@prefix cc: . @prefix dcterms: . @prefix foaf: . @prefix geo: . @prefix jld: . @prefix jlo: . @prefix owl: . @prefix prov: . @prefix rdf: . @prefix rdfs: . @prefix skos: . @prefix void: . @prefix xml: . @prefix xsd: . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABAKAN OSTROG, see Abakan., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABASHA, city (since 1964), regional center (Georgia). At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Senaki u. Kutaisi province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 it was the Georgian SSR. In 1939 there were 22 Jews living in Armenia, in 1959 - 7, in 1970 - 1, in 1979 - 8 Jews. M.A. Mostkov., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABATISH, see Abatsky., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABAZOVKA, now part of the village. Korytnoye in the Baltsky district of the Odessa region. (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - Jewish agriculturalist. colony of Baltsky district Podolsk, from 1920 - Odessa province. in 1849 by immigrants from Podolsk and Kiev provinces. Initially, 90 families lived in Armenia, and 20 dessiatines were allocated to them. free state lands. Not having experience of working on the land and not receiving benefits from the treasury for the acquisition of agricultural. inventory and draft animals, the colonists did not cultivate their plots, but gave them for grazing. In 1859 - 70, the number of families in the colony decreased from 125 to 40, the inhabitants were poor, engaged in small trade, and harness. In 1872 the lustration commission took away arable land and hayfields from the colonists, leaving only 94 dess. for farmsteads and pastures for cattle (later 80 dess. pastures were plowed up for sowing grain and industrial crops). In 1893, the colony had 43 courtyards and 333 inhabitants; in 1898-99 - 280 inhabitants, in 1905 - 47 households and 324 inhabitants, there was a synagogue. As a result, Civil. war, pogroms, famine, and epidemics by 1922, Armenia ceased to exist., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABCHUK Avrom (1897, Lutsk - 1937), prose writer, literary critic. In 1921 he settled in Kiev, worked as a Hebrew teacher. lang. in schools, then became a scientist. sotr. Institute of Hebrews. span. culture at the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. From 1926 he was published in Heb. g. \"Prolit\", \"Di dig Velt\", \"Stern\", \"Farmest\" and other ed. Mean. event in the present. Heb. the literature was his rum. \"Gershl Shamai\" - about Heb. workers and their new way of life. He also printed scientific research. works on the history of Heb. classic and modern lit-ry. Author of the book: \"Mendele Moicher-Sforim: Zayn lebn un zane verk\" (\"Mendele Moicher-Sforim: His life and his works\"), 1927; \"Gershl Shamai un andere derceilungen\" (\"Gershl Shamai and other stories\"), Kiev, 1929, \"Wegn unzer prose\" (\"About our prose\"), Kharkov-Kiev, 1932; \"Etuden un materiali zu der geshichte fun der geeshichte fun der Yidischer literary-bavegung in FSSR\" (\"Studies and materials for the history of the Jewish literary movement in the USSR\"), Kharkov, 1934; \"Baryshevs Brigade\" (\"Baryshev's Brigade\"), Kiev, 1934, etc. Repressed., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABDULINO, city (since 1923), a regional center in the Orenburg region. (Russian Federation). Izv. from 1795. At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Orenburg u. 33 Jews (0.2%) lived in Armenia in 1926, and 35 Jews in 1939., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABELEV Garry Izrailevich (b. 1928, Moscow), biochemist, immunologist. Ch.-c. USSR Academy of Sciences (1987), acad. Grew up. Academy of Natural Sciences. Science (1992). At the end of biol. Faculty of Moscow State University (1950) worked at the Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology named after N.F. Gamalei of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1977 as part of the department. Virology and immunology of cancer transferred to Oncologic. scientific. Center of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (head of laboratory of immunochemistry). Since 1964 - prof. Department of Virology Biol. Faculty of Moscow State University, where he teaches a course in immunochemistry. tr. on immunochemistry, tumor immunology, immunobiology, cell biochemistry. He discovered the production of an embryospecific protein - alpha-fetoprotein by malignant cells of the liver, testis and ovaries, which formed the basis for immunodiagnostics of certain forms of cancer. He proposed extremely sensitive methods for the determination of antigens, as well as a method for immunodiagnostics of certain forms of leukemia. h. Amer. associations of immunologists and Europe. Society of Oncologists, Chl. New York Academy of Sciences. State pr. USSR (1978), Gold Medal of the Institute of Cancer (1975, USA), Medal Between Nar. about-va of cancer-embryonic biology and medicine (1976), Abbotovskaya pr. (1991). Works: Virology and immunology of cancer. M., 1962 (with L.A. Zilber)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABELEV Nosan Shneurovich (Naum Aleksandrovich) (b. 1901), process engineer, organizer of production. He graduated from Leningrad in 1927. technol. in-t. In 1925–41, working for Leningrad. metallic s-de, was engaged in the development and creation of large-caliber naval and coastal turret artillery. In 1942–44, Ch. engineer, then der. artillery plant. In 1944-57, the director. Taganrog Combine Plant. From 1957 to the beginning. Department of agricultural machines of the North Caucasus Economic Council. Linen. etc. (1964)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABELEV Yuri Matveyevich (real name and surname - Lev Mordukhovich Yuda) (1897, Rogachev, Mogilev province - 1971, Moscow), civil engineer. Graduated from the Gomel city (1919) and the Moscow Higher Technical School (1929). From 1931 he worked at Vses. Institute of Foundations and Structures (since 1956 - Research Institute of Foundations and Underground Structures). One of the founders of a new direction in foundation engineering - construction on subsiding loess soils. The method and principles of construction on loess soils developed by A. in 1934–37 (with N.M. Gersevanov) were the basis of construction in the USSR and in pl. countries of the world. With the participation and consultations of A. on subsidence soils, many were erected. production - Bobrikovsky chemical plant, Zaporizhstal plants, Nikopol South-pipe plant, Volzhsky automobile plant in Togliatti, etc. Introduced creatures. contribution to the development of methods for the study of soils and construction on soft soils. Became. pr. (1948). Cit .: Practice of construction on loesslike soils according to the experience of Kuznetskstroy, M.-L., 1934; Course of foundations and foundations, M.-L., 1934 (jointly with Sh.Ts. Voin); Erection of buildings and structures on fill soils, M., 1962 (with V.I.Krutov); Building in the USSR: 1917-1967, M., 1967 (co-author); Fundamentals of design and construction on subsidence macroporous soils. 3rd ed., M., 1979 (with M.Yu. Abelev)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABEL Shloyme (1857 - 1886), rabbi and publicist. He taught at the yeshiva in Telšiai. Author of Art., Publ. in Heb. periodic. press directed against the socialist. and anarchist ideas. In the book. A. \"Beis Shlomo\" (Vilna, 1893) examines the issues of human relationships., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABELMAN Ilya Solomonovich (1866, Dinaburg, Vitebsk province - 1898, Vilna), astronomer. Graduated from physics and mathematics. Faculty of Moscow un-that (1891). Hands. the best private observatory of the Schwabe company. Then at the Pulkovo observatory. Among his scientific. works - \"Collection of Algebraic Problems\" (Riga, 1887) and \"On Falling Stars\"; the latter was adopted by Moscow. un-tom as a manual for young astronomers. The work \"On the motion of meteor showers\" was published in 1898 Imp. Russian astronomical. about-vom of St. Petersburg. A. is the author of pl. Art. on astronomy in rus. and it. lang., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABELSON Avrom-Yoel (1841, Marijampole, Suvalki province - 1903, Odessa), rabbi. Received a tradition. Heb. religious education. He was a rabbi in several cities of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1883-1903 he was a rabbi in Odessa. From 1893 he produced the rabbinical train. \"Kneses hahamey Israel\". He headed the Zionist organizations in Odessa. Published in Heb. periodic. ed., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABEZGAUZ Evgeny Zalmanovich (b. 1939, Leningrad), painter. Studied in Leningrad at Electrotechnical. in-those communications them. MABonch-Bruevich (1957–62) and at the Higher. art-prom. uch-shche them. VI Mukhina (former Baron Stieglitz) (1968–72). In 1974, org. Leningrad. gr. Heb. thin Alef participated in her exhibitions in Moscow, Leningrad and abroad. Since 1977 - in Israel. Had staff. exhibitions in pl. countries of the world. A.'s works are kept in museums and private collections. Russia (including the State Russian Museum), Israel, USA, Canada, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABINSKAYA, see Abinsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABIN FORTIFICATION, see Abinsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABKIN Abram Davydovich (1903, Polotsk, Vitebsk province. - 1983, Moscow), physicochemist. Dr. chem. Sciences, prof. from 1959. In 1928 graduated from Kazan University. From 1928 he worked in N. - and. physical and chemical in-those them. L.Ya. Karpova in Moscow, head. laboratory basic scientific. tr. are devoted to the study of the mechanism of polymerization. processes. Developed quantities, the theory of copolymerization (1951), research. ionic radiation polymerization and the influence of nature, environment on the polymerization of water-soluble monomers. Created (1966–70) an original method for producing polyacrylamide. Carried out solid-phase polymerization of a number of monomers at a temperature of approx. 4 ° C. In 1980 he discovered a photosensitizer. polymerization taking place at a temperature of approx. 4 ° K with a high rate and almost complete monomer conversion. Honored. worker of science and technology of the RSFSR (1974). Linen. pr. (1980). Works: Radiation chemistry of polymers, Moscow, 1973 (with co-authors)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAGAM Anatol (Anatoly Izrailevich) (b. 1914, Moscow), physicist. Lives in France since 1925. Graduated from the Sorbonne (1937). Since 1947 - at the Atomic Energy Commissariat. Since 1960 - prof. College de France. Member Parisian Academy of Sciences (1973), Brit. Royal Society and other scientific. org-tions. Main tr. in the field of magnetism and solid state physics, in particular, nuclear magnetism, hyperfine structure of a solid, the theory of spin temperature, polarization of nuclei, gamma-resonance spectroscopy of a solid. Works: Yaderny Magnetism, Moscow, 1963; Electronic paramagnetic resonance of transition ions (et al.), M., 1973 (translated from French); Nuclear Magnetism: Order and Disorder (et al.), Vol. 1, 2, M., 1984; Backward Time, or Physicist, Physicist, Where Have You Been, M., 1991., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAGAMSON Bernard Yakovlevich (1798, Lemberg - 1874, Odessa), doctor and society, activist. R. in the family of the master of surgery and obstetrics of the local un-that. Studied for honey. f-takh of Krakow and Berlin un-tov. Since 1824, Doctor of Medicine Petersburg. medical-surgeon academy. From 1835 - to the state. service. In 1838-43 - military. doctor. In 1843 - 47 chap. doctor of the Kiev province. at the Cherkasy district administration. In 1847, he retired with the rank of court councilor. He was engaged in private practice in Odessa, was a che. scientist to-that Min-va state. property. The participant will enlighten the activities of the Maskilim. In the field of reform, Heb. education sotr. with M. Lilienthal and O. Rabinovich, becoming related with the latter (A.'s son is the husband of his daughter). Raised to the hereditary nobility of the Vladimir province. Author of the op .: \"Odessa estuaries, their medicinal properties and use in various diseases\" (Odessa, 1850)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAKHAMOV Naftali (b. 1905, Bukhara), an entrepreneur in the region. tourism. From 1913 in E.-I. Graduated from Ped. seminary in Jerusalem. In 1928–37 he served in banks and in the Palestinian Authority, and later headed the Heb. schools in Iran and Afghanistan. The Creator will order. dir. tourist firms \"Abrahamov Brothers\" and \"Abratur\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAHAMS Israel (1903, Vilna - 1973, Cape Town, South Africa), rabbi, writer. Studied at the University of London, received a master's degree in the humanities. From 1928 to 1932 he was rabbi of the Shepherds Bush synagogue in London, and from 1933 to 1937 - the Great Synagogue in Manchester. Since 1937 - in South Africa, Ch. Rabbi of Cape Town. Since 1938 - prof. Hebrew (Cape Town University). Head of the Rabbinical Court (Beth Din) and dec. educational and societies, institutions. The author of the books: \"Remember the past days\" (1942), \"War and Peace\" (1943), \"Tragedy and Hope\" (1944), \"Foundations of Judaism\" (1945), \"Essays on the History of the Jews Vost. provinces (Cape) from 1870 to 1902 \",\" The birth of a community \"(1955)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOV Lev Solomonovich (b. 1919, Dmitrov Moscow province), geographer. Dr. Geogr. Sciences (1993). Graduated from geogr. Faculty of Moscow State University in 1941. In 1942 52 served in the army. In 1952–60 scientific. ed. g. \"Nature\". Since 1960 he has been working at the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Deputy ch. ed. g. \"Izvestia RAN: Series of Geography\". Tr. on the history of geogr. science in Russia, by physical. geography., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOV Shetiel Semenovich (b. 1918, Derbent), Hero of the Sov. Union (1945). Studied at Grozny Oil. in-those. Since 1941 - in Kr. Army. Graduated from Grozny military infantry. uch-shche. From May 1942 - at the front. Deputy com. battalion, captain A. rank Hero of the Sov. The Union was awarded for the liberation of Poznan. In 1949 he graduated from Grozny Oil. in-t. Cand. geological and mineralogical. sciences. Head Department of General Geology of Grozny Oil. in-that, dean of the geological-prospecting faculty., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOV Solomon Abramovich (1884, Lipy, Mogilev Province - 1957, Moscow), publisher, editor, art critic and poet. Studied at Kazan University. In 1917 in Moscow he created a private publishing house \"Tvorchestvo\", a cut published by many. poetic collections (first publications) izv. later poets, literary-artistic. and children's almanacs \"Creativity\", art-publ. g. “Moscow” (No. 1-7, 1918-22), “Rus. art ”(No. 1–3, 1923–24), as well as ser. monographs about the masters of the \"World of Art\", \"Union of Rus. thin. \" and others. In the 1920s - early. 1930s was, along with I.E. Grabar, K.F. Yuon and S.L. Vinogradov, co-founder of the cooperative Moscow. thin publishing house that produced thin. and a suit-vedic literature. Under contracts with Izogiz, he produced high-quality. albums of reproductions (\"Museum of New Western Art\", \"Koro in the Museums of the USSR\", etc.), postcards. In recent years, he was engaged in the assembly of traveling exhibitions of reproductions., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOV Zalman (b. 1908), polit. activist. From 1920 in E.-I. Graduate of the Herzliya state institution. Member central bodies of the General Zionists. Dep. Knesset 4-8 convocations: first from the General Zionists, and then from the Liberal Party. For many years he was before. Israel-USA Friendship Society. Author pl. articles on current topics in Israeli and foreign affairs. press., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Abram Grigorievich (1910, Katerinka, Kherson province - 1937, Brunete, Spain), Hero of Owls. Union (1937). Since 1932 - in Kr. Army. Com. tank. platoon. leit., participant citizen wars in Spain. Killed in battle., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Alexander Vladimirovich (1900, Odessa - 1988, Chisinau), musicologist. Grandson of the Jewish writer Mendel Moicher-Sforim. Graduated from the Odessa Music Theater. in-t them. L. Beethoven in 1924, in 1926 - jurid. Faculty of Odessa Institute of Nar. x-va. In 1924-30, a teacher of music. literature and head. uch. part of the muses. courses. In 1929–41 he taught the history of music at the Odessa muses. technical school, at the same time. from 1930 he read the history of music in the Odessa State. cons. in 1933–41 deputy. dir. by scientific. and uch. work. In 1941–49 he taught at the Irkutsk muses. uch-shche and in the same place was ed. muses. broadcasting obl. radio-ta. In 1949–70 he headed the Department of Music History of the Chisinau State. cons. Articles published in Moscow. collection of books in 1955-73, devoted to the history of muses. culture of the Sov. Moldavia and other problems of mold. music. Member Union comp. Moldova since 1957. Awarded with medals and honors. diplomas. Daughter - Elena Aleksandrovna A. - musicologist and teacher of the history of music., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Boris Alexandrovich (b. 1910, Kharkov), pianist-ensemble player. Graduated from Moscow. cons. (1930), where in 1931–32 he was an assistant in the opera class and the department of chamber singing; worked with K.N.Dorliak, Z.P.Lodiy, A.L.Dolivo and others. Since 1933, accompanist Mosk. Philharmonic. In 1934–40 he was an accompanist in the class of A.V. Nezhdanova at the Bolshoi Opera Studio, and was also Nezhdanova's accompanist. In 1941–43 he worked in the Leningrad city evacuated to Molotov (now Perm). Opera and Ballet Theater as an assistant to A.M. Pazovsky - Ch. conductor and thin. hands. t-ra. He performed in an ensemble with the largest owls. and foreign vocalists (including with D.Ya. Pantofel-Nechetskaya, E. Bandrovskaya-Turskaya)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH David Iosifovich (1904, Yukseevo, Yenisei province - 1966, Novosibirsk region), geographer-hydrologist and climatologist. Dr. Geogr. Sciences (1947). Graduated in 1930 Geogr. Faculty of Leningrad State University. In 1930–36 he worked at Gidrologich. in-those and simultaneously. was an assistant at the Department of Hydrology of Moscow State University. In 1936–49 in Geogr. Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow. Since 1949 in Zap.-Sib. branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, headed the lab. hydrology Transport and energy in-that in Novosibirsk. Since 1964 - at the Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk. In 1952-66 before. Novosibirsk branch Geogr. about-va USSR, scientific. hands. exp. research on the study of reservoirs of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric station, runoff in the Middle Ob. Osn. work related to the development of problems of water resources use in the bunkers. x-ve. In 1931–34 research. sediments of river Dagestan runoff for the construction of a number of hydroelectric power plants at pp. Sulak and Samur and published the country's first monograph on this issue. In 1960, for the first time, he gave a comprehensive coverage of the natural conditions of the Kulunda steppe, established the size of the static. and dynamic. sediments of groundwater on this territory. Completed a cycle of works on the use of water. resources in with. x-ve Zap. Siberia, works: Research. sediment load of the Sulak River, M.-L., 1935; The Pakhra River - as an example of small rivers Mosk. region, M.-L., 1946; Waters of the Kulundinskaya steppe, Novosibirsk, 1960., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Dov-Menashe (1870, Rossieny, Kovno province - 1942, Siauliai), rabbi. Received a tradition. Heb. religious education. All R. 1890s - 1915 - Rabbi in Rossiens. In 1915 he was evacuated to Ukraine. Passed as an external student for the course of the city and graduated from law. Faculty of Kharkov University. Since 1920 - in Lithuania. He was one of the most famous lawyers in Lithuania. Prev Heb. communities of Siauliai. Member commission for assistance to refugees from Germany. One of the leaders of religions. Zionism in Lithuania. 1941–42 - member. Judenrat in the Siauliai ghetto. Founded in the ghetto Heb. school., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Emily (Emil) Abramovich (1864, Grodno - 1922, Saratov), ​​politician, activist, doctor. He graduated from the city of Grodno (1882). He studied at the Sorbonne (Paris), then honey. Faculty of Dorpat University (graduated in 1889). In student. years chl. Marxist, circle in Dorpat. In 1884–88, coming to Minsk for the summer, he led a roar. propaganda among the Hebrews. workers and artisans, joint. with L.E.Berkovich created a number of first workers' circles in the city, made up a program for classes in them (it was used until the second half of the 1890s). In 1886–87 he organized a study circle in Vilna, from which a number of prominent propagandists emerged. In 1889 he moved to Kiev, joint venture. with Berkovich created one of the first Social-Democrats. org-tions in southern Russia, organized a library, a mutual aid fund, led a roar. propaganda among the workers. Arrested in the same year. By imperial command, in 1890 he was imprisoned for 2 years in the Kresty prison (St. Petersburg), in 1892 he was exiled to Olekminsk, Yakutsk region, then to Nizhneudinsk, where he worked as a doctor. In 1896 he returned to Europe. Russia, settled in Smolensk. In the end. 1890s - early. 1900s worked as a doctor for angry. mines in Siberia, then in Saratov, where he was a member of the local Social-Democratic Party. org-tion. After the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP - Menshevik. In the 2nd floor. 