police force, whereas the Warsaw ghetto police comprised more than 2,000 members."@en ; jlo:title "Ghetto Police (Ghettos)" ; skos:altLabel "ghetto police", "police" ; skos:prefLabel "Ghetto Police (Ghettos)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Sometimes spelled Gintsburg; 1907–1972), Soviet cinematographer and cinema director. Born into a traditional Jewish family, Aleksandr Ginzburg took up photography, and then cinematography, at an early age. After moving to Leningrad, he began at the age of 18 to film popular science movies. In 1927 he graduated from the Camera Department of the Leningrad Technical School of Cinematography, becoming a cameraman at the Sovkino (later, Lenfil’m) Movie Studio. In 1934 he received a bachelor’s degree from the Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute."@en ; jlo:title "Ginzburg, Aleksandr Il’ich" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksandr Ginzburg" ; skos:prefLabel "Ginzburg, Aleksandr Il’ich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1836–1915), Hebrew poet and playwright. Born in Lwów, Meshulam Goldbaum was inspired to write poetry by the revolutions of 1848 (his initial pieces have not survived). His earliest remaining poem is “Be-hakifi pe’ot roshi” (When My Sidelocks Surround Me), written when he was 15; the work protests against external marks that set Jews apart from gentiles."@en ; jlo:title "Goldbaum, Meshulam Zalman" ; skos:altLabel "Meshulam Zalman Goldbaum" ; skos:prefLabel "Goldbaum, Meshulam Zalman" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1867–1943?), political leader and Bundist theorist. Shmul Gozhansky (sometimes spelled Gozshansky; also known by his pseudonyms Lonu or Der Lerer [the teacher]) was born in Grodno to a middle-class family and graduated from the Vilna Teachers’ Institute in 1888. He then taught in Kovno, Białystok, and Vilna. Gozhansky participated in revolutionary activities as a young man and in 1889 helped to organize the tailors’ strike in Vilna. In the 1890s, he was a Russified intellectual who led the revolutionary circles of Jewish workers that gave rise to the Jewish Labor Bund."@en ; jlo:title "Gozhansky, Shmul" ; skos:altLabel "Shmul Gozhansky" ; skos:prefLabel "Gozhansky, Shmul" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1900–1972), rabbi, historian, and philosopher. Meyer Abraham Halevy was born in Piatra Neamț, Romania, into a religious family; his father was a rabbi and his mother also came from a rabbinic family. After completing his heder education, Halevy studied at the Beit Israel yeshiva in Buhuşi."@en ; jlo:title "Halevy, Meyer Abraham" ; skos:altLabel "Meyer Abraham Halevy" ; skos:prefLabel "Halevy, Meyer Abraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1835–1919), historian, public activist, and librarian. Avraham (Albert Iakovlevich) Harkavy was born into a wealthy and prominent family in Novogrudok, Minsk guberniia, where he received a typical religious education. As an adolescent he studied briefly at the Volozhin yeshiva before transferring in 1858 to the state-sponsored Vilna Rabbinical Seminary. In 1863, he enrolled at Saint Petersburg University, where he received a master’s degree in oriental studies in 1868. He then went to Berlin and Paris to study Egyptology and Assyriology. He returned to Saint Petersburg and was awarded a doctorate in 1872. After teaching briefly at the university, Harkavy was appointed to a position at the Russian Imperial Public Library and became the librarian of the Oriental and Semitic Department in 1877. "@en ; jlo:title "Harkavy, Avraham" ; skos:altLabel "Avraham Harkavy", "Harkavy" ; skos:prefLabel "Harkavy, Avraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883–1953), Zionist, attorney, and Polish parliament deputy. Born in Biała Podlaska, Apolinary Hartglas came from an assimilated Jewish family. From 1892 to 1900, he attended a Russian high school and subsequently studied law at the Russian University in Warsaw, graduating in 1904. While a student he joined the rapidly growing Zionist movement in the Polish Kingdom, editing, with Yitsḥak Grünbaum, the first Zionist journals there: Głos Żydowski (Jewish Voice) and Życie Żydowskie (Jewish Life). "@en ; jlo:title "Hartglas, Apolinary" ; skos:altLabel "Apolinary Hartglas" ; skos:prefLabel "Hartglas, Apolinary" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "From the beginning of Hasidism, teachers associated with the movement considered dance, along with music, an avenue of worship. In Hasidic thought and literature, dancing is both an expression and a stimulator of joy, and as such has a therapeutic effect. It purifies the soul and produces spiritual uplift, unites the community, and enhances social relationships; the tsadik’s dance may even encourage repentance. "@en ; jlo:title "Dance (Hasidism)" ; skos:altLabel "Hasidic dance", "Hasidism: Dance" ; skos:prefLabel "Dance (Hasidism)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Yiddish social and political newspaper published in Romania from 12 June 1874 until 5 January 1913. In 1882, its editors concluded an agreement with the Bucharest representatives of the Central Committee for the Colonization of the Land of Israel; in effect, Hayoets (The Counselor) became an organ of the emerging Zionist movement and the chronicler of Romanian Jewish immigration to Palestine. "@en ; jlo:title "Hayoets" ; skos:altLabel "Hayoets" ; skos:prefLabel "Hayoets" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1876–1942), journalist, poet, translator, and political leader. Born into an affluent family in Slonim, Grodno province, Samuel (Shmuel) Hirschhorn moved to Warsaw when he was 13, where he completed commercial studies in addition to receiving a religious education. He began a career in journalism with the progressive Polish press, to which he contributed articles and poems, both original and translated from French and Russian."@en ; jlo:title "Hirschhorn, Samuel" ; skos:altLabel "Samuel Hirschhorn" ; skos:prefLabel "Hirschhorn, Samuel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(fl. 18th century), factor of the Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski (1732–1798), and author of a project aimed at reforming Jewish lifestyles. He was probably the same person as Abraham Hirszewicz, a goldsmith and factor who was granted the status of servitor regis by Poniatowski on 19 January 1775. "@en ; jlo:title "Hirszowicz, Abraham" ; skos:altLabel "Abraham Hirszowicz" ; skos:prefLabel "Hirszowicz, Abraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1939), Yiddish author and novelist. Shimen Horontshik (Pol., Szymon Horonczyk) was born in Wieluń, in the Kalisz district of Poland. When Horontshik was 8 years old, his father died, and until he was 11, he lived with his grandfather, a Kotsk Hasid. Following the death of his grandfather, he returned to his mother’s home and received a traditional Jewish education. At 17, he worked as a production laborer at a lacework factory in Kalisz, where he lived until the town was captured by Germany in early August 1914. Horontshik then escaped to Łódź."@en ; jlo:title "Horontshik, Shimen" ; skos:altLabel "Shimen Horontshik" ; skos:prefLabel "Horontshik, Shimen" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1908–1973), novelist. The youngest of eight children, Egon Hostovský was born in Hronov, a northeast Bohemian town of about 30,000 people, into a family that owned a small factory. He left university in 1930 to work as a journalist and editor at various publishing houses; he was also one of the editors of the Kalendář českožidovský (Czech Jewish Almanac) from 1931 to 1937. By his mid-twenties, he had already established himself as a major writer, and his Žhář (The Arsonist) won the state prize for literature in 1935. "@en ; jlo:title "Hostovský, Egon" ; skos:altLabel "Egon Hostovský" ; skos:prefLabel "Hostovský, Egon" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1891–1938), Soviet official. Genrikh Grigor’evich Iagoda (first known as Genokh Gershevich; last name also rendered Yagoda), was born in Iaroslavl’ province to the family of a Jewish artisan who made his living engraving and repairing jewels and watches. In his hometown, Iagoda completed only the four-grade elementary educational program, but later passed the examination of the gymnasium in Nizhnii Novgorod, the city in which in 1904 and 1905 he worked as a typesetter at an underground printing house."@en ; jlo:title "Iagoda, Genrikh Grigor’evich" ; skos:altLabel "Genrikh Iagoda" ; skos:prefLabel "Iagoda, Genrikh Grigor’evich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1937), military figure. Iona Iakir (also rendered Yona Yakir) was born in Kishinev to the family of a pharmacist. In 1913, he graduated from a Kishinev professional school and continued his studies at the University of Basel in Switzerland. During World War I, he returned to Russia and studied at the Kharkov Institute of Technology. In 1915, he was sent as a conscript to Odessa, where he worked as a lathe operator in a military factory."@en ; jlo:title "Iakir, Iona Emmanuilovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iakir", "Iona Iakir" ; skos:prefLabel "Iakir, Iona Emmanuilovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1912–1972), Russian-language writer. Boris Iampol’skii was born and raised on the Jewish outskirts of the provincial Ukrainian town of Belaia Tserkov’, where his father worked at a mill and his mother owned a small dry goods store. Although Iampol’skii left home in 1927, the impressions of his Jewish childhood informed his work for the rest of his life."@en ; jlo:title "Iampol’skii, Boris Samoilovich" ; skos:altLabel "Boris Iampol’skii" ; skos:prefLabel "Iampol’skii, Boris Samoilovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Tenth-century traveler who journeyed from Tortosa (Spain) through Central and Eastern Europe. Some of the written impressions of Ibrāhīm ibn Ya‘qūb (more fully, Ibrāhīm ibn Ya‘qūb al-Isrā’ilī al-Turtushi) survive through later Arabic sources. The original work was probably a report drafted for the Umayyad caliph of Spain, al-Ḥakam II (r. 961–976), following a visit to Germany as head of a delegation to Emperor Otto I. The depth of knowledge and proficiency that ibn Ya‘qūb displays in his discussions of medical matters suggest that he may have been a physician."@en ; jlo:title "Ibrāhīm ibn Ya‘qūb" ; skos:altLabel "Ibrāhīm ibn Ya‘qūb" ; skos:prefLabel "Ibrāhīm ibn Ya‘qūb" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1742–1801), rabbi and halakhist. Born into a distinguished rabbinic family from Buczacz (Galicia), by age nine Meshulam ben Shimshon Igra had already presented a complex halakhic discourse in the study hall of the famous community of Brody. By age 17 he was appointed rabbi of Tysmenitsa (now Ukr., Tysmenytsya). There he attracted as students such future rabbinical leaders as Mordekhai Banet of Nikolsburg, Ya‘akov of Lissa, and Mosheh Münz of Óbuda."@en ; jlo:title "Igra, Meshulam ben Shimshon" ; skos:altLabel "Meshulam Igra" ; skos:prefLabel "Igra, Meshulam ben Shimshon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1937), Russian writer. With Evgenii Petrov, Il’ia Il’f (originally surnamed Fainzil’berg) wrote some of Soviet Russia’s most exuberant satires. Their two novels, Dvenadtsat’ stul’ev (The Twelve Chairs; 1928) and Zolotoi telenok (The Little Golden Calf; 1931), slipped past censorship to become the texts through which generations of knowing readers mocked Soviet reality. Innocent enough to be reading material for adolescents, the novels were actually cynical works that adults memorized in part or in full. Quotations from the books, as comments on post-Soviet society, continue to turn up in the Russian-language press on three continents. "@en ; jlo:title "Il’f, Il’ia Arnol’dovich" ; skos:altLabel "Il’ia Il’f" ; skos:prefLabel "Il’f, Il’ia Arnol’dovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1881–1958), painter and graphic artist. Born in Bucharest, Iosif Iser moved with his family to Ploieşti, where he completed his secondary education and showed early artistic promise. Beginning in 1899, he studied painting at the Royal Academy of Arts in Munich, and had his first personal show upon returning to Ploieşti in 1904. He soon moved to Bucharest, where he worked as a cartoonist and caricaturist at the editorial office of the Adevărul newspaper. In 1905, he was part of the Tinerimea Artistică (Young Artists) group exhibit, and in 1906 had his first show in Bucharest. "@en ; jlo:title "Iser, Iosif" ; skos:altLabel "Iosif Iser" ; skos:prefLabel "Iser, Iosif" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1749–1829), German–Polish banker and merchant. Born to a wealthy family in Frankfurt an-der-Oder, Yehudis ha-Levi Jakubowicz had an excellent education. At age 30, she became the third wife of Shmul Zbytkower, a successful army provisioner and merchant in Warsaw. She was an active partner in her husband’s business and, based on her contacts, helped expand its scope. After his death in 1801, she led the company alone, continuing to provide supplies to the Prussian, French, and Russian armies. She achieved a leading position among the purveyors to the court of the Duchy of Warsaw, second only to Berek Shmuel Sonnenberg (Bergson), her stepson and competitor. Her company also acted as a purveyor to the Prussian court. Having received unrestricted rights of residence, trade, and manufacturing from the Prussian king in 1798, Jakubowicz saw this privilege recognized by the Kingdom of Poland in 1815, granting her the right to acquire real estate. Moreover, the privilege was heritable by all her descendants. "@en ; jlo:title "Jakubowicz, Yehudis Halevi" ; skos:altLabel "Jakubowicz", "Yehudis Halevi Jakubowicz" ; skos:prefLabel "Jakubowicz, Yehudis Halevi" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Yedvabneh) is situated in the Mazowsze region of Poland, 20 kilometers northeast of Łomża and 45 kilometers west of Tykocin (Tiktin). Jews first came to Jedwabne from Tykocin and were initially subject to that town’s Jewish communal authority. In 1770, when the wooden synagogue of Jedwabne was built, 387 Jews out of a total population of 450 lived in the community, a place known for its shoemakers."@en ; jlo:title "Jedwabne" ; skos:altLabel "Jedwabne" ; skos:prefLabel "Jedwabne" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1740–1819), rabbi and author. Born in Kalisz (in what was to become Galicia), Yehudah Kahana was the eldest of four sons of Yosef ha-Kohen, who traced his lineage to the seventeenth-century rabbi Yom Tov Lipmann Heller (hence, some members of the family were called Kahana-Heller). Kahana at first shunned the rabbinate, leasing a village inn near Kalisz. Unsuccessful as an innkeeper, he became a private tutor to advanced students of wealthy families in Lwów, where he befriended a fellow tutor, Yosef Te’omim, later the rabbi of Frankfurt an der Oder and the author of the Peri megadim. "@en ; jlo:title "Kahana, Yehudah" ; skos:altLabel "Yehudah Kahana" ; skos:prefLabel "Kahana, Yehudah" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1912–1986), Soviet mathematician and economist, Nobel Prize laureate. Born into a family of physicians in Saint Petersburg, Kantorovich went right from his nine-year primary school to the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Leningrad State University. Upon graduation, he was asked to stay on in graduate school, which he completed in two years while also teaching at the Institute of Construction. In 1932 he became professor and department head at the Institute of Industrial Transport. That same year he was named assistant professor at Leningrad State University, becoming full professor in 1934."@en ; jlo:title "Kantorovich, Leonid Vital’evich" ; skos:altLabel "Leonid Kantorovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Kantorovich, Leonid Vital’evich" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1918), failed assassin of Vladimir Lenin. On 30 August 1918, Fannie Kaplan was arrested for having shot and wounded Vladimir Lenin in Moscow. At 4:00 A.M. on 4 September, she was executed in a Kremlin parking lot as truck engines drowned out the pistol shots. A famed Bolshevik poet, Demian Bedny, watched the execution “for revolutionary inspiration.” The order was given that Fannie Kaplan’s remains be destroyed without a trace. In reprisal for the crime—and for the assassination of the head of the Petrograd secret police on the same day as the Lenin shooting—thousands fell victim to the “Red Terror” unleashed on 5 September 1918. The shooting also sparked the beginning of the cult of Lenin. Fannie Kaplan is known only for this one act of attempted assassination and for its fateful aftermath. "@en ; jlo:title "Kaplan, Fannie Efimovna" ; skos:altLabel "Fannie Kaplan" ; skos:prefLabel "Kaplan, Fannie Efimovna" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1829–1905), rabbi and historian. Meir Kayserling was born in Hannover, Germany, where he attended high school at Meyer Michel David’s Freischule between 1838 and 1844. He then studied at a yeshiva in Halberstadt and at the Talmudic academy of Samson Raphael Hirsch in Nikolsburg. In 1849, he went to study with Shelomoh Yehudah Rapoport in Prague and later with Seligmann Baer Bamberger in Würzburg."