1900s lived and worked in Yekaterinoslav. In 1912 for the publication of Art. arrested on the occasion of the Lena execution and exiled to Siberia. In 1915-17 he worked as a doctor in the village. Kaptsevo, Yaroslavl province. After 1917 he returned to Saratov, was one of the hands. local organization RSDLP, was persecuted by the Sov. authorities. In the 1910s. in letters to friends, he was pessimistic about the prospects of growing up. Jewry., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Genrikh Naumovich (b. 1911, Warsaw), scientist, specialist in the region. theoretical and applied gas. speakers. R. in the family of a mechanical engineer. Graduated from Moscow. engineering and construction. Institute (1932). In 1932–44 he worked at the Center. aerohydrodynamic in-those (TsAGI) - Ing. (until 1938), deputy. early experiment. dep. (1938–42), early. aerodynamic. lab. (1942–44). In 1944–45 - deputy. early Research Institute-1 of the Ministry of Aviation industry of the USSR. At the same time. from 1939 he taught. work in Moscow. Aviation in-those (since 1945 prof., in 1962–82 - head of the department of theory of air-jet engines). Member Nat. to-that USSR on theoretical. and Applied Mechanics (1976). Doct. tech. Sciences (1939). work in the region. turbulent flows. One of the hands. projects of large wind tunnels (1934–39), proposed and substantiated projects of transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. pipes of high power with a closed working part and variable pressure (1936–40). Developed (since 1939) the basis for gas. dynamics of a ramjet engine at subsonic speeds. Created (1942) the theory of the centrifugal nozzle, which was used in the design and creation of jet engines. Author of the textbook “Applied Gas. dynamics ”(1951), which went through 5 editions. worker of science and technology of the RSFSR (1972). Became. pr. (1943) Cit .: Gaz. dynamics of jet engines, M., 1947; Foundations of theories of air-jet engines, M., 1947; The theory of turbulent jets, 2nd ed., Moscow, 1984 (in co-authorship); Applied gas. dynamics, parts 1–2, 5th ed., 1991., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH German (1880 - 1948), rabbi, society. activist in the field of social. provision. From 1890 to the USA. He was educated at New York College, becoming a bachelor in 1900. After graduating from Theological Seminary in 1902, he was elected Rabbi of the Shaar Gashomayim Congregation in Montreal (Canada), where he was actively involved in educational, educational and philanthropic activities. He was one of the main founders of the \"Sinai\" sanatorium for tuberculosis patients and a member. to-that on the organization of the Montreal Federation of Jews. philanthropic societies. In 1907 he was one of the first graduates of the Theological Seminary to receive a doctorate; in 1932 he was awarded another doctorate. In 1909, having created a whole network of Hebrews. schools in Canadian agriculture. colonies belonging to the Association of Heb. settlers, A. became the director. Department of Education. Thanks to his achievements in this area, he was invited to the Canadian committee and in 1913 was sent on his behalf to the conference. in Paris. Represented Canada at the Congress. Zionists, held in Vienna the same year. Former prez. United Synagogues of America (1926) A. remained a member of the executive. to-that of this organization. The director also worked. Federation of Heb. philanthropic societies in Montreal, was hand. Montreal Hospital and Poch. Vice President Zionist organization of Canada. Member first Heb. about-va of school workers at Quebec. During the 1st world. war served as a soldier. a rabbi in the Canadian army., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Grigory (ps. Zevi Avraami, V. Farbman, Mikhail Farbman) (1880 - 1933), socialist Zionist, publicist, publisher, journalist. He studied in Munich and Zurich, where he became an active Zionist. Supported the plan of Heb. colonization of Uganda, wrote a number of articles on Zionism and the Ugandan problem (published in the Zionist newspaper \"Evr. Zhizn\", 1905). The author of Art. about Heb. emigration and economy. Moving away from societies. activity, created the publisher. the firm. From 1915 he lived in England, wrote Art. as an expert Sovietologist for English. and Amer. g. Among his book. - \"After Lenin\" (1924), \"Five-Year Plan\" (1931)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Joseph Isaakovich (b. 1901), specialist in the region. lifting and transport equipment, prom organizer page-va. He graduated from the Kharkov building. in-t. From 1935 ch. engineer, then early. building of the Verkhne-Saldinsky plant. In 1936–39, associate professor of Moscow. in-that chem. machine. From 1940 ch. Defense Engineer Since 1942, he headed the construction of the aviation complex. s-dov near Kuibyshev, other industrial objects. production. In 1944 he directed the development of the project and methods of high-speed construction. After 1945 he headed the construction of a number of large industrial enterprises. objects. Author of Art., Uch. benefits. Became. pr. (1944). Works: Lifting machines, parts 1–2, Moscow, 1956 (jointly with L.G. Kifer); Atlas of drawings for lifting machines, Moscow, 1956 (with L.G. Kiefer)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Mikhail (1860, Berdichev, Kiev province - 1940, Brussels), poet. Son of Mendele Moicher-Sforim. He spent his early years in Zhitomir. Graduated from the city. From a young age he joined the roar. movement, was a member. Zhytomyr circle of populists. In 1877 he was brought to trial, several. months was under house arrest. In the fall of 1878 he arrived in St. Petersburg to enter a medical surgeon. Academy, but was arrested and exiled to the Arkhangelsk province. After his release in 1884, he lived for some time in Odessa, where he graduated as an external lawyer. f-t. Novoros. un-that. In the beginning. 1880s printed poetry in Russian. lang. in f. \"Voskhod\", and in 1889 released Sat. \"Poems\", in which biblical motives predominated, ist. themes and love lyrics. In 1891 he published in Zh. \"Sunrise\" per. several heads of pov. his father \"Nag\", which led to the suspension of the publication of g. After the revolution, he moved to Zap. Europe to the end. life lived in Brussels. Son - Vsevolod (1890-1913) - was one of the first Russian. aviators. For the first time in the history of aviation in 1912 he made a long flight Berlin-Petersburg, died in a plane crash., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Mikhail Vladimirovich (1884, Baku - 1965, ibid.), Specialist in the region. geology of oil fields, acad. AN Azerb. SSR (1955). After graduating in 1910 Petersburg. mining institute worked in the oil industry of Azerbaijan (until 1930), then headed the department of geology of Azerb. Phil. Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the study of oil fields of the Apsheron Peninsula, the productive strata were identified in its stratigraphic. section. He proved the possibility of dividing the oil strata into formations, the rhythm of the accumulation of oil sediments. Participated in the creation of a system for the rational placement of wells in the development of oil-bearing formations. He proposed the use of gas logging in the search for oil and gas. Developed a methodology for assessing oil and gas resources. Author of the first textbook in the USSR on prospecting and exploration of oil and gas fields. A submarine uplift in the Caspian Sea is named after A., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Nikolay Yakovlevich (1881, Taganrog Region. Don Cossack - 1922, Moscow), writer. Published under ps. P.Kadmiya, Aratov. Graduated from grade 7. Taganrog city. From 15 years old publ. in the local press. From the beginning. 1900s - to petersburg. and sinks. ed. In 1909 he published the Social-Democrats. gas. \"New Day\", soon closed by the censors. How lit. the critic belonged to the modernists. He also wrote philosophy. work. In rum. \"Woman on the Way\" (M., 1917) and in issl. \"Woman and the world of male culture\" (M., 1913) expressed A.'s antifeminism. In the pamphlets \"Russian word\", \"New time\" and seduced babies \" about-va under the pernicious influence of big newspapers. A. had an inherent feeling of disaster. development of Russia. Compiled by A. “History of Rus. poetry \"was awarded in 1914 by the Scientist of the Min-va Nar. education. He died as a psychiatrist at the Kanatchikova Dacha hospital. Works: Man of the Future, St. Petersburg, 1908; In the autumn gardens. Lit-ra of today, M., 1909; The philosophy of murder, M., 1913; Demon of nakedness, M., 1916; Modern lyrics, M., 1921., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMOVICH Zeev (Zinovy ​​Khefets) (1891-1970), polit. activist. Before the 1st world. Poalei Zion was an active activist during the war. After the revolution - one of the leaders of this party in Russia. After the split of Poalei, Zion joined her lion. wing. From 1922 in E.-I. One of the leaders is a lion. labor movement in E.-I., its ideologist. Later - one of the leaders of the Mapam party., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMS Charles (1901, Vilna - 1970, New York), lawyer and writer. In the USA since 1904.Since 1924 member. New York Bar Association. In the 1920s and 30s. participated in the struggle for the preservation of Greenwich Village, its ist. streets and buildings. In 1934–37 in the mountains. council of New York, then in decomp. missions providing tech. assistance to developing countries. In 1936–60 he lectured on urbanization and economics at the New York School of Social. issl., in 1965 headed the faculty of mountains. planning price at Columbia Unt. Vice President liber. batch pcs. New York (1940), prev. commission pcs. New York Against Discrimination and Chl. Harriman's Cabinet (1955–59). The author of the book. and Art. on the mountains. planning and living. pages: \"Revolution on the ground\" (1937), \"The future lived. p-va \"(1946),\" Forbidden Neighborhood \"(1955),\" Struggle for Shelter \"(1964)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Abraham Yehezkel (1886, Dashkovichi, Grodno province - 1976, Jerusalem), rabbi, Talmudist, commentator on rabbinical sources. He studied at large Lithuanian yeshivas. In 1912-14, the rabbi in the Smolyany borough of Orshansky district. Mogilev province, in 1914–23 - in the m. Smolevichi, Minsk province, in 1923–30 - in Slutsk. In 1928, joint. with Sh.I. Zevin published a rabbinic journal. \"Yagdil Toire\", the only edition. of this kind in the USSR. In 1930 he was sentenced to 10 years for “counterrev. activity \". In 1931 he was released and left for England. He held the position of Dayan in London Religion. court. Since 1951 - in Israel. Pres. Associations of yeshivas. Member Council of Sages of the Torah - supreme. body of the party Agudat Yisrael. State pr. Israel (rabbinic literature, 1956) for research. work in the field of halakha., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMSKY Shmuel (b. 1913, Suwalki), ethnographer. In his youth - an active member. Communist Party of Poland. In 1930 he was arrested and spent a year in prison. In E.-I. since 1934. Studied at ped. seminary in Jerusalem, graduated from Heb. un-t in the same place. Was a lion activist. socialist movement. In 1938 he retired from watered, activities. Published articles and research, dedicated. ist. geography and archeology E.-I. Ed. \"Encyclopedias of Biblical Geography\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMSON Manuil (Emmanuil) Moiseevich (ps. Mazurin) (1898, p. Privolnoye, Kherson province - 1941), orientalist-Sinologist. R. in the family of a farmer-colonist. In 1924 he graduated from the whale. Dipl. Faculty of Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies (MIV), worked in China, from 1928 on scientific. work in the Communist. un-those workers of China and research institutes in China. Member of the Harbin and Vladivostok underground in civil. war; secretary-referent VK Blucher in the \"Great campaign\" 1925-27 in China, sotr. Comintern, Far East. Secretariat of the ECCI. In 1935-37 at the Institute of World Economy and World Politics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Member editorial board “Mat-fishing on the whale. question \". The author of the work \"Polit. about-va and parties in China \"(\" New East \", 1922, No. 1), reference encyclopedic. materials, etc. Ed. A. published “Brief Kit.-Rus. dictionary \"V.S.Kolokolov (sred. Hu Jia; M., 1935) and others. 1938 arrested., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMSON Shakhno Girshevich (Alexander Grigorievich) (1861 - 1907, Kovno), attorney at law. Graduated from law. Faculty of Petersburg un-that. Dep. 2nd State thoughts from the Kovno lips. He was a member of the cadet faction., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMSON Shraga (b. 1915, Tsekhanovets Grodno province), rabbi. In 1936 he was promoted to rabbi in omжеa and in the same year he moved to E.-J. In 1950 he graduated from Heb. un-t in Jerusalem. In 1952–58 - prof. Heb. theological. seminaries (New York), from 1958 - Heb. un-that. Member Academy of Hebrew, was its vice-president. and ed. g. Lachoneinu (1970-80). State pr. Israel (Judaism) in 1974 for the study of the rabbinical literature of the Talmud era and the period of the Gaons and their languages., Middle-century. biblical exegesis, poetry and prose of the Middle Ages in Hebrew, Wed-century. philology lang. Hebrew., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAMZON Saul Mendelevich (b. 1905, Dmitrovsk, Orel province), ethnographer. Dr. East Sciences (1969). R. in the family of a craftsman. Graduated from ethnography. department of geogr. Faculty of Leningrad State University (1926). In 1926–31 the first director. Museum of Local Lore in Frunze (Kyrgyzstan). Since 1931 scientific. sotr. Leningrad. Department of the Institute of Ethnography of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Author of works on ethnography and ethnicity. history of the Kyrgyz. In 1962 and 1973, A.'s works were sharply criticized, and A. himself was accused of “Kirg. nationalism \". Cit .: Essay on the culture of the Kyrgyz. people, Frunze, 1946; Kirghiz and their ethnogenetic. historical and cultural ties, L., 1971 (republished by Frunze, 1990)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRAS Yehoshua (1820, Brody, Austria - 1896, Odessa), cantor. From childhood he became famous for his singing. Studied with B. Schulzinger and Sulzer. He was a cantor in Tarnopol, Lvov and Odessa (from 1880). He had the best singers of his generation. data. Issued Sat. melodies and tunes to prayers (Vienna, 1874)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRENE, see Pytalovo., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ABRIKOSOV Alexey Alekseevich (b. 1928, Moscow), theoretical physicist. Ch.-c. (1964), acad. (1987) Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Graduated from Moscow. un-t (1948). In 1948–65 he worked at Ying-those physical. problems of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1965–88 the head. dep. Ying-that theoretical. Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences L.D. Landau. In 1988–91, the director. Institute of Physics of High Pressure of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, since 1991 advisor at the directorate of this Institute. At the same time. since 1966 - prof. Moscow un-that, in 1976-91 - head. Department of Moscow. Institute of Steel and Alloys. Since 1991 he has been working in the USA under a contract. interests - TV theory. bodies, quantum electrodynamics, physics of metals, theory of superconductivity, plasma physics. Calculated Green's functions and effective cross sections of different. processes at high energies in quantum electrodynamics (1954–56). He put forward the idea of ​​the existence of type II superconductors (1952). Built the theory of magn. properties of superconducting alloys, introducing the concept of two critical. fields and a \"mixed\" state with a vortex structure of currents (\"vortices of Abrikosov\", 1957). Joint. with LP Gorkov developed the theory of superconductors with magn. impurities and predicted the phenomenon of gapless superconductivity (1960). Research properties of highly compressed matter, gave the equation of state of hydrogen at ultrahigh pressures with the transition from the molecular to atomic phase (1954). He created a theory of semimetals like bismuth, predicted the appearance of a gapless state and excitonic phases in a strong magn. field, proposed the theory of gapless conductors (1970–74). Developed a general approach for studying the conductivity of quasi-one-dimensional systems and introduced the concept of the delocalization parameter (1976). Created the theory of spin glasses with short-range action (1978–80). Develops the theory of high-temperature superconductivity (crystalline excitonic phases with heavy holes). The author of St. 300 scientific. works. Linen. pr. (1966), State. pr. USSR (1982), Intern. etc. them. F. London (1972), Ave. Of the USSR Academy of Sciences L.D. Landau, Works: Introduction to the theory of normal metals, Moscow, 1972 (English, 1972); The phenomenon of gapless superconductivity of metals, M., 1985; Foundations of the theory of metals, M., 1987; Methods of quantum field theory in statistical physics, M., 1962; 2nd ed., M., 1989 (jointly with L.P. Gorkov and I.E. Dzyaloshinsky)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ACHIR, a village in the Omsk district of the Omsk region. (Russian Federation) In 1929, the first in the West was created in the Achair region. Siberia Jewish s.-kh. the team \"Equality\" (300 people); wall gas came out. \"The Voice of the Jewish Farmer\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ACHKINAZI Veniamin Moiseevich (Boris Mikhailovich) (1927 - 1992, Simferopol), historian. Graduated from the Crimean state. un-t. Collector of materials on the language and folklore of the Krymchaks. The author of several. publications about the Krymchaks. First prev. Crimean cultural and educational. about-va \"Krymchakhlar\". Apologist for the theory of non-ethnicity of the Krymchaks. Jewry., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADABASHEVO, see Adabash., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADALBERG Shmuel (1868, Warsaw - 1939, ibid.), Lit. critic, folklorist. He studied in different Europe. capitals. The main tr. A. is a collection of Polish proverbs and sayings (1889–94), the largest in the world. For this work A. was awarded a membership in the Krakow Academy of Sciences. A. translated and annotated 580 Heb. proverbs from the collection of I. Bernstein. They were published in the Polish Ethnographic. g. \"Vistula\" (v. 4, 1890), and later dep. book From 1918 A. was an adviser on Hebrew. issues in the Polish Ministry of Education and Religion and did everything possible to promote the Heb. communities and institutions. When the Nazis occupied Warsaw, he committed suicide., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADAM Baal-Shem-Tov, legendary figure of the 18th century According to legend, A. bequeathed his comments to the Kabbalah to Rabbi I. Baal Shem Tov. Some people believe that A. is Rabbi Dovid Moishe Avraham of Rohatyn, who is considered the teacher of the Baal Shem Tov., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADASKINA Ginda Simkhovna (b. 1928, Moscow), trapeze trapeze artist. In 1949 she graduated from the State. school of circus arts. She performed in the program \"Women - Masters of the Soviet Circus\". After being injured in 1953, she worked as an assistant at E.T.Kio's illusion attraction. Since 1955 again an aerialist. In 1960 she prepared a complex innovative number on the air horizontal bar. From 1974 - stage director. The performances, staged by A., have repeatedly become laureates of competitions. Honored. art. RSFSR (1971)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADEL (1725— |), the only and beloved daughter of I. Baal-Shem-Tov. She was very revered by the Hasidim and entered Hasidic folklore as the image of an ideal woman. She was educated by her father. Accompanied him during his trip to E.-I. A.'s grandson - Rabbi Nachman from Bratslav., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADELBERG Avraham (1875, Vilna - 1936, New York), entrepreneur, societies. activist. He studied at the yeshiva in Vilna and in the city of St. Petersburg. Since 1888 in the USA, where he created a network of sewing companies. In 1907 he helped a lot in the creation of Sidehurst Park on Long Island. Since 1910, members the first Board of Trustees of Sidehurst County, in 1920–24 - its treasurer, in 1926–27 the governor of the district; from 1928 to 1932 he was unanimously elected mayor of Sidehurst three times. Collaborated with decomp. philanthropic., societies. and patriotic. about-you, during the 1st world. war is one of the leaders of societies. movement for aid to soldiers, donated 100 thousand dollars for the construction of soldiers. club (later - the residence of the American Legion)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADELSON Osip Isaakovich (1800 - |), physician, graduated from the Medical-Surgical Academy in 1823, received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. From 1826 to 1848 A. - Senate physician and physician at the Ministry of Finance in St. Petersburg, state councilor., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADELSON Wolf (| - 1866, Odessa), educator. A student of the rabbi-philosopher M. Ilier, in his youth he was a teacher in Brest-Litovsk, in 1833 he settled in Dubno, enjoyed great influence among the Jews. youth, was persecuted by the Hasidim for \"freethinking\". After long wanderings, he settled in Odessa, died in poverty, most of A.'s manuscripts perished. Among the students and followers of A. - the grammarist H. Ts. Lerner, rus. censor V. Fedorov (before baptism - Greenberg). In the circle \"Maskilim\" ser. 19th century A. is known under the nickname \"Diogenes\"; among the surviving op. A. - etude about the book. \"Esther\" and a number of essays on ancient Hebrews. lit-re., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADINI Yaakov-Yosef (1898, Warsaw - 1969, Israel), translator, ed. He was an activist of the Ge-Halutz movement in Poland. Since 1920 - in E.-I. In 1923–24 he worked in Berlin, published books ser. \"Et Lebanot\". In 1924 he returned to E.-I. He was engaged in lit. activities. He studied in Jerusalem and England. Translated into Hebrew plural. books, among them the works of L. Feuchtwanger, G. Fast, F. M. Dostoevsky, I. S. Turgenev and others. Was one of the editors. encyclopedias \"Yzrael\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADINKATA, see Lumpy., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADIROVICH Emmanuil Ilyich (1915, Melitopol - 1973, Tashkent), theoretical physicist. Acad. Academy of Sciences of the UzSSR (1962). Graduated from Moscow. un-t (1940). In 1940–62 he worked at Phys. in-those of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where he defended his doct. dis. under the hands. S.I. Vavilov (1949). Since 1962 hand. created by him. physics of semiconductors Phys.-tech. in-ta them. S.V. Starodubtseva of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR in Tashkent. interests - physics tv. body and semiconductors. One of the founders of the band theory of luminescence of crystals, on the basis of which he first solved the problem of nonradiative electronic transitions in solids, predicted and discovered the phenomenon of \"cold flash\". He established the law of electronic polarization and depolarization of photoelectrets, calculated the distribution of heterocharge and field, developed a general theory of the photoelectret state and showed the principle, the possibility of creating a photoelectret without external. polarizing zero. He showed the possibility of the existence of excitons of a new type, which made it possible to reveal the mechanism of fast low-temperature polarization. He laid (jointly with others) the foundations of optoelectronics (developed the theory of optocouplers and optocouplers, discovered the effect of anomalously high photovoltages and photomagnetic voltages in semiconductor films; developed optoelectronic methods of correlation processing of large amounts of information). One of the founders of dielectric. electronics, decided a number of funds. tasks in this area, developed and researched. dielectric diode structures based on thin high-resistance monocrystalline. layers of silicon, gallium arsenide and silicon carbide. Created the Tashkent School of Physics and Electronics TV. Tel. The author of St. 200 scientific. works: Nek-ry questions of the theory of luminescence of crystals, Moscow-Leningrad, 1951; M., 1956; Double injection currents in semiconductors, M., 1978 (in co-authorship); Photovoltaic phenomena in semiconductors and optoelectronics, Tashkent, 1972 (in co-authorship)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADIVI Rekhavya (1900, Brest-Litovsk, Grodno province - 1972, Ashkelon), engineer, public. activist. In E.-I. came as a child with his parents. Graduated from the Herzliya government in Tel Aviv. Received an engineering degree from Philadelphia University. An active member of the Union of Engineers and Architects of Israel. Since 1965 - Mayor of Ashkelon., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLER German (b. 1899, Jablonec nad Nisou, Austria-Hungary - |), conductor. In 1924 he graduated from the German Music. academy in Prague. 1927–32 - conductor of opera ts in Czechoslovakia and Germany. In 1932–35 - Ch. conductor symph. orchestra (Kharkov), in 1935–37 - ch. conductor orc. Ukr. radio (Kiev). Since 1939 in the USA., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLER Israel Yehuda (Ishai) (1870, Pinsk - 1948, Israel), teacher, society. activist, translator, ed. From 1886 he was engaged in ped. activities. From 1905 - in E.-I. One of the first teachers to teach in Hebrew. He founded the first newspaper for teachers in Hebrew \"Ha-Khinuh\". Founder of the publishing house at the teachers' union \"Kagelet\". One of the first residents of Tel Aviv. For many years he taught at a girls' school in Jaffa. Author pl. Art. on pedagogy, education and societies, problems, as well as textbooks. Compiled the Little Library for Children (1916–17). The settlement of Ramat Yishai in northern Israel is named after him., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLER Morris (1906, Slutsk - 1966, USA), rabbi, leader in the region. education. R. in the family of a rabbi. Since 1913 in the USA. Rabbi first in Buffalo, then from 1938 until the end of his life in Detroit. In 1943–46 - soldier. rabbi. In 1957–66 A. before. Board of the Union of Workers of the Automotive Industry, member. Michigan Election Commission and K-that for citizens. management. In 1963–66 A., member. Governments. commissions for higher. education., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLER Shaul (1895 - 1966, Jerusalem), parasitologist. In 1900 he moved with his parents to England. He studied medicine at the University of Leeds, majored in tropical. diseases in Liverpool. During the 1st world. War - physician and pathologist in the British Army. In 1921–24 he was engaged in scientific research. research in Sierra Leone. Since 1924 - in Heb. un-those. Headed by scientific. expeditions from the Royal Society of London to the Tikhoi Islands approx. Main works are devoted to the etiology, pathology and ways of spreading pathogenic parasites in humans and animals, tropical. diseases and their treatment. Got the world. the fame of his tr. on malaria, relapsing fever, leprosy, dysentery, and ch. arr. research leishmaniasis. In 1934 he was awarded evil. medal to them. Chalmers, awarded by Eng. Royal Society Tropical. diseases. He translated the work of Charles Darwin \"The Origin of Species\" into Hebrew. State Israel Ave (1957)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLER Yakov A. (1855, Odessa - 1926), actor, director. He performed in loves. performances. From 1879–83 in the troupe iz. playwright, director, theater. organizer A. Goldfaden. He left Russia after the ban on the activities of the Jews. troupes. He performed in London, then in Chicago, New York and other cities of the USA. Has toured in Warsaw, Lodz, Lvov. Back in New York, post. performances \"Soldier Motele\", \"Siberia\" (1891). These scenic production, especially the first, were a great success. Shylock (\"The Merchant of Venice\" by W. Shakespeare) stood out among the acting works that brought fame to A. also played Iago (\"Othello\" by W. Shakespeare). The play \"Cafe Crown\" told about the life path of A. He performed on the stages of \"People-teetr\", \"Grand-teetre\", where his children often played with him., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLER Yankel-Yaakov (1895, Lodz - 1949, London), artist. He studied in Bremen. Since 1911 - in Dusseldorf, prof. Academy of New Art (1930). In the 1920s. published in Poland. Jung Yiddish. Since 1935 - in France. After the start of the 2nd world. During the war, he joined the Polish army, served until 1943. From 1945 - in England. At the beginning, creative. activities joined him. Expressionist school, but his thin. the style has always been based on plank beds. Heb. traditions. Later he became an imagist. In the last years of his life he had a great influence on the development of modern. art-va in England., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADLIVANKIN Samuil Yakovlevich (1897, Tatarsk, Mogilev province - 1966, Moscow), painter, graphic artist, film designer. He studied at the Odessa Art. uch-shche (1912-17), then in the State. free thin workshops in Moscow (1918-19) with V.E. Tatlin. Worked for the publishing house \"Young Guard\" (1923-28), ill. g. \"Lapot\", \"Atheist\" and others, created by. polit. posters and cartoons (together with V.V. Mayakovsky). - one of the founders thin. association KNIFE (New Society of Painters, 1921–24), created. ex. graduates of VKHUTEMAS, opposition. attuned to non-objective art. Turning to subject painting, A. and other members. The KNIFE was used in the tradition of Nar. lubok and creatively processed hoods. methods of primitivism and expressionism (\"Tram B\", etc.). A. participated in the creation. f. to / st. Soyuzdetfilm (A Cup of Tea, 1927). Member Society of Artists \"Isobrigada\" (1931–32), which put forward the slogans \"polit, realism\" and \"class. orientation of creativity \". A.'s works are kept in the State Russian Museum and the State Tretyakov Gallery., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADMON (Rappoport) Shmuel (1914 - 1972, Israel), military leader, one of the creators of the Israeli artillery. From 1922 - in E.-I. Graduate of the Herzliya State University (Tel Aviv). Since 1938 - a member of the kibbutz Alonim. In 1940 he was mobilized into the British army, served in the artillery. He took part in battles in Italy. Demobilized in 1946 with the rank of captain. During the War of Independence, he commanded the Israeli artillery. Later it was the beginning. headquarters of the North. env., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADMONI Vladimir Grigorievich (1909, Petersburg, - 1993, ibid.), Literary critic and philologist-Germanist. Dr. philol. Sciences (1947), prof. (1948). Son of the historian G.Ya. Krasny-Admoni. In 1941–42 he worked at the Leningrad Political Administration. fr. and prepared antifash. agitator. materials. He taught at the universities of Leningrad. Since 1960 in Leningrad. department of Ying-ta yaz-knowledge of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The section was headed by poet. translation leningr. writing organization. A. acted as a witness for the defense at the trial in the case of I.A. Brodsky. Works in the field of Germanic and Scandinavian studies; he was the first to single out a \"system of construction\", i.e. a set of interrelated formal language facilities that provide both the structural integrity of grammaticals. units, and their structural division. He owns the concept of the musical score organization of the speech chain; the doctrine of syntactic. form, word order and actual division of the sentence, text linguistics, poetry language and art. prose, factors and ways of language development. Göttingen Academy of Sciences; och. Doctor of Philosophy, Uppsala University (Sweden). Great gold medal to them. Goethe (1971), etc. Konrad Duden (1987) Works: Introduction to modern syntax. yaz., M., 1955; East syntax is it. yaz., M., 1963; Syntax modern. German lang .: System of relations and system of construction, M., 1973; The grammatical structure as a system of construction and the general theory of grammar, L., 1988., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADZHAMKA, a village in the Kirovograd district of the Kirovograd region. (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - the town of Alexandria Kherson Gubernia. In 1910, 217 Jews (1.8%) lived in Armenia, in 1939 - 60 Jews. In 1910 there was a Jewish cemetery and a synagogue in Armenia. On May 18, 1919, a pogrom took place in Armenia, organized by the detachments of Ataman N.A. Grigoriev., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ADJIASHVILI Jemal (Semyon) (b. 1941, Tskhakaya, Georgian SSR), translator, publicist, playwright. Graduated from the Faculty of Oriental Studies (department of Persian languages) Tbilisi. state un-that. In 1979 publ. Sat. per. “Wed-century. Heb. poetry \"on the load. lang. Book. had a great resonance all over the world. His lane is also known in Georgia. Russian, English, Japanese. and other classics. In 1988 in Bat Yam (Israel) his play “Sing, Harp” about the life of the Jews of Georgia was staged. The play was written for one actor and in tech. several years old iz. the actor K. Makharadze. Several his lane. manuf. were marked by foreign. lit. pr. since 1991 Parliament of the Georgian Rep., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AJIASHVILI Itzhak (1929 (|), Kutaisi - 1993, Kiriyat-Ata, Israel), rabbi. Beginning religious educated by Rabbi M. Davarashvili in Kutaisi, higher. religious education in mosk. yeshiva \"Kol Yaakov\". His teachers were iz. rabbis Sh. Trebnik, Sh. Shlifer, I. Khanzin and others. After returning to Georgia he became one of the leading rabbis in Tbilisi. Since 1973 - with his family in Israel, settled in the city of Kiriyat-Ata. Here he served as cantor, shohet, moel. Actually became a spiritual hand. immigrants from Georgia in Kiriyat-Ata., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AFRICANDA, urban-type settlement (since 1955) in the Murmansk region. (Russian Federation) In 1989, 2 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AFTARAN-MAJI, see Muji-Gaftaran., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGALYK, a village in the Samarkand region of the Samarkand region. (The Republic of Uzbekistan). Since 1876 - part of Ros. empire, from 1887 - in the Samarkand district. Samarkand Region. In 1930, an incident related to the \"blood libel\" took place in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGARA, an urban-type settlement (since 1934) in the Karelian region (Georgia). Since 1801 - as part of Ros. empire, since 1846 - the village of Gori u. Tiflis province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 it was the Georgian SSR. In 1926 there were 9 Jews living in Armenia, in 1939 - 9, in 1970 - 3, in 1979 - 1 Jew., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGARON Shmuel ben Israel Kaidanover (Magarshak) (1614, Koydanovo - 1676), one of the largest rabbis of his time. In his youth he studied at the famous yeshiva Rabbi Yaakov from Lublin. During the pogroms of B. Khmelnitsky (1648) he fled to Vilna, where he became one of the mountains. religious judges. During the Swedish-Russian. During the war, his house was robbed and a unique library burned down. He fled to Moravia. Later he was a rabbi in Glug, Fjord and Frankfurt am Main. After returning to Poland - the rabbi of Krakow. Author pl. religious essays., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGARONOVICH Yosef (1877 - 1937, Tel Aviv), polit. and societies. activist, publicist. In his youth there was a s.-kh. a worker, a watchman. From 1906 - in E.-I. Active member \"Ha-Poel ra-Tsair\", ed. of the same name. gas. (1906–22), one of the ideologists of the labor movement, delegate from the workers E.-I. at the Zionist congresses. During the 1st world. war was expelled from the country by the Turkish authorities, lived in Egypt, opposed the entry of volunteers in Heb. legion. He actively participated in the creation and activities of Histadrut and Mapai. One of the founders of Bank Ha-Poalim, headed it until the last days of his life. Was a member. City Council of Tel Aviv. The head of the Writers' Union E.-I. Moshav Beit Yosef in the Beit Sheana valley is named after him. Author pl. works on the theory and practice of the labor movement., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGARYAN Yisroel-Moishe (1865, Alexandrovka Chigirinsky district. Kiev province - 1940, Cleveland, USA), rabbi. Rod. in a Hasidic family. Received a tradition. Heb. religious education. Since 1892 - in the USA. One of the pioneers of religious Zionism in the United States. I took an active part in helping the 1st world refugees. wars from Europe. Author of the book \"Sulam Yisrael\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGBULACH, see Tetri-Tskaro., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGDAM, city (since 1828), regional center (Azerbaijan Republic). Main in 1741. From 1813 - as part of Ros. empire, from 1868 - in the Elizavetpolskaya province. In 1918–20 it was a part of the Azerbaijan Republic, in 1920–91 it was the AzSSR. In 1910, 33 Jews lived in Azerbaijan, and in 1939 - 7 Jews., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGDASH, city (since 1900), regional center (Azerbaijan Republic). Izv. from the 16th century Since 1813 - as part of Ros. empire, from 1868 - in the Elizavetpolskaya province. In 1918–20 it was a part of the Azerbaijan Republic, in 1920–91 - the AzSSR. In 1910, 38 Jews (0.7%) lived in Azerbaijan, and in 1939 there were 21 Jews., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGINSKOE, urban-type settlement (since 1959), the center of the Aginsky Buryat Autonomous Okrug (Russian Federation). Main in 1811 as a village of the Nerchinsk voivodeship, from 1851 - the Nerchinsk environs. Transbaikal Oblast. In 1939, 12 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGLOBI, a village in the Derbent region of the Republic of Dagestan (Russian Federation). Since 1813 - as part of Ros. empire, from 1846 - in Derbent province, from 1860 - in the Kurinsky environs. Dagestan Province. 35 Jews lived in Armenia in 1867, 55 Jews in 1875, 33 in 1886, 25 in 1900, and 165 Jews in 1926 (67%). Jews lived in Armenia from the beginning. 19th century Between 1860 and 1870, anti-Jewish demonstrations by local Muslims took place in Armenia. population. In the 1870s. a synagogue was built. Jews owned 25 dess. arable land. During the Civil. During the war, self-defense was organized in Armenia, and in 1918 most of the Jews left Armenia. During the period of collectivization, Jewish collective farms were created in Armenia. Lenin (19 x-c) and \"Red Dagestan\" (15 x-c). In the 1930s. Jews left A., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGLON, see Aglona., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGNYATSVET Eddie (real name and surname Edi Semyonovna Kagan) (b. 1916, Minsk), poetess. Lit. she began her activity in 1929. Writes for a Belarusian. lang. Graduated from Minsk ped. Institute (1936). Worked ed. children radio broadcasting (1934–38). Head of the department poetry in f. Polymya (1940–41), in 1945–46 revised. State Publishing House of the BSSR. The author is poetic. collection: \"My Generation\" (1935), \"Poems\" (1938), \"Spring Morning\" (1941), \"The Road to the Future\" (1949), \"Belarusian Rowan\" (1959), \"Desire\" (1971); book for children \"Vasilki\" (1947), \"Your comrades\" (1957), \"Country of childhood\" (1975), \"We are serious, we are funny\" (1976), etc. Translated into Belarusian, lang. manuf. Heb. poets and prose writers, French. (P.Zh.Beranger, P.Eluard), Russian, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Latvian. poets. According to her libretto, op. for children \"Janat\" (1942, music by L. A. Schwartz) and \"Marinka\" (1955, music by G. K. Puksta). In 1976, Fav. manuf. \" in 2 volumes., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGOL Israel Iosifovich (1891, Bobruisk - 1936), geneticist and philosopher, acad. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1934). Father V.I.Agol. Graduated from honey. Faculty of Moscow State University (1923) and the Institute of Red Professors (1927) in Moscow. From 1926 he worked in Moscow. zootechnical in-those, from 1928 headed by Biologich. in-t them. K.A. Timiryazeva. In 1931 he worked in the lab. G. J. Moeller in the USA. Since 1932 - in the All-Ukrainian. associations of Marxist-Leninist scholars Institute (in 1933–34 - vice-president), since 1934 - at the Institute of Zoology and Biology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (head of the department). Repressed. tr. on genetics and philosophy. questions of natural science. Research the influence of x-rays on the genetic. apparatus (for example, Drosophila). Studied dominance in the genetic process. changes. One of the authors. the theory of stepwise allelomorphism (gene divisibility). Developed organic problems. expediency. A number of works are devoted to the criticism of neovitalism and neo-Darwinism. D. h. Communist. academy (1929). Founder and 1st Responsible ed. g. \"Success of the present. biology \"(1932). Cit .: Dialectic. method and evolution. theory, M., 1930; Vitalism and Marxism, 3rd ed., M., 1932; The origin of animals and humans, Kiev, 1935; I want to live, M., 1936., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGOL Vadim Izrailevich (b. 1929, Moscow), virologist. Ch.-c. Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1986). Son of I. I. Agol. At the end of the 1st Moscow. honey. in-that (1951) worked in the Karaganda honey. in-those, since 1956 - in Ying-those of poliomyelitis and viral encephalitis of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (since 1961 head of laboratory of biochemistry); in 1963 he participated in the organization of the Department of Virology at Biological. Faculty of Moscow State University (since 1969 - prof.), in 1965 - Interfaculty Lab. bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow State University (since 1991, A.N. Belozersky Institute of Physical and Chemical Biology). Auth. OK. 200 scientific. works. Main tr. by pier biology of RNA-containing animal viruses. He made a significant contribution to the study of the mechanisms of replication, translation, complementation and recombination of RNA-containing viruses. Member New York Academy (1983). Works: Molecular biology of viruses, M., 1971, (co-authors); Molecular biology: Structure and biosynthesis of nucleic acids, M., 1990 (co-authors)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGRANOV Yakov Solomonovich (Saulovich) (real name and surname Sorendzon Yankel Shevelev-Shmaev) (1893, Chechersk Rogachevsky u. Mogilev province. - 1938), employee of state bodies. security. In 1912-14 members. Socialist-Revolutionary Party, from 1915 - RSDLP (b). In 1919 20 sec. SNK, at the same time. Special Representative at the Presidium of the Cheka. Since 1921 sotr. secret-polit. Department of Management of the Cheka-GPU. From Oct. 1922 early. special bureau of the GPU. Since 1923 deputy. early Secret department OG-PU, then deputy. early OGPU in Moscow and Mosk. region On Feb. 1933 - July 1934 deputy. prev. OGPU, in July 1934 - May 1937 first deputy. Commissar int. affairs of the USSR, simultaneously. in dec. 1936 - Apr. 1937 early. Ch. management of state. security of the NKVD of the USSR, in April-May 1937 - early. 4th department of this department. From May 1937 beginning. Directorate of the NKVD of the USSR in the Saratov region. Carried out \"supervision of the investigation\" (actually fabricated cases) on all the most important political processes of the 1920s and 1930s. (from the so-called case of the Industrial Party to the case of G.E. Zinoviev-LBKamenev), conducted an investigation into the case of the so-called. Labor cross. parties (\"the case of A. Chayanov-N.D. Kondratyev\"). A. was close to many. writers and poets, but actually supervised their polit. moods. Soon after his appointment to Saratov, A. was arrested, taken to Moscow and executed on 08/01/1938., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGRANOVICH Leonid Danilovich (b. 1915, st. Zmievka, Oryol province), screenwriter, film director. In 1933–38 the actor Mosk. Modern t-ra, State. t-ra them. Sun Meyerhold, t-ditch of Tashkent, Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka. In 1941–43, actor and dir. Front t-ra, in 1943-46 Art. teacher of acting at VGIK. Since 1946 he has been engaged in literature activities, author of screenplays: \"A man was born\" (1956), \"Life is in your hands\" (1959, in co-authorship), \"Heaven is subdued by them\" (1963, in co-authorship); theater, plays: \"Light is burning in the windows\", \"Pilots\", \"Devil's River\" and others, as well as scripts of their films. He made his directing debut in 1963 f. “The Man Who Doubts” (with VG Semakov). He independently put f. \"Case from the investigative practice\" (1968), \"Own\" (1969), \"In our factory\" (1971), \"City shield\" (1979), \"Statute of limitations\" (1983). State pr. USSR (1971)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGRANOVICH Mikhail Leonidovich (b. 1946, Moscow), cameraman. In 1962–64, a developer at the laboratory for processing amateur photographs. Mosgorfabriki photoworks. In 1964-65, a mechanic for the maintenance of shooting equipment at the c / st. Mosfilm. In 1970 he graduated from the cinematography department of VGIK. Since 1970 - at Mosfilm (camera assistant, director of photography). 1st are independent. work - \"Tryn-grass\" (1976). Among other fictions: \"Rudin\" (1977), \"Funny People\" (1978), \"Little Tragedies\" (1980), \"Three Years\" (1981), \"Look for a Woman\" (1983), \"Winning a Lonely Trader\" (1984), \"Repentance\" (1986) and others., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGRANOVSKY Anatoly Abramovich (1922, Moscow - 1984, ibid.), Journalist. Son Izv. journalist A.D. Agranovsky (1896-1951). In 1943 he graduated from Moscow. ped. in-t them. K. Liebknecht. Member of the 1941–45 war. In 1947–61 he worked at Lit. gas. ”, in 1961-84 - in gas. \"News\". Participated in writing the book. LI Brezhnev Brother A. - Valery (b. 1929, Moscow), playwright, critic. Author pl. book, naib. fame from which got the pov. \"Stop Malakhov!\" (M., 1976). Honored. cultural worker of the RSFSR., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGRON (Agronsky) Gershon (1893, Ukraine - 1959, Jerusalem), journalist, society. activist. Since 1906 - in the USA. In 1918 he joined Heb. legion. After demobilization he moved to E.-I. Founder and first ed. gas. Palestine Post (later - Jerusalem Post). Mayor of Jerusalem (1955–59)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGROSKIN Anatoly Abramovich (1908 - 1993, Moscow), geochemist, specialist in the region. chem. technologies and thermal physics of coal. Dr. Tech. sciences, professor. Graduated from Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute. He worked in Donetsk coal chemistry. in-those, was one of the creatures. department of specialists-coke chemists in the Donetsk industrial in-those (dean of the coal chemistry department, headed the department), in Energetich. in-those them. G.M. Krzhizhanovsky Academy of Sciences of the USSR (head of the energochemical laboratory). In 1941–45 he proposed and supervised the introduction of a method for increasing the bulk density of a charge for coking by wetting it with microadditives of hydrocarbon liquids. He made a significant contribution to the development of coke chemistry. Developed by scientific. basics of heating modern. coke ovens, hydraulics the theory of gas movement as applied to coke ovens. Author of scientific. works, monographs, textbooks. Became. pr. (1946). Works: Sovr. coke ovens and heat engineering for their heating, Moscow, 1932 (with G.S. Halabuzarsm); Ways of expanding the coal base of coking, M., 1959; Chemistry and technology of coal, 2nd ed., M., 1969; Phys. properties of coal, M., 1961; Physics of coal, M., 1965; Brown coals as technological. raw materials, M., 1976 (jointly with I.E. Svyatets); Thermophysics of Solid Fuel, I M., 1980 (with V.B. Gleybman)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGROSKIN Iosif Ilyich (1900, Khotimsk, Klimovsk u. Mogilev province. - 1968, Moscow), engineer, specialist in the region. hydraulic engineering. Dr. Tech. Sciences (1938), professor. Since 1919 in Kr. Army. In 1924 he graduated from the irrigation and drainage faculty of the Goretsky agricultural department. in-that and worked in-those until 1927. In 1927–39 in Omsk agricultural. in-those (assistant of the department of hydraulics, since 1933 dean of the irrigation and drainage faculty, since 1937 head of the department and director of the institute). At the same time. in 1927–33 chap. Ing. Zap.-Sib. Melivodstroy. From 1939 he was appointed deputy. prev. Vses. to-that for higher affairs. schools under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. At the same time. from 1940 head. Department of Hydraulics in Moscow. irrigation and drainage institute. Since 1948, dir. in-ta.Osn. tr. associated with the development of hydraulic methods. calculation of canals and open reservoirs. He proposed new methods for determining conjugation. and critical. depths, differentiation integration. equations of uneven motion in open channels. He proposed methods for calculating rapid currents of uneven width, surge tanks, interface structures. Completed a series of works on the study of kinematic. the structure of the channel flow when flowing around cylindrical. Tel. One of the main. experimental developers, lab. and field sprinklers \"Aida\". Dep. Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR (1938–47). Honored. worker of science and technology (1966). Works: Canal hydraulics, M.-L., 1940; Hydraulics calculation of channels, M.-L., 1958; Hydraulics, 4th ed., M.-L., 1964 (in co-authorship)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGRYZ, a city (since 1938), a regional center in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Sarapulsky u. Vyatka Gubernia. In 1939, 38 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGUDAS AHIM (Hebrew - the union of brothers), a former Jewish farmer. partnership to the Crimea. ASSR. Main In 1925 they were immigrants from Gomel. In 1925, 124 people lived in AA., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGUDZERA, a railway station in the Gulripsh district of Abkhazia (Georgia). In 1970, 31 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AGURSKY Samuil Khaimovich (1884, Grodno - 1947, Pavlodar), part. and polit. activist, historian. Ch.-c. Academy of Sciences of the BSSR (1936). Received a tradition. Heb. education. From the age of 12 - a worker. Since 1902, members Bund. From 1905 - in the USA, worked as a tailor, sotr. in Heb. socialist ed. in Yiddish, one of the creators of the Chicago Heb. working institute where emigrants could get an education. In 1917, corr. one of the Amer. Heb. newspapers in Russia. In Jan. 1918 cum. with Amer. R. Williams, a journalist, formed one of the first internats. units Kr. Army. One of the creators and deputy. prev. Evsektsii, together with J.V. Stalin, signed a decree on the liquidation of the center. leadership Heb. religious communities. In the years of civil. War Commissioner for Heb. affairs of Vitebsk province, published by the Bolshevik. gas. Yiddish. In the beginning. 