@en ; jlo:title "Kayserling, Meir" ; skos:altLabel "Meir Kayserling" ; skos:prefLabel "Kayserling, Meir" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1913–1962), Yiddish and Russian writer. Emmanuil Kazakevich was born in the Ukrainian town of Kremenchug. His father, Henekh Kazakevich (1883–1935), was a Jewish political activist and journalist who joined the Bolsheviks and edited Communist Yiddish periodicals, notably the Kharkov literary journal Di royte velt (The Red World). In Kharkov, Emmanuil studied machine building, and was a member of the Yiddish literary group at the Communist newspaper Yunge gvardye (Young Guard), which published his early poems. From 1931 to 1937, Kazakevich lived in Birobidzhan, where his father edited the local Yiddish newspaper, Birobidzhaner shtern (Birobidzhan Star). "@en ; jlo:title "Kazakevich, Emmanuil Genrikhovich" ; skos:altLabel "Emmanuil Kazakevich" ; skos:prefLabel "Kazakevich, Emmanuil Genrikhovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1848–1917), rabbi, educator, and publicist. Alexander Kisch came from an established family in Prague, where his father, Joseph Kisch, was director of the first modern private school in the city’s Jewish quarter. Beginning in 1863, Kisch studied first at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau and later at the local university there. In 1871, he received his doctorate in philosophy from the University of Tübingen. He then lived in Paris, where he attended lectures at the Séminaire Israélite while working as a private tutor to the children of Russian financier and Jewish philanthropist Baron Horace Gintsburg (Günzburg)."@en ; jlo:title "Kisch, Alexander" ; skos:altLabel "Alexander Kisch" ; skos:prefLabel "Kisch, Alexander" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1825–1906), political activist and journalist. Julian Klaczko was born to a wealthy merchant family in Vilna. Influenced by his father’s Haskalah ideology, he was educated in both Hebrew and Polish, and was tutored by Shemu’el Yosef Fuenn, among others. Klaczko published his first poems when he was 13, initially in Polish in the collection Pierwsza ofiara (The First Sacrifice; 1838) and then in Hebrew in the volume Dudaim (1842). Other texts in Hebrew such as the novel The Fisherman remained unpublished. Those works were strongly influenced by the poetry of Adam Mickiewicz. "@en ; jlo:title "Klaczko, Julian" ; skos:altLabel "Julian (Yehuda) Klaczko", "Julian Klaczko" ; skos:prefLabel "Klaczko, Julian" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1867–1942), writer and journalist. Tamás Kóbor was born in Pozsony (Pressburg; today Bratislava) as Adolf Bermann. His family moved to Budapest when he was three years old. The name Tamás Kóbor, which he adopted as a young artist, is a Hungarian version (translated by János Arany) of Tam o’ Shanter, Robert Burns’s famous character. Kóbor studied law and started his literary career at the journal A Hét, whose editor in chief was his brother-in-law, the poet József Kiss. Kóbor was a principal contributor to numerous other journals and newspapers, including Magyar Hírlap, Pesti Napló, Pesti Hírlap, and Az Újság. His most significant works were short stories and novels. "@en ; jlo:title "Kóbor, Tamás" ; skos:altLabel "Tamás Kobor", "Tamás Kóbor" ; skos:prefLabel "Kóbor, Tamás" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1864–1941), revolutionary politician in Poland and the Soviet Union. Feliks Kon (known by many pseudonyms, including Bolesław Janowski, Feliks Bolesławski, and F. C. Stożyński) was born in Warsaw into a wealthy merchant family with strong Polish patriotic traditions. Kon became involved with the socialist movement while still in high school. In 1882, he joined the group Proletariat, the first major socialist movement in the Kingdom of Poland, which called for a struggle of the united working classes against the ruling order and the bourgeoisie in the tsarist empire."@en ; jlo:title "Kon, Feliks" ; skos:altLabel "Feliks Kon" ; skos:prefLabel "Kon, Feliks" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1867–1941), Bundist leader. Vladimir Kossovskii (pseudonym of Nokhem Mendl Levinson) was born in Dvinsk (now Daugavpils, Latvia) and attended high school in Kovno (Kaunas). As a result of his revolutionary activities, he was expelled in 1885 shortly before he was expected to graduate. In 1894, he moved to Vilna and became involved in the social democratic (Marxist) revolutionary circles of Jewish workers. A major advocate of the idea that Jewish revolutionary circles should be united under one party, Kossovskii was instrumental in creating the Jewish Labor Bund."@en ; jlo:title "Kossovskii, Vladimir" ; skos:altLabel "Vladimir Kossovskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Kossovskii, Vladimir" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1907–1989), Soviet mathematician. The son of a Kievan lumber merchant, Mark Krein showed an early talent for mathematics, attending research seminars at age 14. While he never obtained an undergraduate degree, he was accepted for doctoral studies at Odessa University in 1926, completing them in 1929. He became the author of more than 300 papers and monographs that opened up new areas of mathematics and greatly enriched the more traditional ones. Krein’s work was characterized by a profound intrinsic unity and a close interlacing of general abstract and geometric ideas with concrete and analytical results and applications."@en ; jlo:title "Krein, Mark Grigorievich" ; skos:altLabel "Mark Krein" ; skos:prefLabel "Krein, Mark Grigorievich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1882–1932), Soviet economist, political figure, and publicist. Iurii Larin was born in Simferopol’ as Mikhail Aleksandrovich Luria. His father, Shneur (Shelomoh) Zalman Luria, was an engineer, Hebrew author, Zionist, and, according to some sources, a kazennyi ravvin, or “crown rabbi.” "@en ; jlo:title "Larin, Iurii Aleksandrovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iurii Larin" ; skos:prefLabel "Larin, Iurii Aleksandrovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1905–1983), educator, journalist, Zionist leader, and historian. Theodor Lavi (originally Theodor Loewenstein) was born in Turnu-Severin, Romania, and attended schools in his native town. He studied educational psychology at the University of Bucharest, and in 1935 defended his Ph.D. with a thesis influenced by Sigmund Freud’s theories. Lavi then served as the principal of the Israelite-Romanian school of Ploieşti."@en ; jlo:title "Lavi, Theodor" ; skos:altLabel "Theodor Lavi", "Theodor Loewenstein (Lavi)" ; skos:prefLabel "Lavi, Theodor" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Line of important second-tier rabbinic leaders originating in Central Poland. Its folksy progenitor, David Biderman of Lelov (Pol., Lelów; 1746–1814), was a highly effective recruiter of scions of prestigious rabbinic families. David himself came from a humble background and was famous for his compassion for transgressors and his love for children and animals. A disciple of Elimelekh of Lizhensk (Leżajsk) and then of Ya‘akov Yitsḥak Horowitz (the “Seer of Lublin”), he remained the latter’s devotee even after obtaining his own following."@en ; jlo:title "Lelov Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:altLabel "David of Lelov", "Lelov" ; skos:prefLabel "Lelov Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1900 [1910 in some sources]–1942), poet. Born in Mrozy, Warsaw district, to a prominent Hasidic family, Yekhiel Lerer spent his childhood and adolescence in the shtetl of Żelechów, where he received traditional Jewish training and a general education from private tutors. In his adolescence (during the years of World War I), he became acquainted with modern Yiddish and Hebrew writings, and read Polish and German literature. Concurrently, he studied watchmaking and the fur business, but preferred to live in the He-Ḥaluts movement’s agricultural collective. When his hopes of leaving for Palestine fell through, he moved to Warsaw, apparently at the end of the 1920s."@en ; jlo:title "Lerer, Yekhiel" ; skos:altLabel "Yekhiel Lerer" ; skos:prefLabel "Lerer, Yekhiel" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1918), Hebrew poet. Ya‘akov Lerner was born in the town of Brzeżany in Volhynia to an affluent family of rabbinic pedigree. During his childhood, the family became impoverished and was forced to relocate to a village near the town of Kostopol, settling in Kostopol itself a few years later. Lerner attended heders and became engrossed in Judaic studies. He also studied Russian and French with private teachers. In 1901, he went to Warsaw, hoping to earn a matriculation certificate, and for the next five years he eked out a subsistence living as a teacher."@en ; jlo:title "Lerner, Ya‘akov" ; skos:altLabel "Ya‘akov Lerner" ; skos:prefLabel "Lerner, Ya‘akov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1904–1941), Russian writer. Doyvber (Boris Mikhailovich) Levin was born in the shtetl of Liady, Mogilev province. In 1921 he entered Petrograd University, transferring the next year to the theater department of the State Institute for the History of the Arts, from which he graduated in 1928. In the 1930s he lived in Leningrad, where he published eight books, most of them for young people, and wrote the scenario for the children’s film Fed’ka. Levin fought in the Soviet–Finnish War of 1939–1940. He was killed on 17 December 1941, on the Leningrad front. "@en ; jlo:title "Levin, Doyvber" ; skos:altLabel "Doyvber Levin" ; skos:prefLabel "Levin, Doyvber" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1877–1946), Yiddish and Hebrew prose writer. Lipman Levin was born in Mogilev (mod. Mahilyow), Belorussia, to a prosperous family. A precocious boy, he studied religious and secular subjects and later worked as a teacher. In 1900, he arrived in Warsaw, where, following his successful debut as a story writer in the newspaper Der yud (The Jew), he contributed to other Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals, including Di yudishe folks-tsaytung (The Jewish People’s Paper), coedited by his brother-in-law Khayim Dovid Hurvits, a prominent journalist and editor. "@en ; jlo:title "Levin, Lipman" ; skos:altLabel "Lipman Levin" ; skos:prefLabel "Levin, Lipman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1860–1900), Russian painter. Russia’s outstanding landscape painter of the second half of the nineteenth century, Levitan was born in Kubarty, a town in the Lithuanian province of Suvalki. He was educated at the Moscow School of Painting, Architecture, and Sculpture, studying with the landscape painter Aleksei Savrasov and the prominent Russian realists Vasilii Perov and Vasilii Polenov. Early poverty undermined his health, and he died at the age of 40. He nonetheless left an oeuvre of more than 1,000 paintings, among them iconic depictions of the Russian landscape like Vladimirka (1892), Nad vechnym pokoem (Above “Eternal Rest”; 1894), and Svezhii veter. Volga (Fresh Wind: The Volga; 1891–1895). The Moscow collector Pavel Tret’iakov built up a large holding of Levitan’s works, and the Tret’iakov Gallery holds many of his masterpieces. During his short career, Levitan was elected to the Russian Academy of Art. He likewise associated with significant Russian and Western European artistic movements such as the Peredvizhniki (Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions), the Munich Secession, and Sergei Diaghilev’s journal Mir iskusstva (The World of Art). "@en ; jlo:title "Levitan, Isaak Il’ich" ; skos:altLabel "Isaak Levitan" ; skos:prefLabel "Levitan, Isaak Il’ich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1944), Zionist leader in Poland. Born in Warsaw, Leon Lewite joined Kadimah, the association of Jewish students at the University of Warsaw and at the Technikum (Polytechnic College). As an active Zionist, he devoted himself to acquiring pledges for shares in the Jüdische Kolonialbank (Jewish Colonial Trust)."@en ; jlo:title "Lewite, Leon" ; skos:altLabel "Leon Lewite" ; skos:prefLabel "Lewite, Leon" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Natan Petaḥyah ben Barukh Mosheh Lipa; 1830–1915), physician, writer, and Zionist activist. Karpel Lippe was born in Tyśmienica (near Stanisławów, Galicia) into a traditional family. Influenced by the ideas of the Haskalah, he stopped preparing for the rabbinate and decided to study medicine. Unable to complete his program, in 1860 he moved to Iaşi and worked as a secondary physician at the Israelite Hospital. He finally received his medical degree from the University of Erlangen in Germany, and practiced in Iaşi, where he helped the poor and was the first Romanian physician to give free consultations at designated hours."@en ; jlo:title "Lippe, Karpel" ; skos:altLabel "Karpel Lippe" ; skos:prefLabel "Lippe, Karpel" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Yiddish literary and cultural monthly periodical. Literarishe tribune (Literary Tribune) was officially published in Łódź between April 1930 and March 1933. Issued monthly (biweekly in the last five months of its publication), it produced a total of 43 issues. Each contained between 16 and 24 pages with a print run of 2,000 to 3,000 copies. The actual number of readers was much higher. "@en ; jlo:title "Literarishe Tribune" ; skos:altLabel "Literarishe tribune" ; skos:prefLabel "Literarishe Tribune" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1874–1932), pseudonym of Khayim Yankl Helfand, socialist, Yiddish writer, translator, and editor. Helfand was born in Vilna to a strictly observant Jewish family. He went to heder until the age of 12 and subsequently studied at a yeshiva and taught himself Russian. At the age of 19, he joined an illegal study group in Vilna organized by the Jewish Social Democratic Group in Russia, the organization that later established the Bund in 1897."@en ; jlo:title "Litvak, A." ; skos:altLabel "A. Litvak" ; skos:prefLabel "Litvak, A." ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1922–1993), scholar of literature, culture, and semiotics. Iurii Mikhailovich Lotman founded the Tartu school of semiotics and was the author of numerous important works on the semiotics of culture, and the structure of poetic and literary texts."@en ; jlo:title "Lotman, Iurii Mikhailovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iurii Lotman" ; skos:prefLabel "Lotman, Iurii Mikhailovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1840–1909), economist and banker. A nephew of Hungarian-born German poet Karl Beck, Nándor Beck was born in (Bács-) Madaras to poor parents; his father was a grocer. Beck (Madarassy-Beck from 1906) studied banking in Vienna and upon his return to Hungary in 1862 was employed at the Pest branch of the Credit-Anstalt für Gewerbe und Handel. From 1867, he was a senior clerk at the Anglo-Hungarian Bank."@en ; jlo:title "Madarassy-Beck, Nándor" ; skos:altLabel "Nandor Beck de Madarassy", "Nandor de Madarassy" ; skos:prefLabel "Madarassy-Beck, Nándor" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Khane-Rokhl Werbermacher; 1806?–1888?), Hasidic religious leader. Little concrete information is known about the pious Hasidic woman popularly known as the Maiden of Ludmir (Yid., Di Ludmirer Moid). Despite or perhaps because of the lack of historical detail, she has inspired a century of writers who have told and retold her story in fiction (including Isaac Bashevis Singer’s novel Shosha), plays, and articles. "@en ; jlo:title "Maiden of Ludmir" ; skos:altLabel "Maiden of Ludmir" ; skos:prefLabel "Maiden of Ludmir" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1901), poet, journalist, dramatist, and translator. In his life as well as in his work, Emil Makai was a paradigmatic figure for the first generation of Hungarian Jewish writers. His career exemplifies the path of Jewish intellectuals as they moved from the framework of Jewish life and literature into national Hungarian culture (writer József Kiss followed a similar pattern)."