1920s repeatedly (including illegally) visited the United States, participated in the creation. Communist Party of the United States, raised funds to support the Sov. Russia (formally - to help starving people in the Volga region). Since 1930 deputy. dir. Institute of Party History at the MK VKP (b), since 1934 Dir. Ying-that history of the party of Belarus and Ying-that Evr. proletarian culture of Belarus. In 1938 he was arrested on charges of belonging to the Hebrews. fasc. organization and sabotage in the Academy of Sciences, sentenced to 5 years of exile (served in Pavlodar). Son A. - Mikhail (Malib) (1933, Moscow - 1991, ibid.), specialist in the region. cybernetics, member of the human rights movement in the USSR. Cand. tech. Sciences (1969). Since 1975 in Israel, he worked in the media, was engaged in history and political science. In 1983 he received an academic degree in Paris. Doctor's degree in reg. Slavic studies. Prof. Heb. un-that in Jerusalem, chl. Central Committee of the Party of Labor. Author of the book: \"Ideology of National Bolshevism\" (1980), \"Sov. Golem \"(1982) and others., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AK-MOSQUE, see Simferopol., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKBULAK, urban-type settlement (since 1937), a regional center in the Orenburg region. (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - a village in the Orenburg province. In 1939, 50 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHALI GAVAZI, a village in the Kvareli region (Georgia). Since 1801 - as part of Ros. empire, from 1846 - the village of Gavazi New Telavsky u. Tiflis province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 - in the Georgian SSR. In 1904 there were 7 Jews living in AG, in 1926 - 24 Jews. Jews settled in AG in the beginning. 20th century, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHALKALAKI, city, regional center (Georgia). Izv. from the 9th century. Since 1828 - part of Ros. empire, in the Imereti region, from 1840 - in the Georgian-Imereti region, from 1846 - in the Kutaisi region, from 1867 in the Akhaltsykh u. Tiflis province. In 1921-91 it was part of the Georgian SSR. In 1883, 27 Jews lived in Armenia, in 1887 - 53, in 1897 - 193 (5.5%), in 1910 - 69 (1.4%), in 1939 - 3 Jews . Jews lived in A. from the middle. 19th century after relocation several. Jewish families from Akhaltsikhe (modern Akhaltsikhe). There was a synagogue in 1883. The Jews lived separately in the Jewish quarter. In 1910 a synagogue and a Jewish cemetery existed in Armenia. In 1918-21, when Armenia was under Turkish rule, Jews moved from Armenia to Akhaltsykh and Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi). DMKhananashvili, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHALSOPELI, a village in Lanchkhuti district (Georgia). Main in the 1850s. as the village of Lanchkhutsky u. Tiflis province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 - the Georgian SSR. In 1904 15 Jews lived in Armenia, in 1926 - 66, in 1939 - 15 Jews. In 1889, a Jewish merchant from Tskhinvali was killed in Armenia. (modern Tskhinvali) D. Davarashvili and Y. Davarashvili wounded. Jews lived in Armenia from the beginning. 20th century In 1928, in connection with the founding in the Lanchkhut region of the Jewish collective farm \"Tsiteli Gora\" some of the Jews of A. moved to the collective farm. In the 1940s. Jews left A.D.M. Khananashvili, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AHDUS, see Leninsky., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHIEZER Alexander Ilyich (1911, Cherikov, Mogilev province), physicist, acad. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1964), Hon. scientist of the Ukrainian SSR (1986). Since 1934 he has been working at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology. Tr. in nuclear physics, quantum electrodynamics, elementary particle physics, plasma physics, magnetohydrodynamics, solid state theory, magnetism. Created a theoretical school. Etc. Of the USSR Academy of Sciences L.I. Mandelstam (1948). Works: Some questions of the theory of the nucleus (in co-authors), M.-L., 1948; 1950. Quantum electrodynamics (et al.), M., 1949; 1959; 1969; 1981. Biography of elementary particles (et al.), Kiev, 1983. Atomic physics: Reference book, Kiev, 1988., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHIEZER Alexander Samoilovich (b. 1929, Moscow), economist, specialist in social philosophy and methodology of history. Sciences. Graduated from Moscow. state econom. Institute (1953), postgraduate studies at the Research Institute of the State Planning Committee of the USSR in the specialty \"Planning bunks. x-va \"(1964), graduate school at Moscow. in-those nar. x-va them. GV Plekhanov with a degree in Philosophy (1967). Cand. Philos. sciences. In 1969-91 Art. scientific. sotr. Institute of the workers' movement and compare, political science of the USSR Academy of Sciences, since 1991 leading scientist. sotr. Institute of International employment of RAS. A. develops reproduction. the concept of the about-va, anti-entropic understanding of the essence, genesis and essence of mass people. activities. In addition, in his tr. problems and topics are being developed: the inconsistency of modern. grew up. worker as a subject of reproduction about-va; mechanisms of cultural dynamics, their significance and place in activity; humanization ist. the process of human development; originality (specificity) ist. the paths of Russia. Cit .: Culture. Modality. Interpretation: Categories and concepts of the Marxist-Leninist theory of culture, M., 1985; Culture and social relations: Restructuring societies, relations and contradictions in culture, M., 1989; Russia: Critique of East. experience, t. 1-3, M., 1991; Social and cultural problems of the development of Russia: Philos. aspect, M., 1992., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHIEZER Naum Ilyich (1901, Cherikov, Mogilev province - 1980, Kharkov), mathematician. Ch.-c. AN VOIN (1934). Graduated from Kievsk. Institute of Higher Education education (1924), graduate school - in the same place (1928). Dr. Phys.-Math. Sciences (1936), prof. (1940). He worked in Kievsk. un-those, (1928–33), Kiev. Aviation in-those (1928–33), Kharkov. un-those (1933–41), Alma-Atinsk. Mining Institute (1941–43), Moscow. energetic in-those (1943–47), from 1947 - to Kharkov. un-those. results - in the theory of best approximations, where he developed the ideas of P.L. Chebyshev and S.N.Bernstein. Works on the theory of functions, funkts. analysis, theory integr. equations, approx. and num. methods, aerodynamics, history of mathematics. He introduced functions known as Akhiezer-Baker functions, which play an important role in the theory of nonlinear integrals. systems. The author of a number of ist.-mat. research Etc. Of the USSR Academy of Sciences P.L. Chebyshev (1952). Works: Lectures on the theory of approximation, Moscow, 2nd ed., 1965; Theory of linear operators in a Hilbert space, M.-L., 1950, sovm. with I.M. Glazman., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AHIMEIR Abba (real name and surname - Abba Shaul Geisinovich) (1898, Dolgoe Bobruisk district, Minsk province - 1962, Tel Aviv), polit. activist, publicist, writer, one of the leaders of the Zionist revisionists, the ideologist of the most radical revision wing. movement In 1912 he arrived at E.-I. In 1914 he returned to Russia, joined Ceirei Zion. After the 1st world. war studied history in high fur boots of Liege and Vienna. In 1924 he returned to E.-I., joined Ga Poel Ha-Tsair, and in 1928 joined the Zionist revisionists. A supporter of active resistance to the Britons, the mandate authorities, A. organized a series of protests against them, for which he was repeatedly arrested. In 1933 Brit. the authorities in the murder of Kh. Arlozorov, but was acquitted by the court. In 1935 he was arrested and imprisoned for illegal organization. \"Union of rebels\" (\"Brit ha-birionim\"). A.'s views have rendered meaning. influence on the formir. ideology of clandestine fighting organizations Etzel and Lehi. Author pl. ostropolich. publicistic. Art. (partly included in his \"Selected works.\", v. 1–2, 1966–68) and several. book, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHMETA, city (since 1966), regional center (Georgia). Since 1801 - as part of Ros. empire, since 1846 - the village of Telavsky u. Tiflis province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 - in the Georgian SSR. In 1926 15 Jews lived in Armenia. Jews lived in Armenia in the 1910s and 1930s., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AHRON Iosif Yulievich (1886, Lodz - 1943, Hollywood, USA), violinist, composer. He studied violin in Warsaw under I. Lotto, in 1899-1904 in St. Petersburg. cons. in the class of prof. L.S.Auer (preliminary training was given by the adjunct Auer I.R.Nalbandyan); he studied composition with A.K. Lyadov. He gave concerts in Russia and Europe. In 1913-16 he taught at the Kharkov muses. uch-shche. Member \"Society of Hebrews. folk music \". In 1922 he left Russia for Europe, then in 1925 for the USA. In 1925, together with the world famous musicians - S.V. Rachmaninov, I. Hoffman, J. Kheifets, E. Tzimbalist - he took part in the celebrations, an anniversary concert in the Carnegie Hall, having eaten. 80th anniversary of Auer. Author of 3 concertos for violin and orc., 2 sonatas for violin and fp., 4 suites for violin and fp. and others. In his work he addressed the intonation of the Hebrews. muses. folklore: “Heb. melody \"for violin and orc., suite\" Golem \"for chamber orc.,\" Heb. lullaby \"for violin and fp. (as amended by Auer), suite \"Stempenu\" after Sholem Aleichem for violin and piano, piece for cello \"Khazan\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AHRON Isidor Yulievich (1892, Warsaw - 1948, New York), pianist. Graduated in 1918 from St. Petersburg. cons., learned to play php. A.N. Dubasov and A.N. Esipova, compositions - from A.K. Lyadov. From 1918 he toured cities in Russia and Germany. From 1922 he lived in the USA. Debuting in New York, in 1922–33 he was the accompanist of J. Heifetz. He performed both as a soloist and in ans. with other musicians. From 1933 he toured the USA as a soloist with leading Amer. symph. orc. He performed with success in 1936 in The Hague and Amsterdam. Author of \"Grotesque Suite\" for orc. (performed in 1942) and fp. plays., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHSHARUMOVA Anna Markovna (b. 1957, Moscow), chess player; international grandmaster (1989). B.F. Gulko's wife. International Winner tournaments in Tbilisi (1975), Budapest and Timishiara (1978). USSR champion (1976 and 1984). Since 1986 - in the USA. USA Champion (1987). As part of the US team, a member of two Everyone. Olympiads (1988–90). Participant of the World Championship: Interzonal Tournament (Kuala Lumpur, 1990) - 5th-6th place., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AHSU, city (since 1967), regional center (Azerbaijan Republic). Since 1813 - as part of Ros. empire, from 1846 - the village of Shemakha province., from 1859 - Shemakha district. Baku lips. In 1918–20 - as part of the Azerbaijan Republic, in 1920–91 - in the Azerbaijan SSR. 20th century The rabbis in Armenia were Rabbi Abraham, Rabbi Daniel, Rabbi Gershon, Rabbi Irliya, Rabbi Azaria, Rabbi Michael, and Rabbi Gershon-Shmuel., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKHTIAR, see Sevastopol., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Akhty, a village, a regional center in the Republic of Dagestan (Russian Federation). Since 1813 - as part of Ros. empire, since 1840 - the city of the Cuban y. Caspian Region, from 1846 in Derbent Gubernia, from 1860 in Dagestan Region. 11 Jews lived in Armenia in 1939. In 1734, the troops of the Persian military leader Nadir Shah captured Armenia and converted the entire surviving Jewish population to Islam. Jews who converted to Islam over time began to consider themselves Lezgins. The Lezgins living now in A. remember their Jewish origin. Back in the 1920s. In A. there were Lezgi women who lit Shabbat candles. On the wall of one of A.'s mosques there was an inscription in Hebrew indicating the date of construction., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKILOV Yakhiel (1900, Samarkand - 1972, Tashkent), writer. One of the first Komsomol members of Turkestan. In 1920 he graduated from the teacher. courses. Then he begins to publish his poems in the local press. First. book \"Dadi u\" (\"His father\") in Bukhara-Heb. lang. came out in 1927. Delegate of the First All-Union Congress of Sov. writers., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKIMOVKA, urban-type settlement (since 1957), a regional center in the Zaporozhye region. (Ukraine). Main in 1833. At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Aleksandrovsky u. Yekaterinoslav Gubernia. In 1926, 305 Jews did not live in the Akimovsky District, and in 1939 there were 44 Jews in Armenia. 1941 - early. 1942 in Armenia several were killed. remaining Jews., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKIVIS Max Aizikovich (b. 1923, Novosibirsk), mathematician. Participant in the 1941–45 war: He studied at Moscow State University, was expelled from the 5th year in ideological studies. reasons. Graduated from Moscow State University in 1951. Dr. Phys.-Math. Sciences (1964). Prof. (1966). He worked in Tulsk. mechanical in-those (1956-60) and in Moscow. Institute of Steel and Alloys (since 1960). Author fuidam. results in multidimensional projective and conformal geometry, the theory of webs and the theory of differential-geometric. Structures, Works: Conformal Differential. geometry. On Sat. \"Geometry. 1963 \"(Results of Science), M., 1965, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ACCORD Elias (Ilya Samoilovich) (|, Mogilev - 1811), doctor. He studied medicine in Berlin, received a medical degree in St. Petersburg in 1788. From 1789 he served as a military man. doctor in Kiev and Vasilkov, and also had a private practice. In 1798 he was promoted to the courtyard. advisors. Later he was an obstetrician at the Kiev Medical Council. Interested in the reforms of the living conditions of Jews in Poland, trans. anonymous pamphlet \"Jews, or Reforms in the life of the Jews of the Polish Rep.\" (1786) from Polish. lang. on it., in which immediate changes in the status of Polish Jews were required. Appreciating this work, A. opposed certain conclusions of the pamphleteer, in particular, denying the assertion that Jews are alien to enlightenment and explaining this by their exclusion from secular education. A.'s arguments reflected the views of the skylight. M. Mendelssohn's school and other scientists of Haskala., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKMECHETSKIE RATES, a village in the Domanevsky district of the Nikolaev region. (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - farm Akmechetsky Ananyevsky u. Kherson province. 1942 until March 1944 in AS there was a camp of Jews from Odessa, transferred from the camp in Domanevka. There were also Jews from Bessarabia in the camp, in particular from Chisinau, including 58 psychic. patients delivered in the summer of 1942. Approx. 3 thousand people, of which 150 survived., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKMECHETSKY, see Akmechetskie Stavki., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKMOLA, see Astana., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKMOLS, see Astana., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKOSTA Yand (in Russian sources - Lacoste) (| - |), court jester of Peter I. R. in the family of Portuguese. Jews - Marrans who fled the country from the persecution of the Inquisition. In the beginning. 18th century maintained a brokerage office in Hamburg. OK. 1714 by invitation grew up. resident in Hamburg moved to Russia (according to another version, brought to the country by Peter I himself) and was appointed court jester. Thanks to his cheerful disposition, wit and resourcefulness, as well as the ability to speak almost all Europe. languages ​​A. won the favor of Peter 1; an expert on the Bible, A. often waged theological disputes with the tsar and was one of his favorite interlocutors. For his diligent service, Peter I bestowed on A. the clownish title of \"Samoyed King\" and presented him with the uninhabited Sommera Father in the Hall of Finland. In the 1730s. A. was still a jester at the court of the imp. Anna Ivanovna; his further fate is unknown. Numerous. \"Anecdotes\" attributed to A. were widely circulated in Russian. lubochny lit-re con. 18-19 centuries, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKSAY, see Aksai, Rostov region., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Albert Yulievich (1934, Voronezh - 1991, Moscow), resuscitator, dir. t-ra and TV. In 1958 he graduated from the 1st Moscow. honey. in-t them. I.M.Sechenov. In 1962–69 he worked in the lab. experimental physiology for the revitalization of organisms of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Org. and headed the first in the country C. outgoing reanimation. Since 1969 he worked at the Central Institute for Advanced Training of Doctors. Created a department. neuroresuscitation in Moscow. clinics hospital them. S.P. Botkin, organized the country's first reanimation baro-center, developed the principles of using the hyperbaric method. oxygenation in intensive care. One of the main. resuscitation service in the USSR. Cand. honey. Sciences, Assoc. He hosted on TV a weekly program \"You - 03\" about the rules for providing first aid in extreme situations. He contributed to the development of growing up. culture. In 1957, together with IG Rutberg and MG Rozovsky, he organized the pop studio of Moscow State University \"Our House\". He was the initiator of the creation and presenter of the game television programs (with M. Yakovlev and S.A. Muratov) \"BBB\" (\"Evening of cheerful questions\", 1959) and \"KVN\" (\"Club of the cheerful and resourceful\", 1961). Op. : Problems of reanimatology, M., 1968 (et al.); Anesthesia and resuscitation for acute massive blood loss in obstetrics, M., 1971; Revival without sensations, M., 1988; Hyperbaric oxygenation - medical and business information, M., 1990 (et al.)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Elena Meerovna (b. 1932, Minsk), poet. Daughter of M.M. Axelrod and writer R.R. Rubina. Graduated from the Faculty of Rus. lang. and literature from MGPI. Author pl. book for children: \"Vanka-Vstanka and Sanka-Spanka\" (M., 1961), \"The Blizzard Walked in Moscow\" (M., 1965), etc., as well as poetry. collection of books \"Window to the North\" (Moscow, 1975), \"Poems\" (Jerusalem, 1992). Also known as the lane. poetry from different languages, incl. and from Yiddish. The Jewish theme in her work has long served as an obstacle to the publication of poems. A.'s work is distinguished by subtle lyricism, romanticism of the world view. Since 1992 - in Israel., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Gleb Borisovich (b. 1923, Moscow), pianist. Studied under L.I. Roizman in music. school at Moscow. conservatory. In 1948 he graduated from Moscow. conservatory, class fp. from G.R. Ginzburg (p.), in 1951 he also took a postgraduate course. Laureate of the International. piano competitions - them. B. Smetana (1st avenue, Prague, 1951), them. M. Long and J. Thibault (4th avenue, Paris, 1955), them. J. Viana da Mota (2nd Ave., Lisbon, 1957). Member jury of the 1964 pianist competition Viana da Mota in Lisbon. In 1951–56 he was a soloist of the Touring Bureau (since 1957, the All-Union Concert Touring Association). Since 1959 he has been teaching at Moscow. Conservatory, since 1967 - associate professor, since 1979 - prof. The repertoire includes ch. arr. PI Tchaikovsky, SS Prokofiev, DD Shostakovich, RK Shchedrin, D.B. Kabalevsky, as well as traditional pianists' op. D. Scarlatti, I. Haydn, L. Beethoven, F. Schubert, F. Liszt (including the play \"Memories of Russia\"), C. Debussy. Includes rarely executed FPs in programs. pieces by B. Smetana, J. Sibelius, B. Bartok, Portuguese composers J. de Sousa Carvalho, J. Seixas. In a duet with O.G. Glebov, he performed all 4-hand php. manuf. Beethoven. Honored. art. RSFSR (1966)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Lyubov Isakovna (ps. Orthodox) (1868, Dunilovichi, Vilna province - 1946), rev. activist, literary critic. The daughter of a rabbi. She broke up with her family and joined the Narodnaya Volya. circle in Poltava. She worked in the roar. org-tions of Kharkov and Melitopol. In the end. 1885 passed the examination for the title of house in St. Petersburg. teachers. Graduated from Philosophy. Faculty of Berne University in 1900. In 1887-1906 - in France and Switzerland. From 1892 - member. gr. “Union of Rus. social democrats abroad \", as well as gr. Emancipation of Labor. Follower of G.V. Plekhanov's ideas. In 1917 - member. Menshevik. Central Committee, then - member. Central Committee of the Plekhanov group \"Unity\". After 1917 she was engaged in scientific research. and ped. work. From 1917 to 1920 she lectured at the Tambov State. un-those, Nar. un-those, in 1920 - in the 1st Moscow. state un-those, in 1921-23 led a seminar on philosophy at the Ying-those red professors, later worked at Ying-those scientific. philosophy Ros. Association of Scientific Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, headed the sociological dep. State academy thin. sciences. Main directions of philosophy. research: history of philosophy, ethics, social philosophy, ontology. A. is known as a participant in philosophy. discussions of the 1920s; was one of the leaders of the so-called. \"Mechanists\" and opposed the Deborin (\"formalistic\") interpretation of philosophy. She criticized the concept of class morality from the standpoint of the eternal principles of morality. The author of the book. “Philos. sketches \", M.-Pg., 1923 (2nd ed.); \"Against idealism\", M.-Pg., 1922; \"Leo Tolstoy\", M., 1922; “Morality and beauty in the production. Oscar Wilde \", Ivanovo-Voznesensk, 1923; K. Marx as a Philosopher, Kharkov, 1924; “In defense of the dialectical. materialism: Against scholasticism \", M.-L., 1928; “Idealistic. Hegel's dialectics and materialist, Marx's dialectics \", M.-L., 1934, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKSELROD Meer Moiseevich (1902, Molodechno Vileisky district. Minsk province - 1970, Moscow), painter, theater, art. Brother of Z.M. Axelrod. Studied at VKHUTEMAS under V.A. Favorsky, P.Ya. Pavlinov and S.V. Gerasimov. Since 1926 - a member of the association \"Four Arts\", a supporter of drawing from life, portrait and landscape painter. The early impressions of the life of the poor Jews remained the breeding ground for A.'s creativity. small towns of Belarus, illustrated by Sholem Aleichem and I.E. Babel, in the 1930s. tried to reflect the originality of the life of Heb. collective farms of Belarus and Crimea. As a theater, the artist A. collaborated in Moscow, Belarus. and Ukr. GOSETS. The most famous was his design of \"Jacquerie\" by P. Merimee in the 1st Belarusian. t-re, as well as \"Measure of Severity\" D. Bergelson in Moscow. GOSET (1933), \"The Strike of the Reapers\" by Z. Lev in Belarus. GOSET (1935), \"The Robber Boytre\" M. Kulbak in the State Department of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. Creating a pictorially plastic. decisions theater, space, A. acted as the author of costumes (each sketch is a portrait of a character with his lively character). During the war, he created a series of gouaches dedicated to the tragedy of the Jews in the 20th century, and in the middle. 1960s - a cycle of large compositions \"Ghetto\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Moisey Markovich (1897, Smolensk - 1940), orientalist. 1918–20 - in Kr. Army. Graduated from law. Faculty of Moscow un-that (1923) and an Arab, branch of Moscow. Institute of Oriental Studies (1924). In 1924–27 sotr. owls. consulates in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). In 1927-29 he worked in the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. cases, from 1929 in foreign. department of the OGPU (worked in Turkey, in 1934–37 in Italy). In 1929–30 he taught at Moscow. Institute of Oriental Studies and Moscow State University. In 1938 he was arrested and died in prison. The author of works on Arab countries. East, ed. \"Arabic-Russian. dictionary \"(Moscow, 1931)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Nathan (1905, Mogilev - 1987, Bnei Brak, Israel), film producer. In his youth he was fond of cinema. Per. credits from rus. in Ukrainian lang. In 1926 he was sentenced to 3 years in exile for Zionist activities. After the hunger strike was declared, the link was replaced by expulsion from the USSR. From 1926 in E.-I. One of the creatures. Israeli cinema. In 1920-30, a cameraman and dir. first Heb. doc. f. in E.-I. Deer. \"The film is moving\" (from 1927), \"Carmel the film\" (from 1933). Then the producer pl. films., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Pavel (Pinkus) Borisovich (1850, Chernigov province - 1928, Berlin), polit. activist, publicist, memoirist. From the family of an innkeeper. He graduated from the government in Mogilev, studied at the Nizhyn Lyceum, where he met with the roar. lit-swarm. In the beginning. 1870s left the Lyceum and devoted himself to the roar. activities. From 1872 - in Kiev, created a roar. populist. circle, in 1873 - one of the founders of the Kiev branch of St. Petersburg. circle \"Tchaikovsky\", participated in the preparation of \"going to the people\" in southern Russia. In 1874 he left for Berlin, became close to the Germans, Social-Democrats, and soon moved to Switzerland. In Geneva he joined the growing circle. roar. emigrants - supporters of M.A. Bakunin, on their instructions went to Russia to establish contacts with local roar. circles. In the 1870s. put in gas. “Mogilev lips. Vedomosti \"a number of articles on the position of Heb. the poor. In 1875 he returned to Switzerland, sotr. roar. g. \"Worker\", one of the editors. roar. g. \"Community\". From 1879 - in Russia, conducted propaganda in Odessa, in the fall of 1879 he joined the roar. org-tion \"Black redistribution\", was one of her hands. In the beginning. 1881 emigrated to Switzerland due to the threat of arrest. In 1883 - one of the founders of the first rose. Marxist, c. \"Emancipation of Labor\", translated into Russian. lang. a number of works by K. Marx and F. Engels, the author of a number of publications on the parliamentary activities of Western Europe. s.-d. parties. Comp. s.-d. g. \"Worker\" (1885), \"Banner\" (1889), one of the editions. g. \"Socialist\" (1889), \"Social Democrat\" (1888–92), \"Worker\" (1896), since 1900 - one of the founders and editors. gas. Iskra and Zh. \"Zarya\", one of the hands. “Zagran. league rus. roar. s.-d-tii \". Affairs. 2nd Congress of the RSDLP (1903), after which - one of the leaders of the Mensheviks. Supporter of cooperation of the Social-Democratic Party with Ros. liberals. At the 4th Congress of the RSDLP (1906), he spoke out for the participation of Social-Democrats. in the State. thought. Affairs. 5th Congress of the RSDLP (1907); after the defeat of the revolution of 1905-07 - a supporter of a radical transformation of the party on the basis of legalization, in 1908-10 - one of the leaders of the \"liquidators\", sotr. gas. \"Voice of a Social Democrat\", w. \"Luch\" and others. Since 1912 - member. Org. to-ta (OK) Mensheviks, one of the editors. “Izvestia zagran. Secretariat of the OK \". Affairs. a number of Congresses of the 2nd International, since 1913 - a member. Inter-dunar. socialist the Bureau. Into the 1st world. war participant Zimmerwald (1915) and Kintalskaya (1916) international. socialist conferences. From May 1917 in Russia, he opposed the continuation of the war. In aug. went abroad to prepare a new international. socialist conferences. Oct the coup of 1917 was regarded as “military. conspiracy of the Bolsheviks. \" In emigration - Member. Bureau of Socialist. working international, sotr. g. \"Socialist. Bulletin \"and other Social-Democrats. editions. Memoirs A. \"Experienced and changed his mind\" (Berlin, 1923) - a valuable source on the history of societies, movement in Russia in the 2nd half. 19th century Vol .: The Working Class and the Revolution. movement in Russia (Sat. Art. 1890-1904), St. Petersburg, 1907; Struggle for peace and restoration of the International, P., 1917; From the archive of P.B. Axelrod, Berlin, 1924; Letters from P.B. Ak-selrod and Yu.O. Martov, Berlin, 1924; Correspondence between G.V. Plekhanov and P.B.Akselrod, vols. 1–2, M., 1925; Group \"Emancipation of Labor\", \"Chronicle of Marxism\", 1928, No. 6., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXELROD Zelik Moiseevich (1904, Minsk - 1941, ibid.), Poet. At the age of 16, he made his debut verse. in Minsk Heb. gas. Der Veker. Studied in Moscow in Lit. in-those them. V.Ya.Bryusov, then in Leningrad. After returning to Minsk in the middle. 20s actively participated in lit. life of Belarus. He published poems and reviews in f. \"Stern\", as well as in the period, ed. Moscow and Kharkov. In Heb. after having finished. poetry occupies a prominent place as a lyricist who knows how to subtly convey deep feelings. In 1939 he worked in the mountains. gas. in Bialystok. After returning to Minsk he was repressed. He died in a Minsk prison. Author of collection of poetry., Ed. in Minsk: \"Tsapl\" (\"Trembling\"), 1922; Leader (Poems), 1932; \"Oig af oig\" (\"Eye to eye\"), 1937, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXENFELD August (1825, Odessa - 1876, Paris), doctor. Graduated from honey. faculty in Paris, received scientific. Dr. med. Participated in the fight against cholera in Paris at the beginning. 1850s, for which he was awarded the French. pr-va, including a large gold medal. From 1853–58 A. taught at the Sorbonne, from 1857 - prof., In 1858–71 - Ch. doctor of the hospital \"Bojan\" in Paris., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AXENFELD Yisroel (1787, Nemirov, Podolsk province - 1866, Paris), prose writer, playwright. R. in a Hasidic family. All R. 20s 19th century moved to Odessa, took up self-education, worked as a notary. One of the first among the Hebrews. educators began to write in Yiddish. Author of over 20 plays, pov. and rom., to-rye spread in manuscripts for a long time. During his lifetime he managed to print only two works: the play \"Der Ershter Yidischer Recruit\" (\"The First Jewish Recruit\"), Leipzig, 1862 and p. \"Dos sterntihl\" (\"Headdress\"), ibid., 1861. Author: \"Man un vibe, schwester un brooder\" (\"Husband and wife, sister and brother\"), \"Di gefkervelt\" (\"Deceiving world\" ), \"Kaptsn oysher spire\" (\"From wealth to poverty\"), \"Noh tsvei gozn\" (\"For two hares\"), etc. He died in Paris, where he moved from Odessa to his son, A. Aksenfeld. Some of A.'s works were translated and published in French. the tongue of his son., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKSENOV Vasily Pavlovich (b. 1932, Kazan), writer. Son of E.S. Ginzburg. Graduated from Leningrad. honey. in-t. First stories publ. in 1959. In 1960 in the railway. \"Yunost\" comes out pov. \"Colleagues\", and in 1961 rum. \"Star ticket\" - about the life of the present. youth, after the publication to-rogo A. becomes one of the recognized leaders of the so-called. youth confessional prose. In the 60s. in the same train. \"Youth\" are published and other works. A. - \"Oranges from Morocco\", \"It's time, my friend, it's time\", \"Overstocked barrel\", stories, some of them become the subject of fierce disputes. Was a member. editorial board \"Youth\", in 1969 excluded from it together with EA Evtushenko. In the 70s. published a little. One of the books. this period - p. about LB Krasin \"Love for Electricity\" (M., 1972) in the middle. \"Ardent Revolutionaries\". A. is one of the organizers and participants of the samizdat alm. \"Metropol\" (1979), which entailed repression against the department. its authors. In protest left the SI of the USSR (together with I.L. Lisnyanskaya and S.I. Lipkin). I ate, manuf. this period, publ. in the USSR, became a pov. \"Search for a genre\" (\"New World\", 1978). In the same year he leaves at the invitation abroad, and after a few. months comes out the decision of the Top. Council of the USSR on deprivation of A. owls. citizenship. 1979 in the USA. He worked at the University of Southern California, Kennon Institute, then prof. in un-those \"George Mason\" (Washington). Already in the US, they published. works written in the USSR: p. Our Golden Piece of Iron (1973), rom. \"Burn\" (1969-75), \"Crimea Island\" (1977-79), as well as new ones - rum. \"Paper Landscape\", \"Say Raisins\", collection of works. stories \"The Right to the Island\", Sat. plays \"Aristophanic with frogs\", book. about America \"In Search of a Sad Baby\" and others. lang. written rom. \"Egg yolk\". Realistic. in fact, A.'s prose is mixed with fantasy, parody, grotesque, irony and lyricism are fused in it. Mn. manuf. emphatically experimental. In naib, multi-faceted rum. A.'s \"burn\" concerns Hebrews. Topics. A. also owns scripts for t-ra and cinema, trans. from English lang. (E. Doctorow and others). Since 1987 manufactured. A. again begin to be published in Russia: \"Burn\", M., 1990; \"Crimea Island\", M., 1990; \"The Right to the Island\", M., 1991, etc. In Harbors (USA) published in 6 vols. collection op. AND., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKSENOVO-ZILOVSKY, urban-type settlement (since 1930) in the Chernyshevsky district of the Chita region. (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - railway Zilovo station, Nerchinsky environs. Transbaikal region. In 1939 in A.-Z. there were 38 Jews., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Aksha, a village, a regional center in the Chita region. (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - a district town of the Trans-Baikal Region. In 1897, 10 Jews (0.6%) lived in Armenia, in 1939 - 4 Jews., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ACTIN Ruth (b.1900), society. activist. Kibbutz activist. She took part in the activities of the Zionist socialists in Russia. She was arrested on charges of Zionist activities. Since 1924 - in E.I. Member parties Akhdut ha-Avoda and Mapai. Member reign \"Ha-kibbutz ha-meuhad\". She was the ambassador of the kibbutz movement in Italy (1946). One of the leaders of the women's labor movement. Member Knesset from Akhdut ha-Avoda - Poalei Zion, member. c. Labor Party, member. c. \"Naamat\", part. Centre. control commission of Histadrut and Labor., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKTSIN Binyamin (1904, Riga - 1985, Jerusalem), lawyer. Graduated from Vienna (1929, Doctor of Law) and Parisian (1929) high fur boots. In the 1930s and 40s. active member of the Zionist movement in the USA, revisionist. In 1941–46 he was an expert on international issues. rights at the B-ke of the Congress (Washington). In E.-I. - since 1949, since the same year prof. constitution. law and polit, sciences in Heb. University of Jerusalem (honored prof. from 1972). State pr. Israel (right) 1967 for tr. according to int. right., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AKTUBE, see Aktyubinsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALAGIR, see Alagir., pronunciation=ALAGIR, see Alagir., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALAPAIKHA, see Alapaevsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALATYR, city, regional center in the Chuvash Republic (Russian Federation). Main in 1552. From 1780 - the district town of the Simbirsk governorship, then - the Simbirsk province. In 1920-25 it was a part of the Chuvash Autonomous Region, in 1925-90 it was the Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1910, 106 Jews lived in Armenia, in 1920 - 305 (1.6%), in 1925 - 265, in 1939 - 121 Jews. In 1910, Armenia had a synagogue and a Jewish cemetery. In the 1930s. it was illegal. minyan. After its closure, the Torah scrolls were confiscated and transferred to the Cheboksary local history museum. Between 1941 and 1941 the number of the Jewish population of Albania grew at the expense of the evacuees. After 1945, most of the evacuees left A.D. M. Kostinskaya, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBINA, a village in the Cimislia region (Republic of Moldova). In 1941, after the occupation of the Roman-German. troops, in A. all Jews were shot., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALCHIDARI, see Alchedar., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALCHIN, see Muromka., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALDANOV Mark (real name and surname. Mark Alexandrovich Landau) (1889, Kiev - 1957, Nice), writer. Graduated from law. and phys.-mat. f-you Kiev, un-that, School of societies. Sciences, in Paris. He left Russia in 1918. He lived in France. Years 2nd world. war spent in the United States, where joint. with M.O.Tsetlin founded \"New Journal\". He made his debut as a literary book. \"Tolstoy and Rolland\" (vol. 1, 1915). In 1918, in the pamphlet \"Armageddon\", he analyzed the lessons of Russian. rev-tion. In the first. years of emigration, Ch. arr. journalism, collaborated in the train. \"Modern Notes\" in Paris. The work of A.'s life was a cycle of 16 ist. rum., pov. and \"Philosophy. fairy tales ”covering almost two hundred years of Russian. and peace. stories from the reign of Catherine II to the death of Stalin. Among the productions that make up the cycle, Vol. about fr. revolution and terror (\"9 Thermidor\", 1923), about the last days of Napoleon (\"Saint Helena, a small island\", 1923), about Russia during the rise of the roar. movement (\"Origins\", 1950). In the book. \"Ulm Night\" (New York, 1953) A. defines the meaning of ist. process as the eternal struggle of \"goodness-beauty\" with \"gloomy phenomena of the kingdom of chance.\" Jews and Hebrews topic in the book. A. episodic, associated with the world. and, ch. arr., rus. culture and societies, life. In a number of books. A. there are positive Jewish characters (\"Suicide\", \"Live as you want\", \"The Story of Death\"). Anti-Semitism is strongly condemned and fears of the coming Holocaust are expressed in the essay \"Hitler\" (1936). Peru A. owns essays on polit. Jewish figures L. Blume, W. Rathenau. In his letters A. stressed that he had never been a Zionist, that he was a \"liberal, European and Jewish.\" In addition to thin. Prod., A. is also the author of a number of experiments, works in chemistry., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEK S. (1888 - 1956, Odessa), prose writer, publicist. During civil. war in Ukraine was associated with anarchists. All R. 20s was ed. Heb. gas. in Berdichev, and in the middle. 30s gas. \"Odesar Arbater\". Being ed. gas. in Yiddish, A. tried to reform the language, introducing into it numerous. Slavicisms. During these years A. published several. book stories and essays: \"Farmekte vegn\" (\"Crossed out roads\"), Berdichev, 1932; \"In ongli\" (\"In heat\"), Kharkov, 1932; \"Tempn\" (\"Tempos\"), Kharkov-Kiev, 1932 and others. 30s was repressed. All R. 50s returned to Odessa mentally ill and died in hospital., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDERFELD, see Berezanka., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDRENES, see Aleksandren., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDRIYSKAYA, a village in the Georgievsky district of the Stavropol Territory (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in the Pyatigorsk env. Terek Region. In 1939, 9 Jews lived in Armenia. 1942 55 evacuated Jews were shot in Armenia. Lazar Moiseevich Dorokhov (1900-1964, Kishinev), corresponding member. Academy of Sciences of the MSSR (1961), from 1961 director. Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants of the Academy of Sciences of the MSSR., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDRO-NEVSKAYA, see Alexander Nevsky., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROPOL, see Gyumri., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROV Alexander Petrovich (1900, Oryol - 1946, Tallinn), military leader, rear adm. (1944). Graduated from 6th grade. g-zii, Naval. academy (1927). In Kr. Army from 1918. In 1918–20 - in cavalry. brigade G. I. Kotovsky. From 1921 in the navy. In 1927-29 - pom. teams. battleship \"Marat\". In 1929–33 - com. cruiser \"Aurora\". In 1934–36 - early. department of strategic. and operational claim naval. academy. In 1936–40 - early. Naval. academy. Participant citizen wars in Spain. In 1940–41 - com. Novorossiysk navy. base. Since 1941 - teams. Azov military flotilla. At the end of 1941 - beginning. 1942 was under investigation on charges of leaving the fleet from the base in Mariupol. In 1942–44 - early. headquarters of the Ladoga military flotilla, com. Leningrad navy. base. 1945–46 - early. headquarters Balt. fleet. Killed in a plane crash. Awarded the 7th order., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROV Avraam Yakovlevich (1915, Zhitomir, Volyn province. - 1983, Novosibirsk), physicist, specialist in the region. rigid body mechanics and elasticity theory. Dr. Tech. Sciences (1947), prof. from 1948. In 1939 he graduated from the Rostov Institute of Ing. railroad transport. In 1931–41 he worked in Rostov-on-Don, from 1941 - for the military. s-dakh of Novosibirsk. Since 1951 head. Department of Buildings, Mechanics of the Novosibirsk Institute of Engineering. railroad transport and in Siberian n.-i. Aviation in-those. Osn. research devoted to the calculations of three-layer structures with fillers, polarized-optical. methods and mechanics of solids (in particular, the method of photoelastic coatings) and spaces. problems of the theory of elasticity. Completed a series of works on axisymmetric problems of the theory of elasticity (B.G. Galerkin Ave., 1964). Author of scientific. printed works and monographs. Member Nat. to-that USSR on theoretical. and Applied Mechanics (1965), Hon. worker of science and technology of the RSFSR (1966). State etc. USSR (1980). Cit .: Structures with foam fillers, 2nd ed., M., 1973; Polarized-optical methods of mechanics of a deformable solid, Moscow, 1973 (with M.Kh. Akhmetzyanov); Spaces. problems of the theory of elasticity: application of methods of the theory of functions of a complex variable, Moscow, 1978 (with Yu.I. Solov'ev)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROV Moisey Alexandrovich (| - 1922, Moscow), polit. activist, engineer. While studying in Berlin (1903-1904), he joined the Social-Democrats. emigrant circles. Member of the Revolution of 1905–07, worked in Moscow. org-tion of the RSDLP. During the years of reaction \"liquidator\", participated in the publication of books by N. Cherevanin, V. Gorn and others. In the years of the 1st world. wars - in the army. Feb the Revolution of 1917 met in Moscow, joined the Menshevik Party. He was a member of Ch. to-that of the Union of Cities (member of the Presidium from the Menshevik faction) and to Zemgor. Oct he did not accept the revolution, was led by an anti-Bolshevist. agitation and propaganda. In 1919–21 he worked as an engineer, as well as in the system of prof.-tech. education, was repeatedly arrested. 02/25/1921 during the mass arrests of the Social-Democratic menypeviks imprisoned in the Butyrka prison, after 2 months. transferred to Oryol Central, where he participated in an 8-day hunger strike watered. prisoners. After 9 months. delivered to Moscow at the disposal of the Cheka; he was in Lubyanka, in Taganskaya and Butyrskaya prisons. He contracted typhus, which caused brain inflammation and paralysis. 03.12.1921 released from Butyrok, a month and three days later he died. A.'s funeral turned into a demonstration (about 400 people) with the participation of representatives of the RSDLP and the Union of Engineers., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROV Shmuel (1865, Borisov, Minsk province - 1941, Bobruisk), rabbi. R. in the family of a rabbi. Got a trad. Heb. religious education. He independently studied secular sciences, incl. lang., philosophy, history. In the 1900s. joined the religious movement. Zionism and became an active promoter of its ideas, collaborating in Heb. press. Tr. A. influenced the decision of A.I. Cook to join the Mizrahi movement. From the beginning. 1920s - a rabbi in Bobruisk. In his last work (published in 1932 in Jerusalem) he contrasted Zionism with communism. He was shot together with other Jews of Bobruisk., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROV Vladimir Yakovlevich (b. 1906, Cherkassy, ​​Kiev province), cytophysiologist, doctor of biological sciences. Sciences (1940), prof. In 1929 he graduated from the Leningrad State. un-t, in 1934 - graduate school of the State. to radiologists., radiological. and cancer in-that. In 1941 he volunteered for the front. Since 1945 head. lab. cytology Ying-that experiment. medicine. In 1950 he opposed the pseudoscientific theory of O.B. Lepeshinskaya and was fired. In 1952 the head. the lab organized by him. cytophysiology and cytoecology Botanich. Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, since 1986 - scientific consultant. Joint. with DN Nasonov, a protein theory of damage and irritation was developed, according to a cut, the primary target of damaging agents and irritants are proteins of the cytoplasm, which undergo structural changes of the denaturation type. A. identified sources of specific. and nonspecific. changes in cells and proteins under the action of external agents. A theory has been developed to explain the parallelism in the evolution of all organisms between the thermophilicity of a species and the heat resistance of cells and proteins (registered as a discovery in 1989). It has been proven that with nonspecific. increasing cell resistance in response to stress, stress proteins may not be responsible for increasing primary cell resistance, but some stress proteins may contribute to the repair of damaged cells. A. published ca. 200 works. Became. pr. (1943), gold medal named after II Mechnikov (1972). Works: The reaction of living matter to external influences, L., 1940 (jointly with DN Nasonov); Cells, macromolecules and temperature, L., 1975; Reactivity of cells and proteins, L., 1985; Difficult years of Soviet biology, St. Petersburg, 1992., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVICH Mikhail Davidovich (b. 1914, Stock Exchange, Kovno province), singer, cantor. Since childhood, he had a beautiful, strong voice (high altitude). From the age of 9 he performed as a child prodigy in Riga and other cities of neighboring countries. He studied singing in Heb. bunk bed cons. in Riga with E. Weisbein and accompanist S. Zegor. Under their guidance he performed songs by him. romantics, opera arias, romances rus. comp., songs by E. Shklyar and other Heb. comp. and Heb. bunk bed songs (all in the original language). In 1925 he toured Poland and Germany. He made his debut as a cantor in the Riga Old-New Synagogue in 1933. In 1934–36 he was cantor at the Great Synagogue of Manchester (Great Britain), in 1936–40 - at the Kaunas Choral Synagogue, performed at an opera house (parts of Lensky and Count Almaviva: “ Eugene Onegin \"by P. Tchaikovsky,\" The Barber of Seville \"by G. Rossini); sometimes he performed secular melodies in the synagogue. Periodically improved with B. Gigli in Rome (mastered the bel canto style). In its art, it follows the traditions of Sh. Rozovsky (combination of Hebrew folk melodies and elements of national liturgical music with the achievements of European music culture). In the cantor's performance he combined synagogue singers. traditions with prof. wok. the bel canto school. From 1940 he lived in the USSR. He sang on the radio in Minsk (1940). Since 1941 artist of the All-Union. concert association; He toured a lot in the cities of Central Asia, in Baku. In 1941 he gave concerts with front-line brigades in the Caucasus, in 1942–43 - in Tbilisi. From 1944 he performed with great success in Moscow and other cities of the USSR. He gave concerts as a soloist with symphony. orc. and decomp. ensembles. Along with opera arias and Neapolitan songs, he performed romances and songs of Russian. and owls. comp., included in the programs rarely executed works. G.Persella, J.S.Bach, A.Vivaldi and others, sometimes accompanied by organ and harpsichord, strings, quartet (sang in the original language). At the end of the 60s. was persecuted by officials of the Ministry of Culture and the State. concert. From 1971 - in Israel, in 1975–79 - in Canada, in 1979–83 - in New York, in 1983–90 - in Hollywood, since 1990 - in Munich. Abroad released 7 LPs with Russian recordings. romances, opera arias, Heb. songs, cantor's psalms and hymns. Has performed in Tel Aviv, New York, Rio de Janeiro, Toronto, Sydney, Buenos Aires. Honored. art. RSFSR (1947). Became. etc. (1948)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVO, see Alexandravel., pronunciation=ALEXANDROVO, see Alexandravel., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVO-TROYANOVO, see Alexandruv-Kujawski., pronunciation=ALEXANDROVO-TROYANOVO, see Alexandruv-Kujawski., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSK-GRUSHEVSKY, see Mines., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSKAYA, see Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSKAYA DACHA, see Birofeld., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSKAYA SLOBODA, see Alexandrov., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSKY, see Novosibirsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSKY POST, see Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDROVSKY, see Belogorsk, Amur Region., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXANDRU CHEL BUN, a village in the Soroca region (Republic of Moldova). July to 19 Aug 1941 there was a camp in A. Ch. B., in which more than 2 thousand Jews were gathered. After its liquidation, the Jews were transferred to a camp in Vertyuzhany (present-day Pridnestrovskoe)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEKSEEV Alexander (until 1845 - Wulf Nakhlas) (1820, borough Nezarinets, Podolsk province - 1895), orthodox. missionary, publicist. As a boy, he was taken to the cantonists, in 1845 he was baptized, promoted the conversion of many to Orthodoxy. Jews-cantonists, for active missionary activity in 1848 promoted to non-commissioned officer. Soon he fell seriously ill (paralysis of the legs) and retired. In the 1850s. acted as an expert in the case against gr. Jews in ritual murder (the so-called \"Saratov case\"), convincingly proved the falsehood of the accusation. Later, while living in Novgorod, he collaborated in the Orthodox Church. periodic. editions \"Spiritual conversation\", \"Church. chronicle ”,“ Wanderer ”, where he posted a number of articles with sharp attacks on Heb. everyday life, customs, religion. He argued that the conversion of the Cantonists to Orthodoxy was completely voluntary, argued with publicists who questioned the sincerity of Jews who converted to Christianity, and opposed the abolition of restrictions. laws on Jews, for the preservation of the Pale of Settlement. Book. A. “Worship, Holidays and Religious. rituals of today's Jews ”has withstood 3 editions (Novgorod, 1861, 1863 and 1865). To refute the \"blood libel\" he dedicated the brochure \"Do Jews Use Christian Blood from Religion. purpose | \" (Novgorod, 1886)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEKSEEV Georgy Alekseevich (1905, Montpellier, France - 1989, Moscow), therapist-hematologist. In 1912-13 he studied at the Paris Lyceum, after moving his parents to Russia - at the Feodosia gymnasium. Graduated from honey. Faculty of Central Asia. University (Tashkent) in 1928. Medical. and scientific activity began in Tashkent as a resident at the Department of Therapy of the University. In 1936 he moved to Moscow and, at the invitation of I.A. Kassirsky, worked at the 3rd Department of Therapy Center, in-that improved. doctors, where he went from a resident to prof. From 1952 to 1960 - Ch. railway therapist transport of the USSR; from 1973 to 1986 - professor-consultant at the Center, Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. In 1944 he defended his doctorate. dis. on the topic \"Sternal puncture and its clinical significance.