@en ; jlo:title "Makai, Emil" ; skos:altLabel "Emil Makai" ; skos:prefLabel "Makai, Emil" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1901–1943), teacher and historian. Bella Mandelsberg-Schildkraut (or Szyldkraut) was one of the few women among the nearly 70 students who earned masters’ degrees with dissertations on Polish Jewish history at the University of Warsaw between 1919 and 1939. An economic historian who studied with Jan Kochanowski, Mandelsberg wrote her thesis, “The Socio-economic and Public-legal History of Lublin’s Jews in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century, with Emphasis on the Reign of Władysław IV,” between 1926 and 1928; the manuscript remains at the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw."@en ; jlo:title "Mandelsberg-Schildkraut, Bella" ; skos:altLabel "Bella Mandelsberg-Schildkraut" ; skos:prefLabel "Mandelsberg-Schildkraut, Bella" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1899–1980), memoirist and cultural critic. Nadezhda Mandel’shtam figures as the best-known and most talented “widow of Russia,” a female survivor of the Stalinist era who preserved the politically suppressed work of her husband, the poet Osip Mandel’shtam. As a memoirist and raconteur among friends, she also served as a keenly perceptive, highly opinionated source on Soviet culture and society."@en ; jlo:title "Mandel’shtam, Nadezhda Iakovlevna" ; skos:altLabel "Nadezhda", "Nadezhda Mandel’shtam" ; skos:prefLabel "Mandel’shtam, Nadezhda Iakovlevna" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1856–1940), historian. Born Henrik Morgenstern, Marczali’s father was Mór Morgenstern (1824–1889), the Neolog rabbi of Marcali, Hungary (the family’s name change in 1875 was inspired by the town). Marczali attended Benedictine high schools in Győr and Pápa. He was 14 when he started studies at the University of Budapest, earning his history and geography teacher’s diploma in 1873. Between 1875 and 1877, he attended universities in Vienna, Berlin, Paris, London, and Oxford, and in 1878 earned a doctorate at the University of Budapest. Marczali became the most significant Hungarian historian from the 1880s until the first decade of the twentieth century."@en ; jlo:title "Marczali, Henrik" ; skos:altLabel "Henrik Marczali" ; skos:prefLabel "Marczali, Henrik" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1743–?), physician and medical writer. Born in Słonim, Moyshe Markuze (or Marcuse) received a thorough Talmudic education. From 1766 to 1768, he studied medicine in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) and then traveled to Holland and England. Returning to Eastern Europe in 1774, he worked as a physician in the estates of the Lubomirski family in Kapust (Kopyś) near Szkłów (Shklov), an area that had been annexed to Russia two years earlier. By 1782 he had moved to Trisk (Turyjsk) in Volhynia, where he served as a government-licensed physician. It is said that he was physician to Poland’s King Stanisław August Poniatowski and to some members of the commission of the crown treasury."@en ; jlo:title "Markuze, Moyshe" ; skos:altLabel "Moyshe Markuze" ; skos:prefLabel "Markuze, Moyshe" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1849–1923), journalist, novelist, philosopher, and literary critic. Born into an assimilated, well-to-do Jewish family from Hořitz (Hořice; also Horschitz) in Bohemia, Fritz Mauthner received his primary and secondary education at German schools in Prague. Although he officially studied law, he acquired a broad education at the German university in Prague. In 1876, Mauthner moved to Berlin, where he published articles in or collaborated on several literary journals, earning his living primarily through writing theater reviews. In 1889, he was a founder of the avant-garde theater Freie Bühne (Free Stage). He wrote plays, novels, short stories, and satires."@en ; jlo:title "Mauthner, Fritz" ; skos:altLabel "Fritz Mauthner" ; skos:prefLabel "Mauthner, Fritz" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1843–1926), rabbi and commentator. One of the outstanding Orthodox thinkers in Lithuania during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Me’ir Simḥah ha-Kohen was a wealthy merchant’s son. He received his religious education first in his hometown of Butrimonys and later in Eishishok, where he studied under Mosheh Denishevsky."@en ; jlo:title "Me’ir Simḥah ha-Kohen" ; skos:altLabel "Me’ir Simḥah ha-Kohen" ; skos:prefLabel "Me’ir Simḥah ha-Kohen" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1760–1827/31?), Hasidic leader. In his youth, Me’ir ha-Levi Rotenberg studied under the rabbis Yitsḥak Avraham Aba ha-Kohen Katz and Aryeh-Yehudah Leib Te’omim, all the while living in poverty. He was nominated in 1809 to serve as a rabbi in Apt (Opatów) and, in 1815, in Stavnits (Stopnica). In 1816, his son Yisra’el was elected to the Stopnica rabbinate, and Me’ir returned to Opatów."@en ; jlo:title "Me’ir ha-Levi Rotenberg of Apt" ; skos:altLabel "Me’ir ha-Levi Rotenberg", "Me’ir of Apt" ; skos:prefLabel "Me’ir ha-Levi Rotenberg of Apt" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Village on the Stava River (Pripiat’ basin) in Ukraine’s Rivne (Rovno) region. Mezhyrichi, known as Mezhirech in Russian and Międzyrzecz in Polish, was called Mezhirich Gadol by Jews; currently known as Velikie Mezhyrichi (Great Mezhyrichi), it has also been referred to as Mezhyrichi Koretskie. From 1569 it was in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and from 1793 in the Korets district of the Russian Empire’s Volhynia province. Between 1921 and 1939 the town belonged to independent Poland."@en ; jlo:title "Mezhyrichi" ; skos:altLabel "Mezhirichi", "Mezhyrichi" ; skos:prefLabel "Mezhyrichi" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1887–1943), manufacturer, head of the Łódź  kehilah, Polish parliamentary deputy, and leader of Agudas Yisroel. Born in Radom to a Hasidic family, Leib Mincberg received a traditional education yet also learned several European languages. Upon his marriage into a Gerer Hasidic family, he transferred his allegiance to that dynasty. With the outbreak of World War I, Mincberg moved to Łódź, where he began a successful career in manufacturing. "@en ; jlo:title "Mincberg, Leib" ; skos:altLabel "Leib Mincberg" ; skos:prefLabel "Mincberg, Leib" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1868–1941), lawyer. Born into the family of a businessman in Daugavpils, Latvia, Pauls Mincs (Paul Mintz) graduated from gymnasium in Riga in 1885. He received a law degree from Saint Petersburg University and another from Tartu University in Estonia in 1892. His brother Vladimirs, a lawyer, was also prominent in Latvian public life. From 1918, Mincs taught at Tartu University. He also devoted much of his time to Jewish social issues, having in 1898 been one of the founders and then head of Riga’s chapter of the Society for the Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia."@en ; jlo:title "Mincs, Pauls" ; skos:altLabel "Pauls" ; skos:prefLabel "Mincs, Pauls" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Mintz; 1872–1945), surgeon. Vladimirs Mincs’s father, Jehil Mikelis Mincs, moved to Riga from Daugavpils. Vladimir and his brother Pauls became prominent figures in Latvia and its Jewish community."@en ; jlo:title "Mincs, Vladimirs" ; skos:altLabel "Vladimirs", "Vladimirs Mincs" ; skos:prefLabel "Mincs, Vladimirs" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Pseudonym of N. M. Vilenkin; 1855–1937), poet and essay writer. Born in a village in the Vitebsk region of Belorussia, Nikolai Minskii graduated from a Russian gymnasium with high honors and received a degree in law from Saint Petersburg University. In 1882, he converted to Russian Orthodox Christianity in order to marry."@en ; jlo:title "Minskii, Nikolai Maksimovich" ; skos:altLabel "Nikolai Minskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Minskii, Nikolai Maksimovich" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in the Moldavian region of Romania, in the county of Bacău. Located in an area of petroleum exploitation, Moineşti experienced Jewish settlement in the second half of the eighteenth century: one tombstone from the Jewish cemetery dates from 1748, another from 1787. In 1820, Moineşti was home to 42 Jewish taxpayers; by 1831, there were 93 Jews in the town; and in 1899, a total of 2,398 Jews represented 50.6 percent of the population. Later, this number diminished: in 1910, it had fallen to 2,141; in 1930 to 1,761; and in 1941 to 1,325. Jews were employed in crafts, local commerce, and the petroleum industry. Many were Hasidim, followers of Yitsḥak Friedman of Buhuşi or of Hersh Tsevi Landman of Bacău."@en ; jlo:title "Moineşti" ; skos:altLabel "Moineşti" ; skos:prefLabel "Moineşti" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1878–1952), playwright, novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. The son of a hard-working Budapest physician, Ferenc Molnár grew up in a typical assimilated middle-class household. He became an international celebrity at a fairly young age, one of the very few Hungarian writers to have achieved that status in the twentieth century. In phenomenally successful plays such as Az ördög (The Devil; 1907), Liliom (1909), A testőr (The Guardsman; 1910), and Játék a kestélyban (The Play’s the Thing; 1926), he popularized, and in a sense vulgarized, the techniques and assumptions of the naturalist, impressionist, and symbolist theater, and revitalized the conventions of the nineteenth-century French drawing room comedy. Molnár was a consummate craftsman, a master of dialogue, pacing, and plot construction. Though far more than an entertainer, he failed whenever he tried to write “serious,” morally weighty dramas. Molnár scored his greatest successes abroad as a playwright; his many prose works, including brilliant sketches and humorous pieces, are less well-known outside of Hungary, although A Pál utcai fiúk (The Paul Street Boys; 1907) remains a juvenile classic in a number of European countries. "@en ; jlo:title "Molnár, Ferenc" ; skos:altLabel "Ferenc Molnár" ; skos:prefLabel "Molnár, Ferenc" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1745–1807), Hasidic master in eastern Galicia. Mosheh Leib was born in Brody; his main teacher was Shemu’el Shmelke Horovitz, leader of a Hasidic center in Ryczywol and from 1766 head of the rabbinical court in Sieniawa. After returning from a stay with his master, Mosheh Leib settled in Apt (Opatów) and probably led a small Hasidic community there. During the 1780s, he moved to Sasov (Yid., more properly Sasev)."@en ; jlo:title "Mosheh Leib of Sasov" ; skos:altLabel "Mosheh Leib of Sasov" ; skos:prefLabel "Mosheh Leib of Sasov" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(fl. late fourteenth–early fifteenth century), eminent rabbinic leader in Bohemia, anti-Christian polemicist, halakhist, philosopher, kabbalist, and commentator. Mülhausen’s activities, coming a generation or two after the devastation of the Black Plague, raised the intellectual, cultural, and religious profile of Bohemian Jewry. Along with contemporaries such as the brothers Avigdor and Menaḥem Kara and Menaḥem Shalem, Mülhausen belonged to a set of rabbinic figures whose intellectual breadth was not usually associated with the Ashkenazic rabbinate of the late medieval period."@en ; jlo:title "Mülhausen, Yom Tov Lipmann" ; skos:altLabel "Yom Tov Lipmann Mülhausen" ; skos:prefLabel "Mülhausen, Yom Tov Lipmann" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Historically, most Jewish musicians in Eastern Europe came from families involved with music, and received their musical education through individual apprenticeships and other informal channels. The traditional Jewish professions of klezmer, badkhn (wedding jester), and ḥazan (cantor) were usually passed from father to son or father to son-in-law, creating dynasties of musicians that persisted into the modern period. Guilds of Jewish musicians with more formal apprenticeships could be found in some towns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but after the partitions of Poland, they were largely restricted to towns within Austrian and Ottoman territories. Cantors also passed on their skills to their assistants and accompanists, either to solo zingers (singers) or to ensembles of meshorerim (choristers). More formal cantorial associations were established in the late nineteenth century under German influence in parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and in Poland in the interwar period. Hasidic melodies were also orally transmitted through Hasidic courts. "@en ; jlo:title "Musical Education and Musical Societies" ; skos:altLabel "music society", "musical society" ; skos:prefLabel "Musical Education and Musical Societies" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1813–1892), rabbi and early Zionist. Yosef Natonek attended yeshiva in Komárom with Pinḥas Leib Frieden, in Nikolsburg with Neḥemyah Naḥum Trebitsch until 1835, and in Ungvár for the year 1836. Although he never studied at the yeshiva of Mosheh Sofer (Ḥatam Sofer) as is often stated, he did apparently obtain ordination in Pressburg. He turned to trade and during the revolution of 1848–1849 supplied livestock to the Austrians and then to the Hungarian forces at the fortress of Komárom, where he settled in 1849. Later, he was issued a certificate of good conduct addressed to the Austrian authorities stating that during the revolution he had not “budged a hairsbreadth” from the path of loyalty."@en ; jlo:title "Natonek, Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Yosef Natonek" ; skos:prefLabel "Natonek, Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. 1804), merchant, shtadlan (lobbyist for Jewish interests), and Jewish political leader in late eighteenth-century Russia. In the late 1770s and 1780s, Notkin was a contractor for the court of Count Semen Gavriilovich Zorich in Shklov, and for Count Grigorii Potemkin, Russia’s “viceroy of the south.” During this period, Notkin traveled frequently to Prussia, and came into contact with the circle of the Berlin Haskalah. He was a subscriber to the journal Ha-Me’asef, and was apparently responsible for commissioning Naftali Herts Wessely to compose Hebrew poems, with German translation, in honor of the visit by Empress Catherine II to Shklov and Mogilev in 1780. "@en ; jlo:title "Notkin, Nota Khaimovich" ; skos:altLabel "Nota Notkin", "Note Notkin" ; skos:prefLabel "Notkin, Nota Khaimovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Kamil Zeman; 1882–1952), Czech novelist and journalist. Ivan Olbracht’s mother, Kamila Schonfeldová, came from a German-speaking Jewish family in northern Bohemia; his father, the writer Antal Stašek (originally Antonín Zeman), forced her to convert to Catholicism before he would marry her. (“For me,” he wrote to her in a letter, “departure from my church would be an excommunication from Czech society.”) Olbracht studied law in Berlin and Prague, but eventually left his studies to become a full-time journalist for a Czech Social Democratic paper in Vienna, where he worked from 1909 until 1916."@en ; jlo:title "Olbracht, Ivan" ; skos:altLabel "Ivan Olbracht" ; skos:prefLabel "Olbracht, Ivan" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Booksellers and publishers in Warsaw. Samuel Orgelbrand (1810–1868) founded the family’s business, which, from the middle of the nineteenth century until its sale in 1920, maintained a leading position in the Polish and Polish Jewish publishing industries. His brother Maurycy (1826–1904) and sons Hipolit (1843–1920) and Mieczyslaw (1847–1903) were also associated with the business. The publishing house produced texts on Polish literature and history, reference works in different disciplines, and specialist literature in social sciences, economics, law, and medicine."