\" He made a significant contribution to the study of the pathology of red blood, developed a classification of anemias, highlighting the Addison-Birmer disease itself (pernicious anemia), helminthic pernicious anemia, and pernicious anemia of pregnant women. Described the clinical picture of these forms; studied changes in internal organs with anemia; specified the mechanisms of hematopoiesis disorders in Addison-Birmer disease. He developed a method for determining the bone marrow index and leukogram in case of abnormal changes in the nuclei of leukocytes. A. paid great attention to the problem of therapy of malignant anemia. Together with IA Kassirskiy, he developed an original method of treating the disease with a \"campolon stroke\", which normalizes bone marrow hematopoiesis in a patient. elected member. Right. Vseros. about-va therapists, chl. Int. about-va of hematologists, ch. about-va of hematologists of Germany. Works: Leukoses, M., 1950; Anemia, M., 1953; Multiple myeloma, M., 1960 (in co-authorship with Andreeva N.A.); Clinical Hematology, M, 1970 (in co-authorship with Kassirsky I.A.)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXEEVO-DRUZHKOVKA, urban-type settlement (since 1938) in Donetsk region. (Ukraine). Main in the 17th century. At 19 - early. 20th century - v. Alekseevka Bakhmutskiy u. Yekaterinoslav province. In 1939 in A.-D. lived 29 Jews., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXEEVO-LOZOVSKY, see Alekseevo-Lozovskoye., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEXEEVSK, see Free., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEKSEEVSKOE, a village in Blagodarny district of Stavropol Territory (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in the Pyatigorsk env. Stavropol province. 24 Aug. 1942 26 evacuated Jews were shot in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALEKSIN Anatoly Georgievich (real fam. Goberman) (b. 1924, Moscow), writer, playwright, society. activist. Ch.-c. APN USSR (1982). R. in the family of desks. employee. As a schoolboy, he published the first. verse. into gas. \"Pionerskaya Pravda\" and Zh. \"Pioneer\". Subsequently, everything is verse. A. entered the joint venture. with S.A. Baruzdin sb. \"Flag\" (1951). The first prose writer. manuf. A .: stories, essays, journalism published in ser. 1940s In 1950 he graduated from the Indian Department. Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies. First. Sat. prose \"Thirty-one days\" was published. in 1954. Then the book was published. for children and youth: \"The Unusual Adventures of Seva Kotlov\" (1958); Sasha and Shura (1957); The Seventh Floor Says (1961); \"Meanwhile, somewhere ...\" (1967); “My brother plays the clarinet” (1968) and others. editorial board \"Youth\". For many years, being one of the secretaries. SP RSFSR, headed the section for children. and a young man. lit-ry. By production A. made films and television films. Plays A. were staged in many. t-tah countries and abroad. A. the author is numerous. public Art. in the period, print. In 1979–81, the collection was published. op. A. in 3 volumes. Since 1993 in Israel. Etc. Linen. Komsomol (1970), State. pr. RSFSR (1974); State etc. USSR (1978), etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALYOSHKI, see Tsyurupinsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALESHKOVSKY Yaakov (1872, Moscow - 1946, Tel Aviv), one of the leaders of Ukrainian Jewry and the world. Mizrahi. On the maternal side - the grandson of Rabbi H. Berlin. Was brought up in the house of his grandfather. He studied in Volozhin. In 1894 he was promoted to rabbi. In 1903–04 he was a rabbi in the city of Alexandria (Kherson province). In 1904–20 - in Kiev. Was an inspector of schools belonging to the Kiev community. He studied law at Kiev un-those, received his doctorate (1917). Member \"Zionist Center of Ukraine\"; in 1917-19 - member. nat. Council of Ukraine, vice-president. nat. Council of Jews of Ukraine. In 1921 he moved to Warsaw, where he became one of the leaders of Mizrahi: he was elected to the central parties, organs in Poland, member. Directorate of the Joint. Sec. World Mizrachi in Europe. In 1925 he rejected an offer to become the rabbi of Helsinki. From 1925 - in E.-I. There was a deer. uch. establishments \"Netzah Yisrael\" in Petah Tikva. Since 1927 in Tel Aviv, founder (1930) and director. wives gymnasium \"Talpiot\", ped. seminary for girls \"Talpiot\". Founded the first religion. children garden in Tel Aviv. Was before. Mizrahi in E.-I. and a branch of the party in Tel Aviv., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Aleshkovsky Yuz (real name Iosif Efimovich), (b. 1929, Krasnoyarsk), writer. At the age of 19 he was tried for violation of military discipline and spent 4 years in prison. After his release, he worked as a digger and driver. He gained his first fame as a songwriter: \"Soviet Easter\" and \"Songs about Stalin\" - in the years when amateur and bardic songs, along with \"samizdat\", opposed official songwriting and literature. The publication of A.'s camp songs in the Metropol almanac (1979) led to emigration to the United States. Prose works previous years - p. \"Nikolai Nikolaevich\" (1970), rom. \"Kangaroo\" (1974-1975) and \"Disguise\" (1978) could not be published at that time in Russia because of the openly anti-Soviet orientation and because of the typical writing style for A. with a predominance of \"profanity\" vocabulary. In those years A. published only his stories and stories for children. He also wrote the story \"Little Blue Modest Handkerchief\" (1982), the novels \"Hand\" (1980; \"Carousel\" (1983). In the last novel, the story is told from the perspective of an elderly Jewish worker who, under pressure of circumstances, is forced to admit emigration from the USSR the only salvation from state anti-Semitism., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALFEROV Zhores Ivanovich (b. 1930), physicist. Acad. USSR Academy of Sciences (1979). In 1952 he graduated from Leningrad. electrical engineering in-t. From 1952 - in Physics and Technology. in-those them. A.F. Ioffe: scientific. sotr., head. sector, head. lab .; since 1987 - director. Prof. Since 1990 - Vice-President. Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Works in the region. physics of semiconductors, semiconductor and quantum electronics. 1989-91 - bunk bed. dep. THE USSR. Ch. ed. g. \"Physics and technology of semiconductors.\" Linen. pr. (1972), State. pr. USSR (1984), Int. avenue \"Gallium arsenide\". Foreign member Academy of Sciences of Germany, Poland, Nat. acad. USA., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALIGER Margarita Iosifovna (1915, Odessa - 1992, Moscow), poet, prose writer, translator, playwright. She studied in Lit. in-those them. M. Gorky (1934–37). First published in 1933. Attention to social issues, the spiritual world of the present. man, philos. comprehension of reality, heightened emotionality, lively conversational intonations - that's the main thing. features of poetry A. Collection of poems: \"Year of birth\" (1938), \"Railroad\" (1939), \"Stones and herbs\" (1940), \"In memory of the brave\" (1942), \"First signs\" (1948), Lyrics (1955), Several Steps (1962), Blue Hour (1970) and other poems This Winter's (1938), Zoya (1942, separate ed. 1943; Steel pr. . 1943), \"Your Victory\" (1945), one of the strongest chapters dedicated to Heb. to the people (in full, although with obvious distortions, went to the lists). Author of travel essays \"Return to Chile: Two Journeys\" (1966), \"Meetings and Separations\" (1981), book. \"The path in the rye\". About poetry and poets (1980), numerous. poetic. per., some of which are collected in the book. \"Huge World\" (1968). Cit .: Sobr. op. in 3 volumes. M., 1984–85., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBAK Hanoch (1890-1972), rabbi. Son of Sholem Albek (1858–1920), a Talmudist scholar who attempted to publish the Babylonian Talmud with modern commentaries. A. was educated at the Theological Seminary and Vienna University. In 1920–26 he was engaged in research. work in Berlin at the Akadsmi für di Wissenschaft des Juden-Toms and the Hochschule für di Wissenschaft des Juden-Toms. Since 1936 in E.-I., where he became prof. Talmud in Heb. un-those (Jerusalem), having worked there until 1956. A.'s works cover all regions. Talmudic knowledge. Its main. tr. - \"Untersuhungen uber di editors der Mishna\" (1923), \"Ha-Drashot be-Israel\" (1947), \"Mavo la-Mishna\" (1959)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBERTIN, now a district within the city of Slonim (Republic of Belarus). At 19 - early. 20th century - the estate of Slonimsky u. Grodno province. In 1920–39 it was a part of Poland, in 1939–91 it was the BSSR. In 1897, approx. 50 Jews (less than 10%), in 1921 - 16 Jews. By the Law of December 9. In 1903 Jews were allowed to settle in Armenia, as exemption from the Provisional Regulations of 1882. In July 1915, all Jews were evicted from Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBERTON Meer Iosifovich (1900, Bershad - 1947, Chkalov), prose writer. He studied at the cheder and in Russian. school. He worked in metal. workshops in Odessa. After the Revolution, he moved to Yekaterinoslav, where he worked at a factory, studied at the workers' faculty and at the mining institute. After graduation. studies worked as a mining engineer. Lit. activity began in 1926. He published stories in Heb. g. \"Prolit\", \"Di rote velt\" and other ed. Author doc. pov. Birobidzhan (1930), Shakhty (1931). A. first in Heb. after having finished. lit-re introduced productions. theme, showed the restructuring of Heb. vital. way of life, created vivid images of workers who came from Hebrews. townships for factories and plants. In the beginning. During the 1941–45 war, he was evacuated to the Urals, lived and worked in Chkalov, published essays in Russian. press, as well as in Heb. gas. \"Einikite\", organ of Heb. antifash. to-that. Having eaten the theme of war, it is not finished. rum. \"Pa two banks\", fragments from which were published. in 1947 in Moscow. Heb. alm. \"Geimland\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBREKHT Vladimir Yanovich (b. 1933, Moscow), human rights activist. By education - a mathematician (graduated from the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute named after V.I. Lenin in the mid-1950s), taught mathematics at the correspondence institute. Father, a prominent figure Kom. Party of Poland, shot in 1937. In the beginning. 1970s A. gained fame as one of the organizers of the mater. assistance to the families of political prisoners. In 1973–75 A. organized numerous houses. concerts of A.A. Galich; part of the funds collected during these concerts went to help the families of the repressed. From the beginning. 1970s every Saturday at the Moscow building. synagogues gave free law. consultations, advice, provided practical. assistance in drawing up the official. documents to Jewish refuseniks. Supervised a special jurid. seminar. Accepted the act. participation in the preparation of the symposium “Heb. Culture in the USSR: State and Prospects ”, which was supposed to take place in 1976, but was thwarted by the authorities. A. is one of the initiators of the creation of two human rights defenders in Moscow. org-tions: \"Group-73\", one of the goals of the cut was the study of the problems of convicts, and then -nat. section Int. amnesty. After the arrest of A. Tverdokhlebov, he acted as secretary. Moscow gr. Int. amnesty (1975–78), and after the emigration of V. Turchin (1977) - duties of the head. owls. section of this org-tion, left the section in 1981. Signature A. stands under pl. open letters and appeals from dissidents, in particular - on amnesty for prisoners of conscience and on the abolition of the death penalty. The author of several. samizdat brochures related to the genre of legal enlightenment, begun in 1968 “Jurid. memo \"A.S. Tverdokhlebov. In 1983 he was arrested and convicted of “slandering the Sov. build ”for 3 years of camps. In 1985, while serving his sentence, he was again convicted on charges of \"malicious hooliganism\" for 3.5 years. Released in 1987 during the Gorbachev amnesty. In 1988 he left the USSR., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBUM Simon Hirsch (1849, Tsitovyany, Kovno province - 1921, Chicago), rabbi. Got a trad. Heb. religious education. Rabbi of a number of communities. Since 1891 in the USA, A. ch. a rabbi of the Orthodox community in Chicago. Author of comments on some Talmudic treatises., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALBURT Lev Osipovich (b. 1946, Odessa), chess player; int. grandmaster (1977), chess. journalist and trainer. Graduated from physics and mathematics. Faculty of Odessa University (1968), theoretical physicist. Participant of five USSR championships (1967-1977); best result: 1974 - 5th. Since 1979 - in the USA; national champion (1984 and 1985). Participant of 2 interzonal tournaments (1985 and 1987) and as a member of the USA team of 2 Olympiads (1982 and 1984). Winner of the Intern. tournaments, incl. Bucharest (1978), New York (1979 and 1984), Beer Sheva (1980) and Reykjavik (1982)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALKISHKI, see Alkiskiai., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALMAN Shmuel (Samuel) (1877, Sobolevka Gaisinsky district of Podolsk province - 1947, London) comp. (composer of synagogue and secular music) and conductor. R. in a Hasidic family. He studied at the cheder. As a child, he sang in the synagogue choir. In 1895-1903 he studied at the Odessa and Kishinev cons. While in Chisinau, he came under the strong influence of the cantor Razumny. After the Kishinev pogroms of 1903, A. left Russia. He lived in Warsaw, then in London, where he graduated from the Royal Muses. college and wrote an opera based on biblical themes \"King Ohaz\" (post, in 1912 the first op. in Hebrew, based on the novel by A. Manu). was a choirmaster in decomp. London synagogues and choir. groups. The author of cantorial music. His style was closely related to the cantorial traditions of South Russia. A. solved the problem sovr. harmonization of their tools. production, developing the tradition of impressionistic. style of C. Debussy. A. kept melodic. features and deep emotional fullness of the chants of Eastern European Jews, often creating a mystical atmosphere. He translated the libretto op. \"Rigoletto\", \"Cavaleria Rusticana\", \"Faust\", \"The Barber of Seville\", to-rye were staged by many. Heb. t-rami of the world. Among his published works: \"Shirey Beit-ha-Knesset\" (vols. 1-2, 1925, 1938) for cantor and chorus; Psalm 15 (1915) for choir and organ and Psalm 133 (1934) for chorus and fp. Mi addir and Sheva Brakhot (1930) for cantor and organ; The Ethics of the Fathers (1928); arrangements of Heb. bunk bed songs, as well as songs to verses by H.-N. Bialik, S. Chernikhovsky, Z. Shneur, and compositions for strings. instr., incl. Quartet-suite \"Ebraika\" (1932). A. also published \"Shirey Razumny\" (1930) and an addition to the book. F. Cohen \"Prayer Voice and Praise\" (1933). The author of Art. about Heb. music., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALMOG (Kopelovich) Yehuda (1896, ca. Vilna - 1972, Jerusalem), society. activist. From 1919 in E.-I., where he became the founder of Gdud ha-Avoda. Joint. with I. Trumpeldor created \"Ge-Halutz\". In 1923 he came to the Sov. Russia as an emissary of Ge-Halutz, then he was in Persia and other countries. Founder of kibbutz Ramat Rachel (near Jerusalem). From 1934 A. devoted himself to the development of settlements located in the Dead Sea zone. Author of Hevel Sdom (Sodom Region, 1945) and Hevel Yam Ha-Melach (Dead Sea Region, 1956)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALMOGI (Krelenboim) Yosef Aharon (b. 1910, Grubeshov, Lublin province), polit. activist. From 1930 in E.-I., he worked on citrus plantations and on construction sites. During the 2nd world. war participated in the formation of Heb. brigade Brit. army. Once captured, he represented Heb. prisoners of war in negotiations with him. the authorities. After the war - secretary. Labor Council of Haifa, in 1948 created a special. brigade, edges of the city's needs after the evacuation of the British. Dep. Knesset of the 3rd convocation (1955) from the Mapai party, gen. sec. Mapai (1960-62), min. lived. building and development (1962-65), min. labor (1968). In 1966-68 a member. Rafi (before his merger with Mapai and Akhdut ha-Avoda)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALPERN Daniil Evseevich (1894, Kharkov - 1968, ibid.), Pathophysiologist. Ch.-c. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (since 1939). Graduated from Kharkov University (1917). From 1919 he worked in the Kharkov honey. in-those (since 1929 - head of the Department of Pathophysiology). At the same time. head dep. Ukrainian n.-i. psychoneurological. Institute (1923-54) and Ukrainian Institute of Experimental. medicine (1935–41). Sci. tr. are devoted to the issues of the body's reactivity and its regulation in pathology, the role of nervous and humoral factors in the pathogenesis of tissue metabolism, inflammation and allergies. reactions. Discovered the anti-inflammatory and desensitizing effect of extracts of the pituitary gland (suggested the medical drug mesophysin). He was the first to point out the role of acetylcholine, cholinesterase and adenine compounds as endogenous factors of inflammation. Established the importance of the hypothalamus in the pathogenesis of allergies. Honored. active Science of the Ukrainian SSR (1948). Works: Vegetative nervous system and metabolism, Kharkov, 1931; Chem. the nature of nervous excitement in the human body, Kharkov, 1939; Inflammation: (Questions of pathogenesis). M., 1959; Cholinergic. processes in pathology, M., 1963; Pathological. physiology, 6th ed., M., 1965., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALPEROVICH Evgeny Markovich (1888, Gomel province - 1938), participant of the roar. movement, engineer, organizer of prom. production. Member Communist. parties since 1914. Graduated from the Imp. Technical uch-shche in Moscow. After Feb. Revolution of 1917 worked in Moscow. region Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP (b), a participant in Oct. battles in Zamoskvorechye. Until 1920 he worked before the government department. metal VSNKh RSFSR, in 1921 23 master at Podolsk fur. and Podolsk steam locomotive repair plant, engaged in the reconstruction and establishment of the issue. products. Since 1923 - managing director of the joint stock company. about the rationalization of production in heavy. Prom-sti \"Orgametall\" (since 1929 - the same name. Trust), was engaged in the reconstruction of factories: Kharkov steam locomotive building., \"Press\" (Moscow), etc. Participated in the design of new factories: Lugansk steam engine building., Mosk. bicycle, Podolsk mechanic., Moscow. \"Caliber\", \"Fraser\", etc. Created as part of the trust special. office \"Organization of production\", developed and implemented the principles of scientific. org-tion of labor and production, ed. the first reference book on scientific. organization of production (\"Orga-reference book on the organization and reorganization of the production of metal industry\", v. 1-3, M., 1926-27), in which the system was generalized and systematized the latest achievements of scientific. org-tion of production of that time. Repressed., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALPEROVICH Moisey Samuilovich (b. 1918, Moscow), historian, Dr. Sciences (1965). Graduated from East. Faculty of Moscow State University (1941). In 1941–46 in Kr. Army, fought on the fronts, in 1945–46 he served in the Sov. occupier. troops in Germany. In 1946–49 he studied at the graduate school of Tychowk. Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1949–54 - Art. teacher of the Ryazan ped. in-that, since 1954 - in the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, since 1968 - senior, then leading scientific. sotr. Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the author of works on the modern history of countries Lat. America, the historiography of these countries, Russian-Latin American. relations 2nd floor. 18th century A number of works have been translated into foreign languages. lang. Awarded by the Mexican hordes. Aztec eagle, hon. diploma Nat. to-that ist. Sciences of Mexico. Cit .: Mexican Revolution of 1910-1917. and US policy, M., 1958 (et al.); War of Independence of Mexico (1810-1824), M., 1964; Will liberate, the movement of the con. XVIII - early. XIX centuries. in Lat. America, M., 1966; Sov. historiography of countries Lat. America, M., 1968; New history of countries Lat. America, M., 1970 (et al.); Use America in the struggle for independence, M., 1971; Revolution and dictatorship in Paraguay (1810-1940), M., 1975; Birth of the Mexican state, M., 1979; History Lat. America: From ancient times to the beginning. XX century, M., 1981 (2nd ed. - M., 1991) (in co-authorship); Francisco de Miranda in Russia, M., 1986; Russia and the New World: (The last third of the 18th century), M., 1993., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALPERSON Mordkhe (1867, Lyantskorun, Podolsk province - 1947, Mauritsia, Argentina), prose writer, playwright. I tried different professions. In 1891 he emigrated with his family to Argentina, where he was one of the organizers and founders of the Hebrews. agriculture. colony of Maurizia. Here A. to a ripe old age was engaged in agriculture, published Art. about the organization with. x-va in Heb. colonies. Ch. tr. A. - three-volume op. \"30 years in Argentina\", written in the 1920s. Author of works: “On the Argentine Land” (1931), “Ruth” (1934), “Tales from the Field” (1943), “Golut” (1929), “Tenants of Culture” (1933), etc. One of A's granddaughters - Rebecca Maktas-Pollach became a Spanish-Jewish writer., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALPERT Naum Pinkhosovich (1913, Slonim - |, USA), painter, graphic artist. Studied at Vilenskaya thin. school (1931–34), Yerevan art. school (1943–45) and Yerevan art. in-those (1945–47) at A.V. Bekaryan, Kh.A. Yesayan, E.A. Isabekyan. A.'s work can be divided into two periods: before and after 1960. The first period was spent in Yerevan and Rostov-on-Don, where he created a number of significant works (\"Fishing Port\", \"Still Life\", the series \"Old Vilnius\", etc.) ... The second period begins with a return to Vilnius, where A. works a lot in the technique of linoleum engraving and aqu., Giving preference to the portrait genre and landscape (\"Portrait of Sholem Aleichem\", middle \"Don fishermen\", middle \"Vilnius\", etc.) ... Since 1936 academic. in various exhibitions, incl. aqu. First personal exhibition in 1946 (Yerevan). Since the 1980s in the USA., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALPIN Lev Moiseevich (1898, Kremenchug, Poltava province - 1986, Moscow), geophysicist, one of the founders of electrical prospecting in the USSR. Prof. (1948). In 1914 he began his labor activity as a worker. He graduated from general education in 1926. courses for workers and entered the Phys.