@en ; jlo:title "Orgelbrand Family" ; skos:altLabel "Samuel Orgelbrand" ; skos:prefLabel "Orgelbrand Family" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1899–1980), writer, playwright, and journalist. Isac Peltz was born in Bucharest, to a family of impoverished craft workers. Beyond attending heder, it is unlikely that he received formal schooling. At age 16, Peltz single-handedly edited a review titled Indrumarea (Guidance). One year later, he published a pamphlet, Menirea literaturii (The Purpose of Literature), pleading for writers’ moral and social commitment. In 1916, he took his first job, at the editorial office of a newspaper. "@en ; jlo:title "Peltz, Isac" ; skos:altLabel "Isac Peltz" ; skos:prefLabel "Peltz, Isac" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Industrialists and bankers in Bohemia. The Petschek family, originally based in Kolín in central Bohemia, included captains of industry of Czech lands from the late nineteenth century. Its members reached their pinnacle of success in the period of the first Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)."@en ; jlo:title "Petschek Family" ; skos:altLabel "Ignaz Petschek", "Petschek family" ; skos:prefLabel "Petschek Family" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1933), painter. Born in Piła near Sieradz, Poland, Leopold Pilichowski received his early Jewish education in his native village and then studied art in Łódź. There he spent time in the company of the painter Szmul Hirszenberg (to whom he was related) and the Hebrew writer David Frishman. Pilichowski continued his studies at the Art Academy in Munich and later at the Academy Julian in Paris. In France he painted portraits, Parisian street scenes, and nocturnes, and in 1891 exhibited a painting entitled Pierwsze jesienne liście (First Leaves of Autumn). "@en ; jlo:title "Pilichowski, Leopold" ; skos:altLabel "Leopold Pilichowski" ; skos:prefLabel "Pilichowski, Leopold" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1907–1943), Yiddish folklorist. Born in Sanok, central Galicia, Shmuel Pipe learned the tailoring trade from his father. He was active in the youth organization Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa‘ir, advancing to the position of youth leader and educator. He became an enthusiastic collector for the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in Vilna, submitting Yiddish folktales and songs, children’s games, and other folklore materials."@en ; jlo:title "Pipe, Shmuel Zaynvl" ; skos:altLabel "Shmuel Zaynvl Pipe" ; skos:prefLabel "Pipe, Shmuel Zaynvl" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1892–1945), Czech journalist and novelist. Poláček was born to a Czech-speaking Jewish family in the small Bohemian town of Rychnov nad Kněžnou. Although he failed at the local gymnasium, he finished his studies in Prague in 1912; after a short period in law school he was drafted and served on the Russian and Serbian fronts. In Serbia he crossed over into “voluntary captivity” and spent the last two months of the war as a prisoner. On his return to Prague, he launched his career as a journalist, specializing in both short, humorous essays (sloupky) and court reports (soudničky); he wrote hundreds of each in his career. He also wrote two plays, a number of film scripts, and several volumes of short stories, establishing himself by the end of the 1920s as one of the republic’s wittiest writers. Poláček directed his sharp satires at extremism on both sides of the political spectrum, as well as at the complacent banality of the middle classes; he was particularly sensitive to clichés, empty phrases, and the abuse of language. His barbed Žurnalistický slovník (Journalistic Dictionary; 1934) mocked the stereotyped thinking of the political press. "@en ; jlo:title "Poláček, Karel" ; skos:altLabel "Karel Poláček" ; skos:prefLabel "Poláček, Karel" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "At the conclusion of the Third Partition in 1795, the territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were divided among Russia (62% of the area, 45% of the population), Prussia (20% of the land, 23% of the people) and Austria (18% of the land, 32% of the population). Although these borders were not final and would undergo revisions, most notably during the Napoleonic wars and after the Congress of Vienna, Polish independence would not return until 1918. From the time of the partitions onward, the story of Polish Jewry, like the story of Poland itself, became three separate yet often similar stories of adjustment, rejection, and cooperation between the populations of the lands of partitioned Poland and the ruling empires."@en ; jlo:title "Poland from 1795 to 1939 (Poland)" ; skos:altLabel "Kingdom of Poland" ; skos:prefLabel "Poland from 1795 to 1939 (Poland)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "To treat the demography of the Jewish population of Eastern Europe—its size, its movement within the region, and migration from it—this entry includes three articles. The principal division is chronological, using World War I, a time of great upheaval that disrupted large numbers of people and an event that led to the end of the empires of Eastern Europe and a redrawing of the area’s political map, as the point of division. The first article covers population and migration before World War I; the second and third articles separately treat these topics after the war. For further discussion, see the entries on specific countries, regions, and cities."@en ; jlo:title "About this Article (Population and Migration)" ; skos:altLabel "emigration" ; skos:prefLabel "About this Article (Population and Migration)" . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(pseudonym of Veronica Schwefelberg; 1921–1977), poet, prose writer, and translator. Veronica Porumbacu was the daughter of Arnold Schwefelberg, a renowned Jewish community leader. She was born in Bucharest and died as a victim of the earthquake that ravaged the city on 4 March 1977. She took the name Porumbacu from the name of the Transylvanian village where the nurse who raised her was born."@en ; jlo:title "Porumbacu, Veronica" ; skos:altLabel "Veronica Porumbacu" ; skos:prefLabel "Porumbacu, Veronica" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "On 1 October 1869, the Austrian post office produced the first official governmental Correspodenz-Karte (postal card), based on an idea developed by Emanuel Hermann, a Viennese Jewish economics professor. The first picture postcards appeared in the 1870s in several European countries. Germany, with its advanced print technology, became the center for illustrated cards of Jewish interest in the 1880s. The new form of communication spread to Poland and the United States. As early as 1888, a writer for the Warsaw monthly Izraelita criticized the German Jewish practice of sending ornate and ostentatious postcards for Rosh Hashanah, and was disappointed with the sums of money spent on buying and mailing them. Despite such views, the illustrated postcard became a great success, and by the first decades of the twentieth century the variety, richness, and quantity of them that were produced in Poland exceeded that of Germany. "@en ; jlo:title "Postcards and Greeting Cards" ; skos:altLabel "cards", "postcards" ; skos:prefLabel "Postcards and Greeting Cards" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1864–1921), rabbi, scholar, and bibliographer. Born in Lubraniets (Pol., Lubraniec), Shemu’el Avraham Poznański received a general and Jewish education from private tutors. In 1880, he moved to Warsaw and completed his studies in a realgymnasium (modern high school). In 1890, Poznański began to study at a number of institutions, including Berlin University, the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums (a rabbinical seminary and center for the scientific study of Judaism), and the Veitel Heine Institute. Greatly influenced by the bibliographer Moritz Steinschneider (1816–1907), Poznański submitted his doctoral dissertation in philosophy and Semitic philology to the University of Heidelberg in 1894, and two years later was ordained as a rabbi in Berlin. "@en ; jlo:title "Poznański, Shemu’el Avraham" ; skos:altLabel "Shemu’el Poznański" ; skos:prefLabel "Poznański, Shemu’el Avraham" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(also known in Russian as Grigorii Izrailevich; 1900–1969), Hebrew writer. Tsevi Preigerzon was born in Shepetovka, in the Volhynia region; his father was a Zionist maskil, and his mother a member of the well-known Halperin family that traced its roots to Rabbi Dov Ber Karasik. Preigerzon spent his early years in heder, and at the age of 13 was sent by his parents to study at the Herzliya gymnasium in Tel Aviv. World War I erupted while he was spending a summer in Europe, and in its wake all routes to Palestine were blocked. Faced with no other option, Preigerzon completed his secondary education at a Russian gymnasium in Odessa, where he concurrently took violin lessons at the local conservatory and spent his evenings studying at a yeshiva. He gradually became disenchanted with religion and poured his energies into Zionism, which soon had to compete with his devotion to communism. Thus in 1917, following the outbreak of the Russian Revolution, Preigerzon found himself torn between these loyalties. Two years later he traveled to Moscow where he was admitted to the Academy for Mining Engineering. "@en ; jlo:title "Preigerzon, Tsevi Hirsh" ; skos:altLabel "Tsevi Hirsh Preigerzon", "Tsevi Preigerzon" ; skos:prefLabel "Preigerzon, Tsevi Hirsh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Printers active in Kraków in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Yitsḥak ben Aharon of Prostitz (Yid., more properly Prostits; d. 1612) was born in Prossnitz (Prostějov) and apparently learned the printing craft in Venice. There he became acquainted with the editor and scholar Shemu’el Böhm (d. 1588), whom Prostitz persuaded to join in establishing a Hebrew printing house in Kraków. Though Böhm’s function was listed on title pages as magihah (proofreader), in the sixteenth century the work of the magihah also included helping to choose, prepare, and print manuscripts. The press bought its types, printing ornaments, and other implements in Venice. In an effort to compete with the great Italian printing houses, Kraków’s rabbis in 1590 encouraged Polish rabbis to use Prostitz rather than Italian printers; alternatively, they ruled that if a Polish rabbi choose to publish in Italy, his sales in Poland would be delayed. "@en ; jlo:title "Prostitz Family" ; skos:altLabel "Prostitz", "Yitsḥak ben Aharon of Prostitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Prostitz Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1874–1948), Hebrew, Yiddish, and German writer. Ya‘akov Rabinowitz was born in Volkovysk, Russia (now Belarus). After receiving a traditional education at heder and a yeshiva, he studied secular topics and taught in Vitebsk. Before he began composing his major literary output in German and Hebrew, he wrote a number of Zionist brochures in Yiddish, the earliest of which (Vu iz undzer oylem? An ernst vort tsum folk [Where Are Our Masses? A Serious Word to the People]) was published in Berdichev in 1899. "@en ; jlo:title "Rabinowitz, Ya‘akov" ; skos:altLabel "Ya‘akov Rabinowitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Rabinowitz, Ya‘akov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1892–1971), Communist leader; prime minister of Hungary. Son of a retail merchant, Mátyás Rákosi pursued his studies at the Eastern Trade Academy in Budapest. In 1910, he joined the Social Democratic Party. Rákosi acquired practical experience between 1912 and 1914 while working at firms in Hamburg and London; his outstanding linguistic abilities also led him to master a number of languages. In 1914, he enlisted in the army as a volunteer."@en ; jlo:title "Rákosi, Mátyás" ; skos:altLabel "Mátyás Rakósi", "Mátyás Rákosi" ; skos:prefLabel "Rákosi, Mátyás" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1895–1971), Yiddish-language literary critic, journalist, and translator. Born in Białystok and educated by tutors, Yoshue Rapoport mastered several European languages and gained a broad knowledge of literature. His contributions to Yiddish literature include his translations—among them selections from the works of Maurice Maeterlinck, Romain Rolland, Rabindranath Tagore, Boris Pilnyak, and Upton Sinclair—as well as writings about art, philosophy, the history of Russian revolutions, and Simon Dubnow’s history of the Jews (1938–1940)."@en ; jlo:title "Rapoport, Yoshue" ; skos:altLabel "Yoshue Rapoport" ; skos:prefLabel "Rapoport, Yoshue" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1988), Yiddish writer. Born in the shtetl of Zhager, Mark Razumny grew up in Riga, where, in addition to receiving a traditional Jewish education, he studied art and architecture. As a young boy, he began to write poems in Yiddish, Russian, and Hebrew. In 1917–1918, he affiliated with the Labor Zionists. Mobilized to the Red Army in 1919, Razumny soon moved to Germany and lived in Hamburg, where he published his first story, in German, in the local Israelitisches Familienblatt (Israelite Family Journal). He worked as a clerk at a Hamburg-based bank and studied philosophy, aesthetics, and literature at the university. "@en ; jlo:title "Razumny, Mark" ; skos:altLabel "Mark Razumny" ; skos:prefLabel "Razumny, Mark" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The Yiddish term rebetsin was the most prestigious title available to Jewish women. Its simplest definition is the wife of a rabbi, though the term also connotes a pious woman, a woman with good lineage, or a woman learned in religious matters. In Eastern Europe, rebetsins developed reputations for piety, scrupulous observance, religious leadership, and concern for the poor. Just as their rabbi husbands often emerged as community leaders, so too did rabbinic wives serve as important figures in the towns and villages of the region. "@en ; jlo:title "Rebetsin" ; skos:altLabel "Rebetsin", "rebetsin" ; skos:prefLabel "Rebetsin" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1977), jurist, politician, diplomat, and Holocaust researcher. One of seven brothers, Jacob (Ya‘akov ben David) Robinson was born in Seirijai (Serej) into a family with a rabbinic tradition reaching back to Yom Tov Lipmann Heller (seventeenth century). Although Orthodox, Robinson’s father, David, was an early Zionist."@en ; jlo:title "Robinson, Jacob" ; skos:altLabel "Jacob Robinson" ; skos:prefLabel "Robinson, Jacob" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in northeastern Romania at the confluence of the Siret and Moldova Rivers. Oral tradition claims a Jewish presence there from the late fifteenth century, but the first documentary reference dates to 1709, the oldest tomb inscription to 1724, and the record book of the burial society to 1773. Throughout the nineteenth century the Jewish community, integrated in the fields of commerce and crafts, recorded continuous demographic growth: from 288 Jews in 1803, to 1,200 in 1831, to 1,936 in 1838, to 3,290 in 1859, and to 6,432 in 1899 (then representing 39% of the total population). In 1910, there were 322 merchants, 55 shoemakers, 52 tailors, 20 carpenters, 18 blacksmiths, and 305 other craftsmen. As a result of emigration in the early twentieth century, the number of Jews dropped before World War I but eventually rose again during the interwar period: to 4,728 in 1910 and to 5,963 in 1930 (totaling 28%)."@en ; jlo:title "Roman" ; skos:altLabel "Roman" ; skos:prefLabel "Roman" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1849–1919), lawyer and Zionist leader. Born in the Hungarian city of Gyulafehérvár (Rom., Alba Iulia), János Rónai completed his legal studies at the University of Budapest. Working first as a vice notary public in Győr, he then started his own legal practices in Fogaras (Rom., Făgăraş) and in Balázsfalva; he also organized branches of the Independence Party of 1848 in several towns in Transylvania. Rónai’s writings include his 1875 doctoral dissertation, “Nacionalizmus és kozmopolitizmus különös tekintettel a zsidóság mai helyzetére” (Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism with special consideration of the Jewish Situation in Our Time)."@en ; jlo:title "Rónai, János" ; skos:altLabel "János Rónai" ; skos:prefLabel "Rónai, János" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1804–1865), Polish banker and communal leader. Mathias Rosen was the son of the German-born Isaak Simon Rosen, who had established himself as a banker in Warsaw during the Prussian occupation of Poland (1796–1806). In addition to Mathias Rosen’s activities as a partner in the family’s bank, which he ran alone after his father’s death in 1840, Rosen’s business activities included railway construction, tax farming, tobacco processing, and international trade, often as the partner of Leopold Kronenberg."