-Math. dep. Moscow state university, graduated in 1930. From 1955 head. Department of Geophysics, Moscow. geological exploration. in-that. One of the founders of Russian scientific. schools of exploration geophysics (electrical exploration). research associated with the development of theoretical. foundations of exploration geophysics, electrical exploration and electric. logging. Author of fundamental publications and textbooks. Works: Theory of dipole soundings, M.-L., 1950; Field theory, M., 1966; Micro-logging using a flat field, M., 1979; The theory of fields used in exploration geophysics, M., 1985 (in co-authorship)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALSHITS Daniil Natanovich (lit. ps. D. Al) (b. 1919, Petrograd), playwright and prose writer. Dr. East sciences. In 1937 he entered the East. Faculty of Leningrad State University, but graduated only in 1945, because in June 1941 he went to the Nar. militia of Leningrad. After the war he began to study Old Russian. handwritten book. Dec. 1949 was repressed. He served his term in Kargopollag (Arkhangelsk region). In the beginning. 1955 A. was rehabilitated and returned to his scientific work. In 1983 he defended his doctoral dissertation. \"Oprichnina and the formation of the apparatus of power of the autocracy: Search and research. new ist. sources \". Author of 40 scientific researches. and 60 publ. thin manuf. in the genres of drama, prose and journalism. His scientific works, dedicated. ch. arr. history of Russia during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, were highly appreciated growing up. and nick. scientists. Among his plays: \"More Dangerous than the Enemy\" 1962, (co-authored with L.L. Rakov), \"Truth! Nothing but the Truth! \", 1976. Prose:\" There was no order to die \", L., 1980,\" Stories from Old Russian Life: In collaboration with the great tragedian and equally great satirist - History \"(in the almanac\" White Nights \", L., 1989); “We had a good time: Memories of the times of Stalinism”, part 1 (journalist “Neva”, 1992, No. 8), etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALSHITS Vladimir Iosifovich (b. 1941, Barabinsk, Novosibirsk region), theoretical physicist. Dr. Phys.-Math. Sciences (1977), prof. (1993). After graduation. Moscow engineer-phys. Institute (1966) works at the Institute of Crystallography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1988 - head of the laboratory). scientific. tr. related to questions of the theory of dislocations, physics of strength and plasticity, crystal acoustics and ka. The author will follow. quantum mechanical the theory of phonon and electron drag of dislocations, which is important for understanding the processes accompanying plastic deformation. A.'s work began a new direction in crystal physics, associated with the study of acoustic. effects and phenomena entirely due to the anisotropy of crystals and having a resonant singular or \"catastrophic\" character. Opened (jointly) and experiment in detail. and theoretical. research magnetoplastic. the effect. The author of St. 130 scientific. publications, co-author of 8 monographs and 3 inventions., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALSHVANG Arnold Alexandrovich (1898, Kiev - 1960, Moscow), musicologist, pianist. Doctor of Lawsuit (1944). In 1911 he entered the Kiev horse, studied at the performing and composing faculty. As a student cons. entered (1916) in a commercial institute. In 1920 he graduated from the horse, class fp. (studied under G.K. Khodorovsky and G.G. Neuhaus), in 1922 - composition (was a student of B.L. Yavorsky and R.M. Glier). activity as \"politically unreliable\" was exiled to Olonets province. In 1917 A. - a member. council of representatives of the Kiev cons. after 2 years - early. military muses. schools that trained the military. kapellmeister. In 1920 he graduated from the Institute of Nar. farms. Since 1923 prof. Kiev horse. He organized a musical and scientific faculty in it, and became its dean. Introduced new courses - “The structure of the muses. speech \"and\" Listening to music \"in the Kiev Nar. horse. Since 1924 in Moscow (invited to teach at the Literary Institute named after V.Ya.Bryusov). He gave concerts as a solo pianist and lecturer-popularizer. He made his debut as a theater. composer. In 1928–32 - Doctor of State. Academy of Arts. sciences; in 1930–34 he taught at Moscow. cons. He accompanied his lectures, which enjoyed great success, with brilliant illustrations for php. For the first time in the program, he introduced the themes: opera and instru. music con. 19 - early. 20th century, music by I.F. Stravinsky, French. composers so-called \"Sixes\". A serious illness forced A. to focus on research work. Published many. articles, a number of scientific. works dedicated. Western-European and Russian. music, problems of muses. styles, performance, and popular brochures. Less known A. as a composer - the author of symphony. (1922), symph. poems in ukr. bunk bed theme (1927), fp. plays, choirs, romances. Major works: \"C. Debussy: Life and work, worldview and creativity\", M., 1935; \"AN Skryabin: To the 25th anniversary of his death\", M., 1940; \"Beethoven\", M., 1940; 3rd ed., Supplemented, 1963; \"The experience of analyzing the work of PI Tchaikovsky (1864-1878)\", M.-L., 1951; \"PI Tchaikovsky\", M., 1959; 3rd ed., 1970., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTER Victor (1890, Mlawa Plock province - 1941, Kuibyshev), polit. activist. R. in a Hasidic family. Ing. From 1912, an activist of the Bund in Warsaw, was arrested and exiled to Siberia, soon fled and emigrated. During the 1st world. war lived in Great Britain, was a worker, then Ing. After the war he returned to Poland, in 1919–39 a member. Central Committee of the Bund and one of the hands. Heb. trade unions. For almost 20 years he was a member. municipality of Warsaw, since 1936 also a member. Council of Heb. communities. After Poland's defeat in the 2nd world. war on sept. 1939 fled from Warsaw to the territory occupied by the Sov. troops. Soon he was arrested and in July 1941 sentenced to death. On Sept. 1941, together with H. Ehrlich, was released from prison (the Soviet authorities intended to appoint him as secretary general of the Hebrew anti-fascist committee), but on December 4, 1941, he was arrested again and soon shot together with Ehrlich. A. - the author of the works “To Heb. the Question in Poland ”(1937, in Yiddish) and“ Anti-Semitism in Figures ”(1937, in Polish)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTERMAN Grigory Yakovlevich (1888, Odessa - 1958, Moscow), sculptor, artist. In 1919 he graduated from thin. uch-shche in Odessa. Created posters for \"YugROST Windows\". In 1920 he left for Poland. Hood. continued his education in Paris (1921–25) and Berlin (1925–33), where he improved in the region. ceramic art. In 1933 he returned to Poland, where until 1936 he worked. picturesque and model workshops at the faience factory in Woclawek. From 1939 in the USSR, from 1941 he worked at the plant. MI Kalinin in Konakovo, in 1947–49 - Ch. thin h-yes. created forms and decor of serial dishes, improving the technique of iodoglaze painting, innovatively worked with color. glazes, revealing the great possibilities of watered earthenware (majolica). Author's works A. post. exhibited at the Fatherland. and nick. exhibitions., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTERZON (Alterson) Grigory Petrovich (1857 - 1912, Moscow), humorist writer. In 1875 he tried to enter the Institute of Ing. ways of communication, but did not pass the exam. Lit. activity began in 1880, collaborated in humorous. g. \"Splinter\", \"Observer\", \"Shards\", \"Entertainment\", \"Jester\" and others. \"Alarm Clock\" performed with stories and one-act plays. After the publication of the story \"From the memoirs of a hat\" (1885), he was nicknamed Alter Pater. He is also known for his sharp, witty epigrams., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTMAN Arie (1902, Balta, Podolsk province - 1982), polit. activist. One of the leaders of the revisionist movement in Zionism. R. in the family of the teacher. Hebrew, local leader Zionists. Studied economics and jurisprudence at Novorossiysk University (Odessa), later specialized in sociology and political. sciences in the USA. Doctor of Sociology. Tseirei Zion activist in Odessa. After the establishment of owls. authorities were repressed and in 1924 was expelled from Russia. At the beginning of 1925 he arrived at E.-I. In 1928 he went to the United States to continue his studies and there he joined the Zionist revisionists. Thanks to his vigorous activity A. was elected before. revision. traffic in the USA. He returned to E.-I. in 1935 and began working in the publication of the revisionist movement \"Ha-Yarden\". In 1937 he was elected leader. revisionist movement in E.-I. In 1938 he was appointed personal representative. Z. Zhabotinsky in Poland. With the beginning of the 2nd world. During the war, he returned to E.-I., where he continued his social and political activities within the framework of the revisionist movement. One of the creatures. military. org. revisionists Etzel. Arrested by the British. Member Knesset from the Herut party (3-5 convocations). Poch. gr. Jerusalem., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTMAN Johann Lvovich (1900, Orheev, Bessarabian province - 1955, Moscow), literary and theater critic. Lit. He began his career in 1920. From 1921 he lived in Moscow. In 1926 he graduated from Moscow. un-t, in 1932 - lit. dep. Institute of red professors. Since 1933 he has actively appeared in print with reviews of the performances of washes, t-ditch. His literary-Vedic works about the creativity of the present. owls. playwrights. A number of articles by A. were eaten, to the classics of Russian. lit-ry. The problems of theater criticism and drama were raised in his works \"New Drama and the Problem of the Classics\" (1935), \"On the Tasks of Theater Criticism\" (1935), \"Problems of Sov. drama of the era Vel. Otech. War \"(1946), and others. A. studied the theory of ancient drama -\" The Dramatic Principles of Aristotle \"(1936), studied the work of G. Lessing\" Lessing and the Theory of Drama \"(1936),\" Lessing and Drama \"(1939). Mn. Art. A. dedicated peripheral t-frames, t-frames of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan. Author of a monograph about cargo, actor AA Khorava (1947) and others. In 1936–38 ed. gas. \"Soviet art\", in 1939 41 - f. \"Theater\". In 1947–48 (before the closure of the theater), the deputy. thin hands. according to the GOSET repertoire. In 1949, together with a group of theater critics, he was accused of anti-patriotic activities. In 1957 ed. Sat. \"Fav. Art. \", pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTMAN Moisey Elevich (1890, Lipkany, Bessarabian province. - 1975, Chernivtsi), novelist, poet, publicist. He studied at the gymnasium. Debuted verse. and lit.-critical. Art. in 1920. Published in Heb. period. ed. Romania, Poland, USA. In 1930 he left for Argentina. Was the head. Heb. orphanage in Buenos Aires. In 1931 he returned to Romania, then to Bessarabia. In 1945, after returning from evacuation to Chernivtsi, he worked in Hebrew. theater. In 1949 he was repressed and exiled to Siberia. After his release he settled in Chernivtsi. In the 60s and 70s. was published in Polish-Heb. lit. weekly \"Yiddish font\", in f. \"Sovetish gameland\". Author of the book: \"Blendenish\" (\"Mirage\"), 1926; \"Die viper carriage\" (\"Vienna carriage\"), 1935; \"Medrish Pinhas\", 1936, etc. He was also engaged in per. in Yiddish., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTMAN Natan Isaevich (1889, Vinnitsa - 1970, Leningrad), painter, graphic artist, sculptor. He studied at the Odessa Art. school (1903–07) with K.K. Kostandi, L.D. Iorini, G.A. Ladyzhensky. In 1907, dissatisfied with the setting of teaching, he left for Vinnitsa, where he took up independently, the development of painting, problems, began to paint portraits (\"Lady on the balcony\", 1906, \"Portrait of a grandmother\", 1908). In 1910 he left for Paris, attended the \"Free Russian. acad. \" M. Vasilyeva (1910-11), created. his first painting \"Jewish Funeral\" (1910). In 1913 A. came to Gritsev, Volyn province, where he created a number of graphic works. Used ital. pencil, straightening my compositions. in gold, which gave them their distinctiveness. splendor, bringing them closer to the luxury of the East. lawsuit. Since 1914 in Petrograd. Lecturer in the studio of M.D. Bereshitein (1915–17), State. free thin workshops (1918–20). Uch. at the base of Heb. about-va promotion thin. In 1914 created. the famous \"Landscape\" and \"Portrait of AA Akhmatova\", which became a sensation at the exhibition. \"Mira isk-va\" in 1915. Gradually in the work of A. color problems are replaced by probl. volume. Hood. the construction of things interests. He begins to work as a sculptor, building his work on the same division of volume as in painting, combining various plastic materials - bronze, forged. copper, wood (The Head of a Young Jew, Self-Portrait, 1916). In 1920 A. ser. graphical portraits of V.I. Lenin. In 1922 the beginning. work in t-re, having designed the play \"Gadi-Buk\" by An-sky (directed by EB Vakhtangov) in the T-re-studio \"Habima\", becoming an event in Moscow. theater, life. In 1924-28 yavl. ch. thin Moscow state Heb. chamber t-ra (later GOSET), to the eye of the hands. A.M. Granovsky. A.'s best work in this t-re - \"Uriel Acosta\" by K. Gutskov (1922). Among the means, theater, works A. also \"Othello\" (1944) and \"Hamlet\" (1954) in Lenipgr. t-re drama them. Pushkin. In 1920 he took up book graphics, created. covers for the book. I.G. Erenburg, Yu.K. Olesha, I.E. Babel and others, cycle ill. to the story \"From the Fair\" by Sholem Aleichem, etc. A. is a portrait artist, among his masterpieces is a portrait of S.M. Mikhoels (1929). In 1928–35 A. lived in Paris. Participant mi. exhibitions since 1906., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTMAN Peysy Izrailevich (1904, Ivangorod, Kiev province - 1941), prose writer, literary critic. From the age of 14 he worked for a shoemaker, then at a shoe factory in Uman. At the same time he studied at the evening school. After graduation. The Institute of the Red Professors in Kharkov was a secretary scientist. Inst ukr. literature VUAN. Before the war he worked as a scientist. sotr. Institute of Hebrews. culture of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. He wrote in Yiddish. Began to publish in the end. 20 - early. 30s in Heb. press. Published essays, stories. Author of the book: \"Dos tsilbretl lakht\" (\"The target laughs\"), Kharkov, 1931; Positions, ibid., 1933; Derceilungen (Stories), Kiev, 1936; \"Yugnt\" (\"Youth\"), in the same place, 1941, etc. In 1939, his monograph \"TG Shevchenko\" was awarded a repub. pr. as one of the best biographies of the writer. Killed at the front., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTOV Genrikh Saulovich (real family. Altshuller) (b. 1926, Baku), scientist, writer, engineer-inventor. In 1959 he graduated from the Baku Polytechnic. in-t. At the age of 16 he received the first. the author, a certificate for the invention of a diving apparatus, at the age of 17, built a boat with a carbide-powered rocket engine. In 1946 at the Naval. the Navy accepted his proposal for a new way to get out of a sunken submarine without scuba gear in tech. 15 minutes. In the same year A. was admitted to the service in the invention. dep. Caspian military. flotillas. Having studied the patent funds, A. formulated DOS. decision rules invented. tasks, to-rye formed the basis of his theory of the solution of invention. tasks (TRIZ). After addressing a letter to Stalin in 1948 about putting things in order in the invention. was arrested and sentenced to 25 years. Returning to Baku after Stalin's death, he continued to fight for the implementation of his theory of invention. creativity. From 1971 to 1975 A. taught at the Azerbaijani society. in-those Ing. creativity (AzOIIT). In 1956 in the railway station. \"Questions of Psychology\" was published by Art. A. and his constant. et al. and friend R. Shapiro “On the psychology of invention. creativity \". He wrote a number of essays on the fate of the scientific. foresight of J. Verne, H. Wells, A.R. Belyaev. Since 1957, his first science fiction stories have appeared in print under ps. G. Altov. Author of collection of books. stories and book., dedicated. heuristics: \"Legends of Star Captains\" (1961), \"How to Learn to Invent\" (1961), \"Ballad of the Stars\" (co-authored with V. Zhuravlsva, 1963), \"Scorching Mind\" (1968), \"Made for the Storm \"(1971),\" The algorithm of invention \"(1973),\" Creativity as an exact science \"(1979), etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHTEIN Anatoly Davidovich (b. 1935, Yalta), virologist. Ch.-c. RANS (1991). At the end of the 1st Moscow. honey. in-that (1957) - in the Institute of poliomyelitis and viral encephalitis of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, in 1963–69 - in the State. Research Institute of Standardization and Control of Biol. and honey. drugs them. Latarasevich (head of laboratory. Entero- and adenoviral drugs), in 1969-81 - in the Institute of Virology named after. DI Ivanovsky, in 1982–90 - at the Institute of General Genetics. NI Vavilov of the USSR Academy of Sciences, since 1990 - in Ying-those Biol. gene of the USSR Academy of Sciences (head of laboratory of genetics of viruses). Dr. med. Sciences (1970), prof. (1991). Osn. tr. oncogenic viruses, vaccines, incl. genetically engineered, genetic in origin. systems. Discovered a new class of adenovirus hybrids (1968). He proposed a leukemic cell system for the production of vaccines (1968). Developed the concept of the cellular origin of viral oncogenes (1972) and the origin of genetic. systems - the progen hypothesis (1987). Cit .: Ruk. on virology, M., 1982 (in co-authorship)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULER Boris Lvovich (b. 1904, Moscow), film director. In 1924 he graduated from the State. in-t words. In cinema since 1925 - editor of the script department. Since 1926, a teacher at VGIK. Script writer f .: \"Baba Ryazansky\" (1927, jointly with O. Vishnevskaya), \"Revenge\" (1931, with MI Romm and NI Zhinkin), etc. Since 1932 in popular science and academic. cinema. He took off the f., Dedicated. decomp. problems of technology \"Conveyor of houses\" (1939), \"Smart machines\" (1948), \"Story about a Soviet car\" (1954), \"Screen of life\" (1955), \"The future begins today\" (1957), \"Guarding life\" (1959), “Gleb Maksimilianovich Krzhizhanovsky” (1963), “Composer Kabalevsky” (1964), “We are Kurians” (1970, with GF Chertov) and others. manuals and articles. Honored. worker of culture of the RSFSR (1969). Cit .: Composition of the script of a popular scientific film, Moscow, 1958; Creative questions of educational cinema, M., 1976., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULER Eliezer-Mordhe (1844, Marijampole, Suwalki province - 1921, Suwalki), society. activist. Received a tradition. Heb. religious education. One of the first supporters of the Palestinian movement Hovevey Zion. After the pogroms of 1881, he began work on organizing the \"return movement\" in E.-I. The organizer of the group \"Isod ha-Maale\", which aimed to purchase land in E.-I. The author of the book. \"Parshes Mordkhe\" (Warsaw, 1896), containing an analysis of the narrative part of the Talmud., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULER Georgy Yakovlevich (b. 1918, Petrograd), electrical engineer, specialist in the region. equipment for submarines. Graduated from Leningrad in 1940. electrical engineering in-t. He worked in the design bureau, dealt with the design and implementation of electrical equipment for submarines. In 1964–84, Ch. designer for a complex of electrical equipment, then deputy. ch. designer Leningr. design and assembly bureau \"Rubin\". Linen. pr. (1957)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULER Lev Vladimirovich (b. 1913, Moscow), physicist. Dr. Phys.-Math. Sciences (1954), prof. (1956). Graduated from Moscow. un-t (1936). In 1934 he began to work in Moscow. evening mechanical engineering. in-those them. A.S. Bubnov, in 1940 he was transferred to the Institute of Mechanical Engineering of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1940–42 he served in the army. In 1947–69 head. lab. VNII experiment. physics (Arza-mas-16). In 1969–89 head. lab. All-Union. Research Institute of Optical Phys. measurements. Since 1989, Ch. scientific. sotr. n.-i. c. thermal impulse effects. scientific. tr. related to the physics of high pressures, shock waves, detonation phenomena, X-ray structural analysis. Developed methods for high-speed X-ray structural analysis. He studied the properties of metals and minerals at high and ultrahigh pressures (–10 Mbar) and discovered previously unknown changes in the electronic structure. Research certain minerals at megabar pressures, which made it possible to refine the model of the Earth's lower mantle and estimate its chemical. composition. Developed an experiment. methods and measured the detonation pressure of powerful explosives. Studied the extreme states of matter achieved in strong shock waves. Head of scientific. schools. Author approx. 