@en ; jlo:title "Rosen, Mathias" ; skos:altLabel "Mathias Rosen" ; skos:prefLabel "Rosen, Mathias" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Leading maskilim and shtadlanim (political leaders) of Hungarian Jewry. Naftali Rosenthal (Naftali Mohr; 1727–1798) was, after Koppel Theben, the most important lay national figure of eighteenth-century Hungarian Jewry. Eliyahu Rosenthal (Eliah Komorn; 1758–1833), Naftali’s elder son, was an adviser to the government on issues of Jewish rights. Later members of the family, including Naftali’s younger son Shelomoh Rosenthal (Shelomoh [Solomon] Mohr; 1763–1845), were active in the Haskalah and in Jewish cultural life. "@en ; jlo:title "Rosenthal Family" ; skos:altLabel "Rosenthal", "Shelomoh Rosenthal" ; skos:prefLabel "Rosenthal Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Yehudah Leib; 1817–1887), business entrepreneur, public figure, and philanthropist. Leon Rosenthal received both a religious and a secular education, and he was particularly drawn to Hebrew literature. His father Mosheh’s house in Vilna was a popular place for maskilim to gather. "@en ; jlo:title "Rosenthal, Leon" ; skos:altLabel "Leon Rosenthal" ; skos:prefLabel "Rosenthal, Leon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1947), Hasidic Ḥaredi leader. Born in Ungvár, Aharon Roth founded a sect, known today as Reb Arele’s, that numbers in the thousands and serves as the most visible representative of radical Hasidic anti-Zionism in Jerusalem."@en ; jlo:title "Roth, Aharon" ; skos:altLabel "Aharon Roth" ; skos:prefLabel "Roth, Aharon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Aron Hirszhorn; 1909–1990), prose writer and essayist. Born into a Hasidic family, Adolf Rudnicki rebelled against his father and the Orthodox community. Settling in Warsaw in the early 1930s, Rudnicki joined a circle of young writers. In 1939, he fought the invading Nazis as a soldier in the Polish army, and after escaping German captivity, he went to Soviet-occupied Lwów, and later, in 1942, to Warsaw, where he lived on the Aryan side and took part in underground literary life and efforts to assist Jews."@en ; jlo:title "Rudnicki, Adolf" ; skos:altLabel "Adolf Rudnicki" ; skos:prefLabel "Rudnicki, Adolf" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1920–1972), poet, publicist, and translator. Born into an Orthodox family in Tyszowce, near Lublin, Arnold Słucki (originally Aron Kreiner) attended the State Seminary for Teachers of Judaism in Warsaw between 1934 and 1939. A Communist activist, Słucki fled the invading Nazis to the USSR, where he worked as a teacher and Komsomol instructor. In 1942, he joined the Red Army, later transferring to Polish units. After demobilization, he studied philosophy in Warsaw. A member of the Communist Party (1945–1966), he emigrated from Poland following the antisemitic campaign of 1968, eventually settling in West Berlin."@en ; jlo:title "Słucki, Arnold" ; skos:altLabel "Arnold Słucki" ; skos:prefLabel "Słucki, Arnold" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1866–1929), poet and physician. Born in the exclusively German-speaking town of Böhmisch-Leipa (now Česká-Lípa in the Czech Republic), Salus studied medicine in Prague and stayed on to work as a gynecologist. In the 1890s, however, he dominated the literary scene in Prague, publishing lyric poetry in prominent fin-de-siècle magazines and in popular collections such as Ehefrühling (Springtime of Marriage; 1900), Die Blumenschale (The Flower Vase; 1908), and Glockenklang (The Sound of a Bell; 1911). "@en ; jlo:title "Salus, Hugo" ; skos:altLabel "Hugo Salus" ; skos:prefLabel "Salus, Hugo" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1928–1999), Russian poet, children’s author, screenwriter, fiction writer, and translator. Not permitted to publish any of his original work for adult audiences in the Soviet Union until 1989, Sapgir was a well-known underground poet during the 1970s and 1980s, as well as one of the most beloved authors for children. During perestroika, Sapgir’s “adult” work finally appeared in the USSR, and he spent his last decade regarded as a patriarch of Russian avant-garde letters. "@en ; jlo:title "Sapgir, Genrikh Veniaminovich" ; skos:altLabel "Genrikh Sapgir" ; skos:prefLabel "Sapgir, Genrikh Veniaminovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1807–1879), rabbi, halakhist, and yeshiva head. Known as Maharam Schick (acronym for Morenu ha-Rav Mosheh, “Our Teacher, the Rabbi Mosheh”) after his responsa collection, Mosheh Schick was born in Březové, and from the age of 14 he studied under Mosheh Sofer (Ḥatam Sofer) in Pressburg. Eventually he was acknowledged to be Sofer’s heir as the leading halakhic decisor of Hungarian Orthodoxy. While throughout his career Schick was outspoken in his opposition to religious and educational reform, during the last years of his life he was particularly intransigent in demanding unequivocal loyalty to a narrow Orthodox position."@en ; jlo:title "Schick, Mosheh" ; skos:altLabel "Maharam (Mosheh) Schick", "Mosheh Schick" ; skos:prefLabel "Schick, Mosheh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Iosef Hechter; 1907–1945), writer, playwright, and essayist. Son of Mendel and Clara (née Weintraub) Hechter, Mihail Sebastian was born in Brăila, where he also attended high school. He studied law in Bucharest from 1927 to 1929 and in Paris from 1930 to 1931, then worked occasionally as a lawyer while mainly focusing on literary and journalistic work."@en ; jlo:title "Sebastian, Mihail" ; skos:altLabel "Mihail Sebastian" ; skos:prefLabel "Sebastian, Mihail" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1839–1900), Hebrew poet. Konstantin Abba Shapiro was born in Grodno and was raised in a strict and religious home in which his authoritarian father tried to divert him from an interest in secular literature. To discourage Shapiro from following the Haskalah, his parents married him off at the age of 15. Shapiro’s marriage was shortly annulled, and in an effort to free himself from his restrictive family environment, he moved briefly to Białystok and Vienna, eventually settling in Saint Petersburg. The first phase of his life there was marked by financial hardship and illness, but he overcame these difficulties with the help of a gentile Russian family, whose daughter he married. It was under these circumstances that he converted to Christianity—a decision that continually tormented and embarrassed him greatly, even though he never repudiated it in practice. Paradoxically, it was his conversion to Christianity that was responsible for the strengthening of his national Jewish identity. He retained fond recollections of Jewish experiences and traditions, so much so that toward the end of his life he described himself as one of the anusim (forced converts). "@en ; jlo:title "Shapiro, Konstantin Abba" ; skos:altLabel "Konstantin Abba Shapiro" ; skos:prefLabel "Shapiro, Konstantin Abba" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "The decorative work known as shpanyer arbet has been translated as both “spun work,” derived from the Yiddish word shpinen, and as “Spanish work.” The latter fancifully implies a connection between shpanyer arbet and the craft of lace making incorporating silver and gold threads practiced by Jews of Mallorca, Barcelona, and Toledo in fifteenth-century Spain. Shpanyer arbet is similar to nineteenth-century East European passementerie and bobbin lace, from which it is most likely derived. "@en ; jlo:title "Shpanyer Arbet" ; skos:altLabel "Shpanyer arbet", "shpanyer arbet" ; skos:prefLabel "Shpanyer Arbet" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1893–1966), Polish journalist and parliamentary correspondent. Bernard Singer (who reversed the letters of his name to form the pseudonym Regnis) came from a middle-class, Polonized family and graduated in 1910 from the Kronenberg Commercial High School in Warsaw. He then studied Polish literature and history at the Towarzystwo Kursów Naukowych (Society of Academic Courses) and the Wolna Wszechnica Polska (Free Polish University) in Warsaw. "@en ; jlo:title "Singer, Bernard" ; skos:altLabel "Bernard Singer" ; skos:prefLabel "Singer, Bernard" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1919–1986), Russian poet. Boris Slutskii spent his childhood and youth in Kharkov. His serious early interests in literature, art, and history led him to attend the Moscow Institute of Law (1937) and then, on the recommendation of the well-known poet Pavel Antokol’skii (1896–1978), the Gorky Institute of Literature (1938). Slutskii’s studies at both places ended with the Nazi invasion of June 1941, when he volunteered for the front. A recipient of four battlefield medals, he was demobilized in 1946 and spent time in treatment for wounds and shell shock. Because of his talent and civic frankness, he became an unofficial leader of young poets. They looked to him both for advice about their craft and about living ethically in a totalitarian state."@en ; jlo:title "Slutskii, Boris Abramovich" ; skos:altLabel "Boris Slutskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Slutskii, Boris Abramovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "One of the major schools of Hasidism in Poland. Its founder, Avraham Bornstein (1839–1910) was a leading intellectual figure of Polish Hasidism. He married the daughter of Menaḥem Mendel of Kotsk (Kock; 1787–1859), who became his spiritual guide and mentor. Four years after Menaḥem Mendel’s death, Bornstein accepted his first rabbinical position, serving first in several communities until he settled in Sokhachev (Yid., more properly Sokhechev; Pol., Sochaczew) in 1883, where he remained for the rest of his life."@en ; jlo:title "Sokhachev Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:altLabel "Sokhachev", "Sokhachever" ; skos:prefLabel "Sokhachev Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1883–1957), political figure, Zionist leader, and biblical scholar. Born in Kovno to a distinguished and wealthy family, Menaḥem Solieli (Max Soloveichik) studied at the university in Saint Petersburg and continued his education at various institutions of higher learning in Germany. His particular interest was in the biblical period. In 1904, in Saint Petersburg, he was among the founders of the Russian-language Zionist journal Evreiskaia zhizn (Jewish Life). "@en ; jlo:title "Solieli, Menaḥem" ; skos:altLabel "Max Solieli", "Menaḥem Solieli" ; skos:prefLabel "Solieli, Menaḥem" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Russian intellectual figures, active in literature and politics. Yitskhok Nakhmen Steinberg (1888–1957) was a political activist and public intellectual. His brother Aron (1891–1975) was a Russian and Yiddish writer and essayist. The Steinberg brothers were born in Dvinsk (now Daugavpils, Latvia) into an educated, religious, and wealthy merchant family. Their mother was a sister of the Yiddish critic Isidor Eliashev, also known as Bal-Makhshoves."@en ; jlo:title "Steinberg Brothers" ; skos:altLabel "Aron Steinberg", "Yitskhok Nakhmen Steinberg" ; skos:prefLabel "Steinberg Brothers" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Line of Hasidic leaders, active in eastern Galicia from the 1820s until the Holocaust. Some of the dynasty’s offshoots reached Israel, the United States, and Canada. The founder, Yehudah Tsevi Brandwein (ca. 1780–1844), a ritual slaughterer from the village of Stratin, succeeded his teacher, Uri of Strelisk (1757–1826), and was considered to be a leading tsadik of his time. Brandwein’s name appears in a list of prominent tsadikim appended to a report on the Hasidic movement in Galicia, written in 1838 by Lemberg’s chief of police. After Brandwein’s death, most of his Hasidim followed his eldest son, Avraham (ca. 1805–1865), who succeeded him in Stratin; a minority preferred another son, Eli‘ezer (ca. 1810–1865), who established a court at Azipolia. "@en ; jlo:title "Stratin Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:altLabel "Stratin", "Stratin Hasidic dynasty" ; skos:prefLabel "Stratin Hasidic Dynasty" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1864–1935), physician and public figure. Tsemaḥ (Yid., Tsemakh) Szabad was born in Vilna and educated in the traditional Jewish system and in a Russian secondary school. In 1881, he moved to Moscow, completing his medical studies at Moscow University in 1889. Five years later, Szabad returned to Vilna and worked as a physician at the local hospital. Because of his involvement in the 1905 Revolution, he was forced to leave Vilna for several years. During World War I, he provided care and support to Jews living in the battle zones."@en ; jlo:title "Szabad, Tsemaḥ" ; skos:altLabel "Tsemaḥ Szabad" ; skos:prefLabel "Szabad, Tsemaḥ" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1884–1953), poet, novelist, playwright, and journalist. In a letter written to fellow writer Gyula Krúdy, the young Ernő Szép lamented: “Why did I have to be poor and Jewish?” The son of a schoolteacher and one of nine children, Szép was born in the multiethnic town of Huszt in the Subcarpathian region, now part of Ukraine, which had a sizable, mostly Orthodox Jewish population. Szép was one of a number of Hungarians of humble Jewish origin who by the early years of the twentieth century had established themselves as poets, journalists, and artists in the burgeoning capital city of Budapest."@en ; jlo:title "Szép, Ernő" ; skos:altLabel "Ernő Szép" ; skos:prefLabel "Szép, Ernő" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1950), theater director, founder of the Kamernyi Theater in Moscow. Aleksandr Tairov (originally Kornblit) was born into a teacher’s family in the town of Romny, Poltava province. He gained his first theatrical experience as a gymnasium student in Kiev, where he played in amateur productions. In 1905, while studying at the Kiev University Law Faculty, Tairov began acting on the professional stage. Accepted into the Saint Petersburg troupe of Vera Komissarzhevskaia in 1906, he transferred to Saint Petersburg University."@en ; jlo:title "Tairov, Aleksandr Iakovlevich" ; skos:altLabel "Aleksandr Tairov" ; skos:prefLabel "Tairov, Aleksandr Iakovlevich" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Town in north central Romania, on the Mureş River. A documented reference to Târgu Mureş (also Tîrgu Mureş; Ger., Neumarkt am Miresch, Marktstadt; Lat., Forum Siculorum; Hun., Maros-Vásárhely, Székelyvásárhely) dates to 1300. The first Jew who was granted the right to settle in the town, in 1828, was Iosif Vojtitz, a goldsmith. By 1830, the town had two Jewish families; and in 1833, there were 16 Jews living there. The census of 1838 recorded the presence of five Jewish families, made up of 36 inhabitants."@en ; jlo:title "Târgu Mureş" ; skos:altLabel "Târgu Mureş" ; skos:prefLabel "Târgu Mureş" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1879–1929), journalist and Zionist activist. Shemu’el Tchernowitz was born in Shebez, in the Vitebsk region of Belorussia. While studying at the Kovno yeshiva, he established a close relationship with Shemu’el Ya‘akov Rabinowitz, a rabbi and one of the first religious Zionists. With Rabinowitz’s patronage, Tchernowitz was able to pursue a career as a public activist by serving as secretary of the regional Zionist unions of Vilna and Vitebsk."@en ; jlo:title "Tchernowitz, Shemu’el" ; skos:altLabel "Shemu’el Tchernowitz" ; skos:prefLabel "Tchernowitz, Shemu’el" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Criticism of and scholarship on Jewish theater in Eastern Europe have largely focused on Yiddish theater. Hebrew productions in Eastern Europe, however, nearly exclusively those of the Habimah company, were extensively reviewed in the contemporary Yiddish and Hebrew press, where they fueled a discourse on the issue of Jewish national rebirth. But histories of Habimah tend to focus on its work in Palestine and Israel. Jewish-themed theater in non-Jewish languages was regularly reviewed in the press, but little attention has been devoted to its history, with some recent exceptions. For Polish theater, there are studies by Michael C. Steinlauf, and critical and historical essays have been collected in a volume edited by Eleanora Udalska; for Russian theater, the work of Viktoriia Levitina is also to be noted."@en ; jlo:title "Criticism and Scholarship (Theater)" ; skos:altLabel "theater critic", "theater criticism" ; skos:prefLabel "Criticism and Scholarship (Theater)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1533–1594; according to others: 1525–1586), Karaite scholar who was born and lived in the Lithuanian town of Trakai. Yitsḥak ben Avraham wrote several compositions on Karaite ritual law (a collection of responsa on ritual slaughter is attributed to him), composed versed prayers, served as a dayan (judge) for both the Karaite and Rabbinite Jewish communities of Trakai, and served for a year as secretary to the Karaite Council of Lithuania. "@en ; jlo:title "Troki, Yitsḥak ben Avraham" ; skos:altLabel "Yitsḥak ben Avraham Troki" ; skos:prefLabel "Troki, Yitsḥak ben Avraham" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1823–1900), Hasidic master. Born in Kreuzberg, Courland, to a Latvian and Lithuanian family related to the Gaon of Vilna, Tsadok ha-Kohen (Zadok Rabinowicz) showed great promise as a child, and was married early into a wealthy family, facilitating his continued study. After a few years of marriage, however, he sought a divorce because of rumors about his wife. He eventually became a follower of Mordekhai Yosef Leiner of Izhbits. In 1888, following the death of Tsadok ha-Kohen’s friend and colleague Leibele Eger—who was, similarly, a disciple of Mordekhai Yosef and who had been a rebbe in Lublin continuing the traditions of Izhbits Hasidism—Tsadok ha-Kohen inherited his friend’s position."@en ; jlo:title "Tsadok ha-Kohen of Lublin" ; skos:altLabel "Tsadok ha-Kohen of Lublin" ; skos:prefLabel "Tsadok ha-Kohen of Lublin" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1785–1841), Hasidic leader. A scholar and prolific author, Tsevi Elimelekh (Shapira or Spira) of Dinov (Dynów) was among the outstanding leaders of Galician and Hungarian Hasidism and was known for his staunch opposition to all modernizing trends. He is sometimes referred to as the Bene Yisakhar, after the title of one of his most important books. He was named after his mother’s uncle, Elimelekh of Lizhensk, and was the grandson of Shimshon ben Pesaḥ of Ostropolye. Tsevi Hirsh of Zhidachov, Naftali Horowitz of Ropshits, and Tsevi Elimelekh were seen as the successors to, respectively, Ya‘akov Yitsḥak Horowitz (the Seer of Lublin), Menaḥem Mendel of Rimanov, and Yisra’el of Kozhenits. Relations among the three heirs were marked by controversy."@en ; jlo:title "Tsevi Elimelekh of Dinov" ; skos:altLabel "Tsevi Elimelekh of Dinov" ; skos:prefLabel "Tsevi Elimelekh of Dinov" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1869–1931), writer, journalist, and editor. With his multifaceted ties to the religious communities of Pozsony (Bratislava) and Galicia, and his isolated Jewish upbringing, Péter Újvári was fundamentally different from the assimilated Jews whose trials and tribulations are well recorded by Hungarian Jewish and even non-Jewish writers. Újvári was the first Hungarian Jewish writer who wanted to write specifically Jewish prose in Hungarian. While he had few admirers, those who did appreciate his work thought of him as the Hungarian Sholem Aleichem or Sholem Asch, or even as the Jewish equivalent of the great Hungarian writers Kálmán Mikszáth and Mór Jókai."@en ; jlo:title "Újvári, Péter" ; skos:altLabel "Péter Újvári" ; skos:prefLabel "Újvári, Péter" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Jewish Ukrainian literary creativity was uncommon: East European Jews generally sought acculturation into powerful imperial societies that had great literary traditions, such as Russia or Germany. Nonetheless, some Jews chose to identify with the colonial society of Ukraine even though it was routinely represented not only as powerless, stateless, and oppressed, but also as uncivilized and backward. Most of the Jews who established themselves as Ukrainian writers or expressed sympathy for Ukrainian culture made a conscious anti-imperial choice; indeed, a decision by an East European Jew to integrate into Ukrainian culture was particularly striking because Jews for centuries viewed Ukrainians as perpetrators of anti-Jewish massacres, and Ukrainians perceived Jews as sycophantic servants of the Polish gentry, Russian landlords, or, later, the Bolsheviks."@en ; jlo:title "Ukrainian Literature" ; skos:altLabel "Ukrainian Literature" ; skos:prefLabel "Ukrainian Literature" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1890–1944), Yiddish poet. Miryem Ulinover, originally Manya Hirshbeyn, was born in Łódź. Her father, learned in both Jewish and modern secular culture, was a connoisseur of languages. Her parents divorced in 1905. A childhood visit to her maternal grandfather in the shtetl of Krzepice, near Częstochowa, marked Ulinover’s only recorded experience of the shtetl life that later became the central subject of her poetry. As she reported in an interview, her actual grandmother was a “Jewish aristocrat” and nothing at all like the folkloristic, old-fashioned grandmother in her poems."@en ; jlo:title "Ulinover, Miryem" ; skos:altLabel "Miryem Ulinover" ; skos:prefLabel "Ulinover, Miryem" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Lazar’ Iosifovich Vaisbein; 1895–1982), Soviet actor and singer. While attending commercial school, Utesov acted and played violin. Before completing his studies he joined the circus, performing in cabaret theaters in Kremenchug, Kherson, and Odessa. In 1921 Utesov moved to Moscow, where he appeared at the Theater of Revolutionary Satire, the Hermitage Theater, and the Theater of Musical Comedy. In 1922 he began performing in Leningrad at the Palace Theater, the Free Theater, and the Theater of Satire. He was most at home in cabaret theater, popular musical reviews, sketches, and melodramas. He frequently played in shows with Jewish themes, taking the roles of Ioshka the Musician in Osip Dymov’s Pevets svoei pechali (Singer of Grief) and Mendel’ in Mendel’ Marants, based on David Fridman’s novel; he also performed dramatic readings of Isaac Babel’s stories. In 1925, Utesov debuted in the cinema, playing the lead roles in Boris Svetlov’s films Kar’era Spir’ki Shpandyria (The Career of Spir’ka Shpandyr’) and Chuzhie (Strangers). "@en ; jlo:title "Utesov, Leonid Osipovich" ; skos:altLabel "Leonid Utesov" ; skos:prefLabel "Utesov, Leonid Osipovich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1910–1991), poet, translator, essayist, and memoirist. István Vas’s ancestors were small-town rabbis on his father’s side and well-to-do merchants on his mother’s. His father was an eager first-generation assimilationist who had a checkered career as a businessman and entrepreneur. The young Vas was in some ways a typical second-generation rebel, rejecting his parents’ wholehearted adoption of a conventionally bourgeois lifestyle, their unqualified respect for monetary wealth, their “enlightened” Judaism, and gravitated, politically, to the left and artistically toward the avant-garde movements of the late 1920s."@en ; jlo:title "Vas, István" ; skos:altLabel "István Vas" ; skos:prefLabel "Vas, István" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Ger., Windau), town in northwestern Latvia on the shore of the Baltic Sea. From 1561, Ventspils belonged to the Duchy of Courland (Kurland) and was under the sovereignty of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until it was annexed to the Russian Empire in 1795. The first Jews came to Ventspils in the second half of the eighteenth century from neighboring localities as well as from Prussia and Lithuania. A burial society and cemetery, however, were not established until 1831. Later a synagogue and a bet midrash were built. "@en ; jlo:title "Ventspils" ; skos:altLabel "Ventspils" ; skos:prefLabel "Ventspils" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1864–1918), physician, writer on ethics and sociology, journalist, translator, and a leading figure in the Czech Jewish Movement. After completing gymnasium, Viktor Vohryzek studied at the faculty of medicine at Prague University, where he was awarded his degree in 1887. In the course of his studies, he was active in Spolek Českých Akademiků Židů (Association of Czech Academic Jews). Following his studies, he moved to Vodňany, where he set up his own medical practice with a specialty in psychology."@en ; jlo:title "Vohryzek, Viktor" ; skos:altLabel "Viktor Vohryzek" ; skos:prefLabel "Vohryzek, Viktor" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. early 1600s), merchant; legendary king of Poland for a day. Sha’ul Wahl was the son of Shemu’el Yehudah Katzenellenbogen, rabbi of Padua. Sha’ul’s grandfather, Me’ir, commonly known as Maharam (“our teacher, the rabbi Me’ir”) Padua, was born in Hesse-Nassau in the city of Katzenellenbogen, spent his early years at yeshivas in Poland, and moved to Italy. Sha’ul Wahl lived in Brest-Litovsk (Brisk; Brześć nad Bugiem), where he was a large-scale merchant dealing in lumber, salt, and the collection of tariffs and customs duties. For a period of time, he also leased the revenues of the salt mines at Wieliczka, near Kraków, from the Crown. He is best remembered, however, for his association with the widely known legend according to which he was king of Poland for a day."@en ; jlo:title "Wahl, Sha’ul" ; skos:altLabel "Sha’ul Wahl" ; skos:prefLabel "Wahl, Sha’ul" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Followers of Sabbatianism in Prague. The earliest reference to the Wehle family is on the tombstone of Mordekhai bar Yisra’el Wehle (d. 1614), in the Prague Jewish cemetery. The Wehles were among the richest and most prominent Jewish families in Prague. The brothers Efrayim (ca. 1710–1770) and Hersh (d. 1796) engaged in the silk trade and held many important posts in the community. A series of well-arranged marriages cemented the position of the family. Hersh’s son, Aharon Beer (1750–1825), married Esther, the daughter of the leader of Bohemian Jewry, Shim‘on Frankel-Spira; his brother Yonah Beer (1752–1823) married a daughter of the president of the Prague community, Ofner; their sister Rösel married the rich merchant Shim‘on Eger. By the 1770s, the Wehles were the unquestioned secular leaders of Prague Jewry."@en ; jlo:title "Wehle Family" ; skos:altLabel "Wehle", "Wehle family" ; skos:prefLabel "Wehle Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1910–1944), communal leader. Born in Prague, as a student in secondary school, František Weidmann became a member of Kapper Academic Society, the Czech Jewish student organization. He served as chair of the association from 1930 to 1931 while studying law. In contrast to the leadership of Svaz Čechů-židů (the Union of Czech Jews), which was mostly nationalist and anti-Zionist, Weidmann furthered the cooperation of the Kapper association with Czech-speaking Zionists from the Theodor Herzl Association. Influenced by Jindřich Kohn, the leading philosopher of Czech Jewish integration, Weidmann believed that Jews needed to unite in their fight against antisemitism."@en ; jlo:title "Weidmann, František" ; skos:altLabel "František Weidmann" ; skos:prefLabel "Weidmann, František" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1804–1873), physician, ethnographer, and writer. Born in 1804 in the Czech city of Přeštice (Prestitz), Leopold Weisel devoted much of his literary career to the recovery of the oral traditions of Bohemian Jews. The son of a traveling cloth merchant, Weisel—whose original name was Joachim Löbl Weisel—spent his youth in Přeštice before moving to Prague to further his education. He lived as a medical student in Prague’s Jewish Town (Cz., Židovské město; Ger., Judenstadt) and supported himself as a private tutor for a number of Jewish families. During the 1830s and 1840s Weisel devoted most of his literary efforts to the collection and dissemination of Jewish folk tales from Prague, a project in which he collaborated with the non-Jewish folklorist Franz Klutschak (1814–1886), publishing some of his earliest efforts alongside those of Klutschak in the journal Panorama des Universums. Weisel was openly conscious of his status as a Jew who was losing contact with the world of traditional Jewish culture and he devoted this part of his career to capturing and preserving the rich folk traditions of the ghetto, which he accomplished by interviewing older residents of the Jewish quarter and recording their stories. "@en ; jlo:title "Weisel, Leopold" ; skos:altLabel "Leopold Weisel" ; skos:prefLabel "Weisel, Leopold" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1857–1922), Hungarian economist. According to family lore, Manfréd Weiss’s grandfather, Barukh Weiss, had been a simple village artisan. Probably originally from Moravia, the family, which settled in Pest, was relatively prosperous by the time Weiss’s father, Adolf B. Weiss (1807–1877), married. Several relatives made their living trading in produce, and in the 1860s and 1870s the family was involved with the emerging mill industry. Weiss was the sixth and youngest child. He studied at a commercial academy and after a short trip abroad, he joined the family business, immediately changing its profile to a more dynamic and versatile enterprise."@en ; jlo:title "Weiss, Manfréd" ; skos:altLabel "Manfréd Weiss" ; skos:prefLabel "Weiss, Manfréd" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1917), socialist activist and journalist. Max Wexler (Wechsler) was born in Iaşi, Romania. He studied philosophy in Brussels and completed his formal education at the Faculty of Letters and Philosophy of the University of Iaşi, where he then worked as a librarian."@en ; jlo:title "Wexler, Max" ; skos:altLabel "Max Wexler" ; skos:prefLabel "Wexler, Max" ; skos:related , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1876–1935), Czech Social Democratic politician, economist, theorist of socialism and social policy, commentator, and the author of numerous studies on economics and social law. After completing gymnasium, Lev Winter studied law and economics at Prague University. He was briefly active in Spolek Českých Akademiků Židů (Association of Czech Academic Jews) and then was a leading representative to the Kruhu Mladých Socialistických Intelektuálů (Circle of Young Socialist Intellectuals), where he worked with Alfred Meissner. Together the two also founded the socialist review Akademie."@en ; jlo:title "Winter, Lev" ; skos:altLabel "Lev Winter" ; skos:prefLabel "Winter, Lev" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1896–1976), poet, prose writer, essayist, and translator. After serving in the army during World War I, Józef Wittlin studied philosophy and linguistics in Vienna and in Lwów. A follower of expressionism in 1919–1920, he later joined Skamander, a moderately innovative group of poets headed by Julian Tuwim and Antoni Słonimski, and the circle of writers associated with the weekly Wiadomości Literackie."@en ; jlo:title "Wittlin, Józef" ; skos:altLabel "Józef Wittlin" ; skos:prefLabel "Wittlin, Józef" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Economic and political figures, active in nineteenth-century Hungary. Shemu’el (Sámuel) Wodianer, the first member of the family known to us, migrated from Bohemia to southern Hungary where his son Philip (Shraga Feivish, Feivish Ehprevitz, Oporovec; d. 1820) was born in Veprovác, Bács county (now Kruščić, Serbia) in the second half of the eighteenth century. Feivish Ehprevitz moved to Szeged with several siblings once the city opened its gates to Jews in 1783. In a short time, he was the wealthiest Jewish resident, trading in agricultural produce and also maintaining an apartment and a warehouse in Pest. Active in the Szeged Jewish community, he served as its head in 1808, 1813, and 1815. He donated the land for its synagogue in 1792 and later bequeathed silver ceremonial objects to the burial society. He may have had an advanced traditional education since he was addressed by the honorific ḥaver."@en ; jlo:title "Wodianer Family" ; skos:altLabel "Sámuel Wodianer", "Wodianer" ; skos:prefLabel "Wodianer Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Pseudonym of Yeshaye Nisn Hakoyen Goldberg; 1858–1927), Yiddish author. Born to a poor family in the village of Stolbovshchine (on the Neman River in Minsk province), Yaknehoz came from a distinguished lineage: his father, Yekusiel Zalmen, was a grandson of the noted Galician rabbi El‘azar ha-Kalir. Yaknehoz received a traditional Jewish education in Kapulie and Minsk, and, having achieved particular expertise in the Bible, began composing Hebrew poetry under its influence. He also developed a reputation as an inspector of Torah scrolls; still a yeshiva student, he traveled throughout the Minsk region, checking and correcting them. During this period he met the writer and critic Shemu’el Leib Zitron, at whose suggestion he began writing feuilletons in Hebrew and Yiddish in 1878 for periodicals such as Ha-Kol and Kol le-‘am."@en ; jlo:title "Yaknehoz" ; skos:altLabel "Yaknehoz" ; skos:prefLabel "Yaknehoz" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1578–1648), halakhist and rabbi. Born in Vilna, Yehoshu‘a Heshel of Kraków served as rabbi in Grodno, Tiktin, Przemyśl, and Lwów between 1634 and 1639. In 1640, he replaced Natan Shapira for 12 months as head of the yeshiva in Kraków; he then served in this role in an honorary capacity. Among his outstanding students were Shabetai ben Me’ir ha-Kohen, Gershon Ulif Ashkenazi, and Menaḥem Mendel Auerbach."@en ; jlo:title "Yehoshu‘a Heshel of Kraków" ; skos:altLabel "Yehoshu‘a Heshel ben Yosef", "Yehoshu‘a Heshel of Kraków" ; skos:prefLabel "Yehoshu‘a Heshel of Kraków" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Orthodox daily published in Warsaw from 20 September 1929 until World War II. Dos yudishe togblat (The Jewish Daily) succeeded where previous attempts to publish an Orthodox daily in Poland had failed. One reason for the earlier failures was the unwillingness of a part of the Orthodox population, especially Hasidim, to read newspapers. The situation changed when the Gerer rebbe, Avraham Mordekhai Alter (1866–1948), accepted the concept of an Orthodox paper to counteract the influence of the Jewish secular and non-Jewish press on Jewish readers. "@en ; jlo:title "Yudishe Togblat, Dos" ; skos:altLabel "Dos yudishe togblat", "Yudishe togblat" ; skos:prefLabel "Yudishe Togblat, Dos" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1942), journalist, wit, and public affairs writer. Born in Warsaw to a Hasidic family, Moyshe Bunem Yustman (known also as Ba‘al Ye’ush [master of despair]) identified with Orthodox Jewry all his life. He began writing at an early age; his first articles were published in Hebrew in David Frishman’s paper Ha-Boker (1906). He also adopted the pen names B. Yeushzon (Son of Despair), Itshele, and Lorente. "@en ; jlo:title "Yustman, Moyshe Bunem" ; skos:altLabel "Moyshe Bunem Yustman" ; skos:prefLabel "Yustman, Moyshe Bunem" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Yid., Zabludove), town on the Meletina River (in the Western Bug basin) in the Białystok district and province of Poland. Zabłudów is first mentioned in archival sources in 1525. From 1569, the town was in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; from 1795 it was belonged to East Prussia; from 1807 to 1918 it was in the Russian Empire."@en ; jlo:title "Zabłudów" ; skos:altLabel "Zabłudów" ; skos:prefLabel "Zabłudów" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1914–1987), theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, physical chemist, and member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1958. Born in Minsk, Zel’dovich was raised in an educated family: his father was a lawyer and his mother a translator and member of the Writers Union. In May 1931 Zel’dovich was hired as a laboratory assistant at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences; he would maintain his ties with this institution for the rest of his life."@en ; jlo:title "Zel’dovich, Iakov Borisovich" ; skos:altLabel "Iakov Borisovich Zel’dovich", "Iakov Zel’dovich" ; skos:prefLabel "Zel’dovich, Iakov Borisovich" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1897–1970), Soviet public figure and wife of Viacheslav Molotov. Born Perl Karpovskaia, Polina Zhemchuzhina was the daughter of a tailor from Ekaterinoslav province. From 1911 until 1917, she worked in a cigarette factory and as a cashier in a pharmacy in Ekaterinoslav."@en ; jlo:title "Zhemchuzhina, Polina Semenovna" ; skos:altLabel "Polina Zhemchuzhina" ; skos:prefLabel "Zhemchuzhina, Polina Semenovna" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1894–1966), immunologist, virologist, and cancer researcher. Lev Aleksandrovich (Abelevich) Zil’ber was born in Novgorod province to the family of a military musician. He spent his childhood and youth in Pskov (northwest Russia). In 1912, he entered the natural science department of Saint Petersburg University, transferring three years later to the medical faculty of Moscow University, from which he graduated in 1919."@en ; jlo:title "Zil’ber, Lev Aleksandrovich" ; skos:altLabel "Lev Zil’ber" ; skos:prefLabel "Zil’ber, Lev Aleksandrovich" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Assimilationist student group in Poland. Organized activity of groups of “assimilationist” Jewish students and academicians had taken place in the major cities of Congress Poland and Galicia as far back as the beginning of the twentieth century. The members of these groups called themselves “Polish youth of Jewish origin.” One such group, called Zjednoczenie (Union), operated in Lwów, and a similar group called Żagiew (Torch) operated in Warsaw. Both groups maintained that the patriotism of Polish Jews had been undermined by the rise of Zionism. They explained that they would attempt to resolve the “Jewish problem” by seeking equal political rights for Jews and through economic changes, and voiced their objection to the extensive use of Yiddish as well as to Hebrew."@en ; jlo:title "Zjednoczenie" ; skos:altLabel "Zjednoczenie" ; skos:prefLabel "Zjednoczenie" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "The United States of America became home to the largest Jewish community of the Diaspora because one-third of the Jews of Europe emigrated there over the course of the nineteenth and the first quarter of the twentieth century. The transformation of a peripheral outpost of Jewish civilization into its major hub outside the boundaries of Israel was a long-term process that was keenly observed as it took shape. Still, the catastrophic finality with which history bestowed that distinction on American Jewry, after the Holocaust, cast new light on its importance and on the participation of European Jewry in its creation—with East European Jewry contributing by far the greatest share. All the while, Old World Jewry had, in turn, been affected by the growing Jewish presence in the New World and by the rise of the United States as a world power. The orbit of Jewish life in Eastern Europe was partly shaped by the magnetic force exerted by America."@en ; jlo:title "America" ; skos:narrower , , ; skos:prefLabel "America" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Founded as one of many public groups mobilized to further Soviet policy aims, the Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public (Anti-Sionisticheskii Komitet Sovetskoi Obshchestvennosti; AKSO) was part of a broader program intended to diminish the motivation of Soviet Jews to apply for emigration. In accordance with a decision of 29 March 1983 by the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party (CC CPSU), the committee’s budget was to be provided by the Soviet Peace Foundation, and the technical staff was to operate within the framework of the joint administration of Soviet social organizations. AKSO activities were supervised jointly by representatives of the Department of Propaganda and by the KGB."@en ; jlo:title "Anti-Zionist Committee of The Soviet Public" ; skos:altLabel "Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public", "anti-Zionist campaign" ; skos:prefLabel "Anti-Zionist Committee of The Soviet Public" ; skos:related , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Voluntary cooperative associations of craftsmen or peasants in the Soviet Union. Established on the basis of charters, artels obtained raw materials, produced finished or (less commonly) unfinished products, and sold them. Artels began to extend significantly after the October Revolution and reached their zenith in the late 1920s and 1930s. Both artisanal and agricultural cooperatives worked from the same economic principles, raising basic capital through membership fees and realizing profit through communal labor."@en ; jlo:title "Artels" ; skos:altLabel "Artels", "artel", "artels" ; skos:prefLabel "Artels" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1618–1693), rabbinical scholar and religious authority. Rabbi Gershon (Ulif) Ashkenazi was one of the greatest poskim (religious authorities or legal deciders) of his age. He was born in Ulf, Germany, studied under Rabbi Me’ir Schiff (Maharam Schiff) and subsequently moved to Poland to study with the leading religious scholars of Kraków: Yo’el Sirkes (known as Baḥ), Yehoshu‘a ben Yosef, and probably Yehoshu‘a Heshel as well. He was called “Ashkenazi” (Ashkenaz meaning, in its narrower sense, Germany) because of his place of origin. "@en ; jlo:title "Ashkenazi, Gershon" ; skos:altLabel "Gershon (Ulif) Ashkenazi", "Gershon Ashkenazi" ; skos:prefLabel "Ashkenazi, Gershon" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Document describing killings of Jews in Auschwitz-Birkenau, prepared in late April 1944 by Oskar Krasniansky of the Slovakian Ústredňa Židov (Jewish Central Organization; UZ, an organization that functioned as a Judenrat) on the basis of testimony from two Jews, Rudolf Vrba (Walter Rosenberg) and Alfred Wetzler, who had escaped from the camp three weeks earlier. An expanded version was composed in June 1944 following receipt of additional information from two other escapees, Czesław Mordowicz and Arnošt Rosin. The protocols detailed the operation of the killing center, offered a (high) estimate of the number of Jews killed to date, and warned of preparations for gassing 800,000 expected Jewish deportees from Hungary. The expanded version told of the killing of Greek Jews and of the deaths of the first Hungarian arrivals."@en ; jlo:title "Auschwitz Protocols" ; skos:altLabel "Auschwitz Protocols", "Auschwitz protocols" ; skos:prefLabel "Auschwitz Protocols" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Hebrew-language newspaper published in Poland between 1932 and 1937. Ba-Derekh (On the Way) represented the last in a series of attempts by the Polish Zionist Organization to establish a daily newspaper in Hebrew. Efforts to do so had started in 1919 with plans for the renewed publication of the long-running Ha-Tsefirah (The Morning/The Dawn), and continued with the founding of Ha-Yom (Today; 1925–1926) and with other failed attempts at once again resuming publication of Ha-Tsefirah (1926–1928; 1931). "@en ; jlo:title "Ba-Derekh" ; skos:altLabel "Ba-Derekh" ; skos:prefLabel "Ba-Derekh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1801–1874), Galician rabbinical scholar. Yosef Babad was born in Tarnopol to a family of rabbinical scholars; from his earliest years he devoted his life to the study of the Torah. As an adult, he was introduced to Hasidism and regarded Naftali of Roptshits (Ropczyce) as his spiritual mentor. Of his four marriages, two were to women from Hasidic dynasties: after his first wife died at an early age, he married the sister of Ḥayim Halberstam of Sandz (Nowy Sacz); his third marriage was to the daughter of Rabbi David Hager of Zabludove (Zabludów). Almost nothing is known about his fourth marriage."@en ; jlo:title "Babad, Yosef" ; skos:altLabel "Yosef Babad", "Yosef ben Mosheh Babad" ; skos:prefLabel "Babad, Yosef" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1885–1934), Russian poet and translator. Bagritskii, whose nom-de-plume was derived from the Russian for crimson, was born Eduard Godelevich Dziubin, to an Odessan family in which Judaic traditions were respected, but the lifestyle was that of secularized petit-bourgeoisie. He began publishing in 1913, contributing to literary publications in Odessa between 1915 and 1917. After the February 1917 Revolution, Bagritskii served briefly in law enforcement within the Provisional Government and joined the Red Army in 1919. In 1920 he married Lidiia Suok and had one son, the poet Vsevolod Bagritskii (1922–1942). In 1925 he moved to Moscow, and by the time of his death in 1934 was widely admired. The publication of his collection Iugo-Zapad (South-West; 1928) was followed by, among other books, Duma pro Opanasa (The Lay of Opanas), Izbrannye stikhi (Selected Poems), Pobediteli (Victors), Posledniaia noch’ (The Last Night), all published in 1932, and other works. In his daily life, Bagritskii never shed the skin of an Odessan Jew from Market Street. He retained a strong bond with Jewish culture, splendidly translating the Yiddish poetry of Itsik Fefer and Perets Markish. At the time of his death, he was hailed second only to Vladimir Mayakovsky and given an official funeral. "@en ; jlo:title "Bagritskii, Eduard Georgievich" ; skos:altLabel "Eduard Bagritskii" ; skos:prefLabel "Bagritskii, Eduard Georgievich" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1815–1891), advocate of Magyarization, Protestant theologian, and Hungarian linguist. Born Moritz (Mordekhai) Bloch, Mór Ballagi’s first memories were of his father, a tenant farmer, imprisoned a year for debt, and of his mother searching for wild berries in the forest to feed the family. At an early age, Bloch learned to fend for his livelihood, sleeping in synagogues and living off charity. He studied at yeshivas in Nagyvárad (1829) and Pápa (1831), and only while working as a tutor at Mór and later Surány when he was 20 was he first exposed to Greek and Latin classics. In time, he also taught himself Hungarian, and studied classics, math, and history at the Pápa secondary school."@en ; jlo:title "Ballagi, Mór" ; skos:altLabel "Moritz Bloch (Ballagi)", "Mór Ballagi" ; skos:prefLabel "Ballagi, Mór" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Second-largest city of the Republic of Moldova. Bălți (Yid., Belts; Rus., Beltsy) was within Romania’s borders from 1918 until 1944; after World War II, the region in which it is located became part of the Moldavian SSR. Famous personalities from Bălți have included the artist Boris Anisfeld; the Hebrew writer Ya‘akov Fichmann; Yiddish authors Zelik Berdichever, Boris Sandler, and Michael Felsenbaum; and Lia van Leer, founder of the Jerusalem Cinematheque."@en ; jlo:title "Bălţi" ; skos:altLabel "Bălţi", "Bălți" ; skos:prefLabel "Bălţi" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1849–1926), philosopher, literary scholar, linguist, educator, and editor. Born in Szentgál, Hungary, József Bánóczi studied at the Piarist Gymnasium in Veszprém and at the Royal Catholic Gymnasium in Pest, where he befriended Bernát Alexander. Abraham Hochmuth, the rabbi of Veszprém, tried to persuade Bánóczi to enter the rabbinate, but he chose a career in education instead. In 1868, he enrolled at the University of Pest, and having received a fellowship with Alexander, went on a six-year-long study trip abroad. They took courses at universities in Vienna, Berlin, Göttingen, Leipzig, and Paris, mostly in philosophy and philology. In 1875, Bánóczi defended his doctoral dissertation at the University of Leipzig, on Kant’s theory of space and time."@en ; jlo:title "Bánóczi, József" ; skos:altLabel "József Bánóczi" ; skos:prefLabel "Bánóczi, József" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "City in the central Moldavian region of Romania on the banks of the Bârlad River. Jewish settlement in Bârlad (Bîrlad) is documented from the end of the seventeenth century, and the oldest tombstone in the Jewish cemetery is dated 1728. A Jewish staroste (head of the Jewish guild) was mentioned as early as 1738. Jews in Bârlad were employed in local commerce, grain dealing, and crafts. "@en ; jlo:title "Bârlad" ; skos:altLabel "Bârlad" ; skos:prefLabel "Bârlad" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(ca. 1756–1811), Hasidic leader in Podolia. Barukh was the younger son of Odl, the Ba‘al Shem Tov’s daughter, and the brother of Mosheh Ḥayim Efrayim of Sudilkov. As a child Barukh knew his famous grandfather, and after the Ba‘al Shem Tov’s death Barukh continued to be raised among the Hasidic leader’s most important disciples, among them Pinḥas of Korets, Ya‘akov Yosef of Polnoye, and Dov Ber, the Magid of Mezritsh."@en ; jlo:title "Barukh ben Yeḥi’el of Mezhbizh" ; skos:altLabel "Barukh ben Yeḥi’el of Mezhbizh", "Barukh of Mezhbizh" ; skos:prefLabel "Barukh ben Yeḥi’el of Mezhbizh" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Translations of books of the Hebrew Bible (most frequently Psalms) and other religious texts into the Old Belarusian language and into a Belarusian version of Old Church Slavonic marked the beginnings of Jewish participation in Belarusian literature. Several of the extant manuscripts of those texts date from the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century (Vilna Codices 52 and 262, containing the Five Scrolls, Daniel, Job, Proverbs, and Psalms) and are considered to be the projects of local Jewish translators who worked directly from Hebrew on behalf of fellow Jews or Judaizers, or were commissioned by a Christian amateur. "@en ; jlo:title "Belarusian Literature" ; skos:altLabel "Belarusian Literature" ; skos:narrower ; skos:prefLabel "Belarusian Literature" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1865–1941), writer, poet, and translator. Leo Belmont (Leopold Blumental) graduated from the University of Warsaw and practiced law in Saint Petersburg and Warsaw. A well-known publicist before World War I, he was harassed by tsarist authorities for his radical views. He wrote for the Polish and Polish Jewish press, cooperated with the assimilationist weekly Izraelita, and edited the democratic weekly Wolne Słowo (Free Word; 1907–1913). He also wrote film reviews and screenplays. Belmont was a founder of the Polish Esperanto Society, and he translated extensively into that language and strove to popularize it. "@en ; jlo:title "Belmont, Leo" ; skos:altLabel "Leo Belmont" ; skos:prefLabel "Belmont, Leo" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(d. after 1665), prominent preacher in Kraków. Berekhyah Berakh ben Yitsḥak was a student of the noted kabbalist Natan Spira; Berakh’s wife’s brother was the son-in-law of the celebrated Talmudist and communal leader Yom Tov Lipmann Heller."@en ; jlo:title "Berekhyah Berakh ben Yitsḥak" ; skos:altLabel "Berekhyah Berakh", "Berekhyah Berakh ben Yitsḥak" ; skos:prefLabel "Berekhyah Berakh ben Yitsḥak" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Influential Warsaw family of industrialists and financiers. Related to other aristocratic Jewish dynasties, including the Bersohn, Heryng, and Toeplitz families, the Bergson family originated with Shmul Zbytkower, one of whose sons, Ber (1764–1822), was also known as Berek Sonnenberg. Berek’s children subsequently adopted the surname Berekson (later Bergson) from their father’s first name."@en ; jlo:title "Bergson Family" ; skos:altLabel "Bergson" ; skos:prefLabel "Bergson Family" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(surname also Sonnenberg or Berekson; d. 1830), patron of Polish Hasidism and benefactor of Warsaw Jewry. Little is known about Temerl’s background and early years, although her father, Avraham of Opoczno, is described as “learned and extremely wealthy.” She was briefly married and widowed at a young age to a merchant from Warsaw with whom she had a son. In 1787 she married Berek Sonnenberg, the son of the Warsaw plutocrat Shmul Zbytkower (Berek adopted the surname Sonnenberg under Prussian rule); they had five children. Upon her second husband’s death in 1822, Temerl oversaw his business enterprises, including a salt company and a bank. She won permission to own property outside the ghetto and was only the third Polish Jew to receive such land ownership rights."@en ; jlo:title "Bergson, Temerl" ; skos:altLabel "Bergson", "Temerl", "Temerl Sonnenberg Bergson" ; skos:prefLabel "Bergson, Temerl" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1901–1984), activist in the interwar Communist Party of Poland; brother of psychologist and Warsaw ghetto leader Adolf Abraham Berman (1906–1978). Among the leaders of postwar Stalinist Poland, Berman was responsible for overseeing both cultural policy and the security apparatus."@en ; jlo:title "Berman, Jakub" ; skos:altLabel "Jakub Berman" ; skos:prefLabel "Berman, Jakub" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Section of the urban area of Bielsko-Biała, Silesia, in southern Poland. Bielsko (Ger., Bielitz) was a Bohemian town until about 990, then Polish until 1327, when it was once more under Bohemian rule. Beginning in 1526 it was ruled by the Habsburgs; after World War I (in 1920) it became part of Poland, then fell under Nazi rule from 1939 to 1945, after which it became Polish again. Until 1951 it was an independent town, with municipal rights dating to before 1312. The first mention of Jews in Bielsko comes from 1653; and two complaints about Jewish tax collectors were recorded in 1677. Subsequent legislation hindered Jewish settlement."@en ; jlo:title "Bielsko" ; skos:altLabel "Bielsko" ; skos:prefLabel "Bielsko" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1861–1936), Talmudic scholar, historian, and rector of the Rabbinical Seminary of Budapest. Born in Putnok, Hungary, Lajos (Ludwig) Blau studied at the Pressburg yeshiva and attended the Rabbinical Seminary of Budapest. After his ordination he joined the seminary’s faculty, and when Vilmos Bacher died in 1913, Blau succeeded him as rector until his own retirement in 1932."@en ; jlo:title "Blau, Lajos" ; skos:altLabel "Lajos (Aryeh) Blau", "Lajos (Ludwig) Blau", "Lajos Blau" ; skos:prefLabel "Blau, Lajos" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1909–1938), writer. Max Blecher (he signed his works “M. Blecher”) was born in Botoşani, Romania, and spent his childhood and adolescence in Roman, where his family settled, and where there was a large Jewish community. The son of Lazăr Blecher, a businessman who owned a china shop, he attended high school in Roman and was an active member of the Maccabi Zionist association."@en ; jlo:title "Blecher, M." ; skos:altLabel "M. Blecher" ; skos:prefLabel "Blecher, M." ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1850–1923), rabbi and political leader. Born in Dukla, east Galicia, the son of a poor baker, Yosef Shemu’el Bloch studied independently and in yeshivas throughout east Galicia but then pursued a secular education in Central Europe, eventually earning his doctorate at the University of Munich. After serving as a rabbi in several small communities, Bloch accepted a post in Floridsdorf, a working-class suburb of Vienna."@en ; jlo:title "Bloch, Yosef Shemu’el" ; skos:altLabel "Yosef Bloch", "Yosef Shemu’el Bloch" ; skos:prefLabel "Bloch, Yosef Shemu’el" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "Intellectual family, active in Romanian law, the arts, and the military during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The four Brociner brothers were born in Iaşi into a well-to-do maskilic family of Galician origin; they were related to Galician and Moldavian rabbinic families. Joseph B. Brociner (1846–1918) was a legal expert; Marco Brociner (1852–1942) a writer; Mauriciu Brociner (1855–1946) a military leader; and Andre Brociner (1856–1930) a communal activist."@en ; jlo:title "Brociner Family" ; skos:altLabel "Brociner", "Joseph B. Brociner", "Joseph Brociner" ; skos:prefLabel "Brociner Family" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "State censorship of Jewish publications in the Russian Empire began 25 years after Jews became Russian subjects in 1772. From then until 1796, books in Jewish languages were published in Russia (and were imported from abroad) without restriction. Catherine the Great’s 1763 decree on censorship of imported works did not apply to such materials. Officials in charge of maintaining public order—who according to the 1783 Decree on Independent Printing Houses were responsible for monitoring the content of domestic publications—were unable to scrutinize books in Hebrew and Yiddish due to their ignorance of those languages. Moses Hezekil and Ezekiel David Levi were the first state censors of Jewish works; they were assigned to the censorship committee of the customs house in Riga and were appointed on 30 December 1797. Nevertheless, the monitoring of Jewish works, both imported and domestic, remained sporadic and ineffective."@en ; jlo:title "Censorship in the Russian Empire (Censorship)" ; skos:altLabel "censor", "censors" ; skos:prefLabel "Censorship in the Russian Empire (Censorship)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "Children’s literature began to take form in Hebrew at the end of the eighteenth century, following the Haskalah (Enlightenment) movement in Western Europe. Books and stories for young readers in that language then became standard in Eastern Europe, where the genre continued to develop. After World War I, Hebrew literature flourished more often in Palestine while becoming less popular in Eastern Europe, though texts were published until World War II."@en ; jlo:title "Hebrew Literature (Children’s Literature)" ; skos:altLabel "Hebrew children’s literature" ; skos:prefLabel "Hebrew Literature (Children’s Literature)" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1812–1870), author of adages and aphorisms. Froim Moise, known in Romanian literature as Cilibi Moise, was the son of Alexander Sender Schwartz, a native of Galicia. Illiterate in Romanian, Moise would dictate his compositions to printers and sell them in pamphlets in the market towns of Walachia, where he was a traveling merchant. The 14 pamphlets issued as of 1858 included adages and sayings, maxims, thoughts, and moral lessons drawn from the school of life, revealing a picturesque and lively mixture of popular wisdom, Balkan humor, and Jewish folklore."@en ; jlo:title "Cilibi Moise" ; skos:altLabel "Cilibi Moise" ; skos:prefLabel "Cilibi Moise" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Kongress Evreiskikh Religioznykh Obshchin i Organizatsii v Rossii; KEROOR), post-Soviet association of Jewish groups in Russia. Before 1990 in the Soviet Union, Jews were allowed neither to create a chief rabbinate nor to form a central organ uniting the Jewish religious communities. Under perestroika, however, at a conference of community representatives held in January 1990, the All-Union Council of USSR Jewish Religious Communities (Vsesoiuznyi Sovet Evreiskikh Religioznikh Obshchin SSSR; VSERO) was created. Vladimir Fedorovskii, chair of the Moscow community, was elected chair of its executive committee, and Adol’f Shaevich, chief rabbi of the Moscow Choral Synagogue, was chosen as the chief rabbi of VSERO and the USSR. The newly created central organ was intended to facilitate the coordination of activities of emerging as well as of older religious communities."@en ; jlo:title "Congress of Jewish Religious Communities and Organizations in Russia" ; skos:altLabel "Congress of Jewish Communities and Organizations of the USSR", "Congress of Jewish Religious Communities and Organizations in Russia" ; skos:prefLabel "Congress of Jewish Religious Communities and Organizations in Russia" ; skos:related , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "In Western tradition, a number of factors combined to create the image of Jews as a group with a special propensity for criminal activity. Theological considerations were paramount in the premodern period when Jews were viewed as committers of deicide and as members of the “synagogue of Satan,” capable of any abomination. They were a threat to Christian souls (by propagating apostasy) and bodies (accused of poisoning wells or of ritual murder)."@en ; jlo:title "Crime and Criminals" ; skos:narrower , , ; skos:prefLabel "Crime and Criminals" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1880–1942), Jewish communal leader, president of the Warsaw Judenrat. Born in Warsaw, Adam Czerniaków received engineering degrees from polytechnic institutes in Warsaw and Dresden. In interwar Poland, he helped lead the movement to improve vocational education for Jewish artisans and defended their interests against growing antisemitism. In 1931, he was elected to the Polish senate, but a technicality prevented him from serving."@en ; jlo:title "Czerniaków, Adam" ; skos:altLabel "Adam Czerniaków" ; skos:prefLabel "Czerniaków, Adam" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(Heb., da‘at Torah; Torah view), doctrine attributing authority to rabbis for deciding matters secular and spiritual alike, usually associated with the Agudas Yisroel political movement of Orthodox Jewry. While the term daas Toyre does appear in the Babylonian Talmud (Ḥulin 90b), where it has the meaning of an unequivocal legal opinion that may be taught publicly, it carries none of the ideological significance that latter-day Orthodox thinkers assigned to it. "@en ; jlo:title "Daas Toyre" ; skos:altLabel "Daas Toyre", "daas Toyre" ; skos:prefLabel "Daas Toyre" ; skos:related , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1870–1938), Hebrew writer, researcher, editor, and Zionist activist. Alter Druyanow was born in the shtetl of Druja, in the Vilna region, to a rabbinic family. In 1886, he entered the Volozhin yeshiva, where he joined the Ḥibat Tsiyon movement and in 1890 began publishing articles in the Hebrew press. Under the influence of his friend Mikhah Yosef Berdyczewski, Druyanow went to Breslau in 1891, hoping to enroll at the university. Failing to do so, he returned to Druja."@en ; jlo:title "Druyanow, Alter" ; skos:altLabel "Alter Druyanow" ; skos:prefLabel "Druyanow, Alter" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1889–1956), Lubavitch activist, leader of Agudas Yisroel in Latvia, and politician. A lumber merchant by trade, Mordekhai Dubin began at a young age to devote himself to community service. He gained wide popularity within Latvian Jewry for his work in interceding with the authorities on behalf of individual Jews or Jewish institutions. Starting with the founding National Assembly, Dubin represented Agudas Yisroel in all the legislative bodies of democratic Latvia, from the Constituent Assembly of 1920–1922 to the four Seimas (diets) elected between 1922 and 1934. He also served on the Riga city council, and was one of the founders of the reorganized Riga kehilah, which he chaired. Dubin was recognized as a leader of the world Agudas Yisroel movement, despite the generally limited, often hostile relations between Lubavitch and Aguda. "@en ; jlo:title "Dubin, Mordekhai" ; skos:altLabel "Mordekhai Dubin" ; skos:prefLabel "Dubin, Mordekhai" ; skos:related , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1872–1955), Zionist politician and journalist. Mayer Ebner was born in Cernăuți (Czernowitz) to an assimilated bourgeois family, and he studied law there at Franz Joseph University. As early as his teenage years, Ebner supported the concept of developing a new Jewish national movement. He felt that the liberal ideal of Jewish assimilation had failed, and that outbreaks of antisemitism in the last decades of the nineteenth century required change. It was in this spirit that he utilized the model of the Kadimah association (created by Jewish students in Vienna) to set up the student society Hasmonäain Cernăuți in 1891. In this project, he worked with Philipp Menczel, Isak Schmierer, and Josef Bierer."@en ; jlo:title "Ebner, Mayer" ; skos:altLabel "Mayer Ebner" ; skos:prefLabel "Ebner, Mayer" ; skos:related , , , , , . jlo:describedAt , ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1903–1944), Czech Zionist leader, known as the “Elder of the Jews” in Terezín (Theresienstadt). Jakob Edelstein was born in Gorodenka, Galicia. When the town was occupied by the Russian army during World War I, his family escaped to Brno (Brünn) in Moravia. After the war, Edelstein graduated from a business school in Brno and worked as a traveling salesman in Teplice (Teplitz), northern Bohemia."@en ; jlo:title "Edelstein, Jakob" ; skos:altLabel "Jakob Edelstein" ; skos:prefLabel "Edelstein, Jakob" ; skos:related , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "(1825–1875), rabbi, journalist, political economist, and politician. Ignác Einhorn (who also published work using the initials J. E. or the name Eduard Horn) was one of the most versatile and talented Hungarian Jews of the nineteenth century. His great-grandfather had served as rabbi of Vágújhely, and his father, Gerson (1793–1883), a wool merchant, was for many years a community leader. Einhorn was tutored privately in a traditional but enlightened fashion. At 13, he attended the yeshiva of Yeḥezkel Banet at Nyitra (mod. Nitra, Slovakia). He later studied at Pressburg and for several months in Prague, while also receiving a gymnasium eduation."@en ; jlo:title "Einhorn, Ignác" ; skos:altLabel "Ignác Einhorn" ; skos:prefLabel "Einhorn, Ignác" ; skos:related , , , , , , , , , , , . jlo:describedAt ; jlo:hasAbstract "or Eliyohu hanovi, was the most popular biblical figure in Jewish folklore in Eastern Europe. The oral traditions of late antiquity established the narrative foundation upon which his image would develop; his name also occurs in proverbs and songs. Elijah is said to