80 scientific. works. Became. pr. (1946, 1949, 1953). Linen. pr. (1962). Etc. Amer. physical about-va (1991)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULER Modest (Moisey) Isaakovich (1873, Mogilev - 1963, Los Angeles), cellist, conductor. In 1884-86 he studied cello with J. Gebelt in the Warsaw horse, then in Moscow. cons. in the class of V.V. Fitzenhagen (until 1890), then in the class of A.E. Glen (among his teachers are also A.S. Arensky, V.I.Safonov, S.I. Taneev). He began performing as a student. Graduated from cons. in 1894.3 Dec. 1892 took part (together with I.V. Grzhimali, B.F. Patseev, N.N.Sokolovsky, Ya.I. Altshulier and Glen) in Moscow. premiere of the sextet \"Memories of Florence\" by PI Tchaikovsky. One of the organizers (1892) and participant of Moscow. trio (together with pianist D.S. Shor, violinists D.S. Kerin). Joint. with Shor founded in Moscow \"Historical Chamber Morning\". Since 1895 - in the USA. In 1903 he organized in New York \"Rus. symph. about-in \"(the first concert took place on January 7, 1904), in the concerts of which S.V. Rachmaninov, A.N. Skryabin, S.S. Prokofiev, I. Levin, M. Elman performed. The programs included production. Russian classical composers and contemporaries A. Orchestra under exercise. A. for the first time in the United States performed all symphonies, symphonies. poems - \"The Poem of Ecstasy\" (world premiere), \"Prometheus\" by Scriabin, 2nd symph. Rachmaninov. The society existed until 1919. A. continued his conducting activity later. Written by orc. transcription fp. PI Tchaikovsky trio. A. own \"Memories of Scriabin\", memoirs (1956)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULER Semyon Aleksandrovich (1911, Vitebsk - 1983, Kazan), experimental physicist, Ph.D. USSR Academy of Sciences (1976). Graduated from Kazan University (1932) and postgraduate studies at FIAN (1934, student of I.E. Tamm). From 1934 he worked at Kazan University. In 1941 he volunteered for the front, served in the anti-tank. artillery. In 1946 he returned to Kazan University, from 1955 - prof. Member editorial board of \"Journal of Experimental and Theoretical. physics \". The area of ​​scientific. interests - magnetic properties of matter, paramagnetic resonance and radiospectroscopy. In 1934 joint. with Tamm predicted the presence of a magnetic moment in the neutron and correctly estimated its magnitude and sign. 6 1948 (together with BM Kozyrev and SG Salikhov) discovered the influence of hyperfine magnetic interactions on the spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance. He predicted and built a theory of acoustic. paramagnetic resonance, which led to the creation of quantum acoustics. He proposed a new method for obtaining ultra-low temperatures, investigated the effect of a narrow background \"throat\" and a background \"throat\" in paramagnetic crystals. The author of several. tens of Art. and the monograph \"Electronic paramagnetic resonance of compounds of elements of intermediate groups\" (with BM Kozyrev), M., 2nd ed. - 1972 (also published in Poland, Germany, England and the USA)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHUL Joseph (known as Yoschke Slonimer) (1839, Vilna - 1908, Grodna), cantor and composer of synagogue hymns. He combined his studies at the yeshiva with studies at the local cantor. Later he trained with the famous cantor I. Blindman in Berdichev. A. first copied his style, then began to develop his own, being already a mountain. cantor in Slonim (1870–88). Having become popular, he attracted students from Lithuania and Poland. A. was also distinguished by his rabbinical. knowledge. From 1888 until his death A. served as a cantor in Grodno. Only 4 small works have survived, to-rye A. recorded for E. Birnbaum, and some of his compositions and improvisations. Some of them include masterfully written, very popular 6/8 melodies, representing the cantonal recitative characteristic of the Jews of Lithuania. In his synagogue melodies, the melodies of nar is clearly traced. songs., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULLER Alexander Yakovlevich (1870, Polotsk, Vitebsk province - 1950, Moscow), singer, director, teacher. Hero of Labor (1923). In 1888–93 he studied at Moscow. music-dram. uch-shche. In 1893 he made his debut in Moscow. Ital. op. In 1894-1912 he sang on the op. scenes of Kazan, Astrakhan, Yekaterinburg, Voronezh, Irkutsk, Perm, Saratov, in 1917–26 in Odessa, Baku, Kharkov and other cities. Best parts: Bes (\"Cherevichki\"), Pantoleone (\"The Barber of Seville\"), Benno (\"Fra-Diavolo\"). From 1898 he was engaged in directing. In 1920–24 ch. dir. Kharkov op. t-ra. He taught at the Kharkov Institute of Music. culture, in Moscow. muses. technical school them. M.P. Mussorgsky. In 1912-19 the members. Of the WTO Council. In 1928-30 - head. op. dep. Tsentromedrabisa. Since 1930 - prompter of the Big Theater. Honored. art. Ukrainian SSR (1923) and RSFSR., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTSHULLER Boris Lvovich (b. 1926, Moscow), a famous architect-restorer, scientist, specialist in the restoration of monuments of ancient Russian architecture. In 1943 he graduated from Moscow Architectural Institute. Practical experience is summarized in the dis. \"Pillarless temples of the 15-17 centuries.\" (1977). Honored. cultural worker of the RSFSR (1986). Main restoration. works: The Savior Cathedral of the Andronnikov Monastery, 14th century. (together with L.A. David, 1961), the Church of St. Nicholas in the village of Kashinsky, 16th century. (1975), architectural and archaeological reserves \"Panticapaeum\" in Kerch (1990) and \"Chersonesos\" in the Crimea (1991)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALLAH-YUNSKAYA, see Allah-Yun., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=DIAMOND, a city (since 1977) in the Luhansk region. (Ukraine). Main in 1895. In 19 - early. 20th century - in Bakhmutskiy u. Yekaterinoslav Gubernia. 106 Jews lived in Armenia in 1926, and 165 Jews in 1939., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALMI E. (real name and surname Sheps Eliyahu-Chaim), (1892, Warsaw - 1963, Buenos Aires), poet, prose writer, publicist. He made his debut in 1907 in Warsaw weekly. \"Roman-Zeitung\". Was sotr. gas. Der Moment (1910-1915), published poetry, feuilletons, fairy tales in it. Since 1912 in the USA. Worked sotr. gas. Keneder Odler. In 1922 published in Canada Sat. \"Epoch\", to-ry gathered lit. the youth. Author pl. collection of verses. and stories, essays and essays. In 1948 A. published the book. rec. \"Moment fun a lebn\" (\"Moments of one life\")., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTAUZEN Yakov (Jack) Moiseevich (1907, Bodaibo - 1942, near Kharkov), a poet who praised the romance of the roar. battles and the first five-year plans, the beginning of the social. building in the USSR. R. in the family of an exiled. At the age of 11 he left the family. He lived in Chita, Harbin, Vladivostok, Shanghai. The first verses publ. in Irkutsk in 1922. Comp. into gas. Siberia. Studied at Moscow State University. Member lit. gr. \"Pass\". Among his poems and a number of poems - \"Mustache Enthusiast\" (1928), \"Lit. manifesto \"(1930),\" The first generation \"(1934),\" Awakening of the hero \"(1940). Killed at the front., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALTYNOVKA, a village in the Krolevets district of the Sumy region. (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - in Krolevetsky u. Chernigov province. In 1897, approx. 500 Jews (approx. 10%) First mention. about the Jews of Armenia dates back to 1735. By the law of May 10, 1903, as an exemption from the Provisional Regulations of 1882, Jews were allowed to settle in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALUF Yehoshua (1900, Slonim - 1980, Israel), society. and sports, activist. In E.-I. from 1912. In 1925 he graduated from the Institute of Physics in Copenhagen. In 1938–65 he was a physical inspector in Israeli schools. Hands. dep. physical and sports Min-va image. Organizer of the first five Maccabiads. State pr. Israel 1974 (state and general. activity) for works on physical. education and organizational activities., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALUSTON, see Alushta., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ALYANSKY Samuil Mironovich (1891, Petersburg - 1974, Moscow), publ. activist. His father, Miron Isayevich Alyansky, was a well-known bookbinder in St. Petersburg. From 1903 to 1911 he studied at the city, at the same time he worked as a technician. assistant as amended. newspaper \"Rech\", in the library of LI Zheverzheev on the compilation of the catalog. In 1917 A. and V. Vasiliev opened a shop. In 1918 A. organized and headed the publishing house Alkonost. The first published book is AABlok's poem \"The Nightingale Garden\". In total, Alkonost A. published about 50 books, incl. works by Andrey Bely, Alexey Remizov, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Anna Akhmatova, Fyodor Sologub, etc., almost all of Blok's works. In 1919, Alkonost published the first issue of the Zapiski drementeley magazine. A total of 6 issues of this magazine were published. In 1922 A. released the collection. The Serapion Brothers, reflecting the aesthetic views of the literary group of the same name. After the closure in 1923 of \"Alkonost\" A. worked in the publishing houses of the People's Commissariat for Education, in charge of bookstores in the publishing house \"Kniga\" and \"International Book\". In 1929 A. headed the Writers' Publishing House in Leningrad. He was the initiator of the release of the \"Art Series\" with works. modern foreign. writers and ser. \"Masters of Contemporary Literature\" dedicated to the Sov. writers. In 1938-1942 he headed the Leningrad publishing house. Union of Artists, known for its release in the years of the 2nd world. war of propaganda posters \"Battle Pencil\". Since 1943 - Member. editorial board and arts, editor J. \"Murzilka\" and publishing house \"Detgiz\", where until the end of his life he was a consultant on the design of a children's book., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMAZAR, an urban-type settlement (since 1938) in the Mogochinsky district of the Chita region. (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - railway station Nerchinsky env. Trans-Baikal Region. In 1939, 9 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMBROLAURI, city (since 1966), regional center (Georgia). Since 1810 - as part of Ros. empire, since 1846 - the village of Rachinsky u. Kutaisi province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 - in the Georgian SSR. In 1939 10 Jews lived in Armenia, in 1970 - 14, in 1979 - 14 Jews. According to legend, the name. the village came from the name of a Jewish merchant, whose name was Ambrola, who owned a unity. a shop in the neighborhood., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMIEL Moshe Avigdor (1882, Porozovo Grodno Gubernia - 1945, Tel Aviv), rabbi, public. activist, writer. He studied at the best Lithuanian yeshivas - in Belz, Brest-Litovsk, Vilna. At the age of 18 he received a rabbi diploma. In 1905–13, a rabbi in Sventsiany founded a yeshiva there. Member of the Mizrahi movement. Was engaged in organizer. active., published articles on the themes of Zionism and religion in the press of Mizrahi. He gained fame as an ideologue of religions. Zion. In 1920 he took part in the congresses of Mizrahi in Holland and Belgium. Ch. Rabbi of Antwerp. Participated in the Zionist congresses (from 13 to 19) and the world congresses of Mizrahi. In 1933 he visited E.-I. and in 1936 Ch. Rabbi of Tel Aviv. He expanded the \"Tel Aviv yeshiva\", founded by his predecessor Sh. Aronson, and introduced there together with the religion. disciplines teaching secular subjects in the volume of cf. schools. Yeshiva received the name \"Yishuv hadash\". She became a type of cf. Yeshiv \"Bnei Akiva\". Bibliography tr. A. contains 306 titles., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMINOAKH Nehemya (Zvi) (1896, Zhitlin Grodn. Gubernia - 1966, Tel Aviv), polit. activist. One of the leaders of ha-Poel ha-Mizrahi. On the maternal side - a descendant of the Magid from Volozhin. Studied at decomp. \"Lithuanian\" yeshivas. During the 1st world. war - Russian soldier. army. Since 1920 - in E.-I. He was a worker in Rishon Lezion. Founder of the local ha-Poel ha-Mizrahi. Since 1923 - in Kfar-Arya, secretary. and mukhtar settlements. In 1924 he was elected to the workers' council of ha-Poel ha-Mizrahi and moved to Jerusalem. In 1925 he headed the group that led the party to a split and moved to Histadrut ha-Clalit. In 1928 he returned to ha-Poel ha-Mizrahi. In 1929–32 - secretary. World Union ge-Halutz ha-Mizrahi, ed. school desks. printed organ \"Netiva\". Was a member. municipality of Petah-Tikva, one of the founders of the settlement of Kfar-Avraham. Delegate to the 20th and 22nd Zionist Congresses. For many years there was a secret. ed. gas. \"Ha-Tsofe\". One of the theorists is socialist. directions in religion. Zionism. In numerous works, he substantiated the unity of the socialist. ideas and Heb. traditions., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMINOV Avraham (1854, Bukhara - 1939, Jerusalem), one of the leaders of the Bukhara community. In E.-I. since 1892. Dedicated himself to the rallying of Bukharian Jews, founded the Bukhara quarter in Jerusalem. Repeatedly traveled to Bukhara and Turkestan as a messenger of the community, imported etrogs and lulavs there from E.-I. and collected donations for the needs of the community in Jerusalem. He founded the \"Magen Avraham\" yeshiva with a well-known library, which contains books from the personal library of Ch. the Sephardic rabbi Raphael Meir Panijil., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMSTERDAM Abram Isaevich (Abram-Meer Izrailevich) (1872, Vitebsk - 1899, Shklov), Jewish activist. labor movement. Graduated from Aleksandrovskoe Heb. crafts. school in Moscow (1887), worked at the plant, member of the Moscow. circle of \"Palestinophiles\", led the cult.-skylight. work among the Hebrews. youth. After the eviction of the Heb. from Moscow (1891) lived in Vitebsk, organized a number of self-education circles (\"Amsterdam circles\") of student youth, workers, artisans, developed in his associates a sense of nat. self-awareness, interest in cultural and social. questions. In 1892 he was drafted into the military. service, but kept in touch with his circles. All R. 1890s became a Marxist. Having received sick leave in 1894, he traveled under the guise of a bookseller in the cities and metro North-West. edge, conducted propaganda among artisans and workers, studied the needs and views of Hebrews. population of the region. One of the founders of the Social-Democrats groups in Mogilev, led the roar. propaganda among the Hebrews. workers. From Sept. 1896 (iro departure of service) lived in Vilna, where he became one of the hands. Heb. labor movement, tried to harmonize the teaching of Marxism with Heb. nationalism. In Jan. 1897 Arrested in Vilna in the case of a local Social-Democratic Party. group, was involved in the investigation in the case of the Vitebsk Social-Democrats, was held in prisons in Vilna, Vileyki, Vitebsk. In 1899, due to illness, he was released pending a verdict under the special supervision of the police and was exiled to Shklov, Mogilev province, where he drowned while swimming in the Dnieper. Created by A. Heb. workers' circles became the nucleus of the Bund., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMUR-NIZHNEDNEPROVSK, now a district within the city of Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Novomoskovsky u. Yekaterinoslav Gubernia. In 1897, 1235 Jews (20.4%) lived in Armenia, in 1910 - 3360 (9.2%), in 1920 - 2162, in 1923 - 1427 Jews. In 1890 the first synagogue was opened in Armenia. By the law of May 10, 1903, as an exemption from the \"Provisional Regulations\" of 1882, Jews were allowed to settle in Armenia. In 1910 there were three synagogues in Armenia, a Talmud Torah, a society of benefits to the poor, and wives. classroom societies. uch-shche, Jewish societies. b-ka-reading room, two cemeteries; the sum of the box collection reached 2,500 rubles. In 1899, N.T.Berenstein (1873—?) was the rabbi in A., during the First World. war - N.-Sh. Sosonkin., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AMUSIN Joseph Davidovich (1910, Vitebsk - 1984, Leningrad), orientalist, historian, philologist, translator, Dr. Sciences (1965). From the family of an employee. Since 1924 in Leningrad, he worked as a loader, a laborer at a number of factories, at the same time. studied in economics. college, did a lot of self-education, promoted the ideals of humanism and justice. In 1926–33 he was imprisoned and exiled. In 1933-35 he worked as an accountant and accountant. In 1935–38 student of history. Faculty of Leningrad State University (studied under S.Ya. Lurie and V.V. Struve), in 1938 he was arrested again, in 1939 he was released. In 1941 he graduated from un-t, in 1941-45 at the front. In 1945-50 he taught at Leningrad State University and Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute. A.I. Herzen. During the period of the \"struggle against cosmopolitanism\" he was forced to leave for Ulyanovsk, in 1950–54 he taught at a local pedagogue. in-those. In 1954 he returned to Leningrad, was a secretary. acad. A.I. Tyumenev, since 1955 scientific. sotr. Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, since 1960 in the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1961 senior researcher). 100 works on the history of Hellenic Egypt, Western Asia, papyrology. One of the most prominent specialists in the region. coumranology. The author of the book. Dead Sea Manuscripts, 1964, ed. 1965; Qumran Community, 1983; Sat. translations of A. from other Hebrew. and Aramaic, publ. in the book. \"The Texts of Qumran\", v. 1, 1971; Social problems structures of the ancient Bl. East (1st millennium BC) according to biblical sources, M., 1993. Mn. A.'s works have been translated into Polish, German, French, English. and other languages., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AN-SKY S. (nast, name and surname. Shloyme-Zainvl (Semyon Akimovich) Rappoport) (b. 1863, Chashniki, Vitebsk province - 1920, Warsaw), poet, prose writer, playwright, ethnographer. At the age of 17 he learned Russian. lang. He worked as a tailor, bookbinder, worker, teacher. He was fond of populism, wandered around the center, and south. Russia, he lived among the peasants and miners. Published in populist. g. \"Russian wealth\" and other period, ed. In the end. 1892 leaves Russia, lives in Germany and Switzerland. He worked in Paris as a secretary. from Izv. Russian revolutionary P.L. Lavrov, then secretary. Internats. schools in Paris, published Art. and stories from Russian. and Heb. life. Until 1904 he wrote, mainly in Russian, then in Yiddish. In 1905 he moved to St. Petersburg and was actively involved in the work of the Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR). The anthem of the Bund, written by A. Di Shvue (Oath), became the Marseillaise of Heb. workers \". At the same time. studied Heb. ethnography. In 1911–14 A. organized a folklore expedition, which over the course of three years visited about 70 cities and m. Volyn and Podolia, collecting unique material. The bunks recorded by him. legends, Hasidic traditions, etc., as well as his own stories from the life of Heb. the poor brought a living folklore stream into the Yiddish literature, revealing a deep understanding of the spirit. values ​​of the common people. Coll. them folklore material formed the basis of the famous play by A. \"Gadibuk\", first staged in Yiddish by the Vilna theater, by the troupe in 1920. The play was translated into Hebrew by H.-Ya. Bialik and staged in \"Habim\" by EB Vakhtangov (1922) ... The play was performed on many stages in Europe and America. \"Gadibuk\" was filmed twice. During the 1st world. war A. worked on the organization to-to help Heb. refugees. In 1917 A. was elected affairs. from the Socialist-Revolutionaries to the Constituent Assembly, after the dispersal to-rogo fled to Vilna, then to Warsaw, where until the end of his life he continued to conduct intensive propaganda. or T. work, founded in 1919 Heb. ethnographic. about. In Warsaw, in 1920–29, a collection was published. op. A. in Yiddish in 15 volumes. In St. Petersburg in 1911-13, 5 volumes were issued. “Sobr. cit. \" A. in rus. lang., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANADYR OSTROG, see Anadyr., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANAN, see Ananiev., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANANURI, a village in the Dusheti region (Georgia). In 1801 - as part of Ros. empire. At 19 - early. 20th century - in Dusheti district. Tiflis province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 it was the Georgian SSR. In 1776 two serfs from Kutaisi (present-day Kutaisi), Joseph and Yakov, lived in Armenia. 5 Jews lived in Armenia in 1906, and in 1926 - 1 Jew., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANASTASIEVSKAYA, a village in the Slavyansky district of the Krasnodar Territory (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in Temryuk dep. Kuban Region. In 1939, 2 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANCHIKRAK, see Tarutino., pronunciation=ANCHIKRAK, see Tarutino., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDREEV, see Endzheyuv., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDREEVA Natalia Evgenievna (b. 1933, Vitebsk), hematologist. Dr. med. Sciences (1981), prof. (1988). Graduated from the 1st Leningrad Institute. honey. Institute (1957). In 1957-60 she worked as a district doctor, head. therapeutic. dep. mountains. hospitals in Murmansk; in 1960-63 a graduate student at Ying-those therapy of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in Moscow, in 1965 ml. scientific. sotr. in gr. I.A. Kassirsky in the same place. Since 1965 he has been working at the Department of Hematology and Intensive Care Center, Institute for Advanced Training of Doctors. scientific. tr. A. poev. decomp. problems of hematology and immunopathology: pathology of immunoglobulins (antibodies synthesized in blood serum and participating in the creation of immunity), incl. at diff. tumors; tumor diseases of the hematopoietic system (hemoblastosis); thrombocytopenic and immunodeficiency states, as well as methods of their treatment and prevention. Discovered the activity of the immunoglobulins synthesized in myeloma against antigens, to-ry the body is immunized. She proposed a treatment regimen for myeloma. State pr. USSR (1987). Cit .: Multiple myeloma, M., 1966 (et al.); Immunoglobulinopathies, M., 1985 (et al.)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDREEVSKY PRIISK, see Andreevsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDREEVSKOE, see Andreevo., pronunciation=ANDREEVSKOE, see Andreevo., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDRELISHKI, see Andryalishkes., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDROPOV, see Rybinsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDRUSHEVKA, city (since 1975), regional center in Zhytomyr region. (Ukraine). Izv. from 1683. In the 16th and 18th centuries. - in the Kiev Voivodeship as part of the Commonwealth. Since 1793 - as part of Ros. empire. At 19 - early. 20th century - the town of Radomysl u. In 1897, 430 Jews (16%) lived in Armenia, 388 in 1923, 658 (10%) in 1939, and 47 (0.4%) in 1989. After 1917, large production of food. prom-sti, sakh. and alcohol s-dy. This determined the migration to Armenia of Jews — specialists and workers from other cities and nearby districts. In 1925, immigrants from A. founded. in the Kherson env. three Jewish farmers. colonies: them. Chemerissky (26 people), \"Jewish grain grower\" (50 people), \"Trud\" (25 people). 1941 in the Andrushevsky district, 500 Jews were shot, in the fall of 1941 - 460, in April. 1942 - c. 700 Jews lived in Armenia in 1995. dozens of Jews. S. Ya. Elisavetsky, pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDRZHEEV, see Andzheevo., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDUKAN, see Andijan., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANDZHEV, a village in the Lodz Voivodeship (Republic of Poland). Main in 1805. Until 1807 - a part of Prussia, in 1807-15 - Vel. Duchy of Warsaw. Since 1815 - part of Ros. empire, since 1867 - in ód district. Petrokovskaya Gubernia. In 1921, 99 Jews (17%) lived in Armenia. 20th century A. becomes a suburban suburb of Lodz. Until 1927, Rabbi A. was Moishe-Aron Toyerman, from 1927 - Moishe-Yehuda Kirschenboim. There were philanthropists in the community. organization and mutual aid fund. In 1939, after the beginning. 2nd world. war, the Jews left A., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANGAROVA (nee Shiser) Gilde Arnoldovna (b. 1908, Cottbus, Germany), translator. She studied arts, in-those in Berlin. In 1929 with her husband, prof. A.I.Angarov, came to the USSR. She worked in the publishing house of Inostr. lit-ry. Translated from Russian. On him. lang. St. 70 books, incl. works by FM Dostoevsky (\"The Meek\"), NS Leskov, NV Gogol, AP Chekhov; owls. writers I.G. Erenburg (\"D.Ye. Trust\"), V.P. Kataev (\"The Grass of Oblivion\", \"The Horn of Obsron\"), E.G. Kazakevich, D.A. Granin, L.M. Leonov , P.F.Nilin (\"Cruelty\"), Ch.Aitmatova (\"Farewell, Gyulsary!\"), V.A.Kaverina (\"Two Captains\"), V.F.Tendryakov (\"The Court\", \"Spring Changes\" ), V.L. Kondratyev (\"Sashka\"), M. Auezova (\"Abai\"), S.P. Zalygin, I.A.Efremov, A.T. Bitova, T.N. Tolstoy, V.I. Belova (\"Habitual Business\"), MI Tsvetaeva (\"My Pushkin\"). In the translation of the story by D. M. Kalinovskaya \"Oh, Saturday!\" recreated her special Heb. coloring. In 1941–45 she translated antifash. Produced by: \"The Leningrad Story\" by NS Tikhonov, \"The People are Immortal\" by VS Grossman (1943), his Stalingrad. essays and other Unities. original production A. - the story \"Synagogue\" (published in Israel in Zh. \"Aufbau\" in 1974) - peculiar. Fash resistance symbol. barbarism. Nat. pr. GDR in the region. arts and literature., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANGARSK, a city (since 1951) in the Irkutsk Region (Russian Federation). Main In 1948, 1,470 Jews (1.1%) lived in Armenia in 1959, and 1,124 (0.6%) in 1970. In 1992, the Jewish community \"Simkha\" (previously E. Shogam) was established in Armenia. In 1999, approx. 200 Jews., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANGOFF Charles (1902, Minsk - 1979, USA), writer, publisher. Since 1907 in the USA. Graduated from Harvard University. Taught in decomp. educational institutions in the United States. A.'s writing career began in the 20s. He helped G. Mencken at the American Mercury Publishing House and in 1934 became his successor. First. book A. “Lit. history of Amer. people ”(2 volumes, 1931) traced the period from 1607 to 1815. Naib. A. brightly revealed his talent in his fantastic. Producer: Adventures in Heaven (1945), When I Was a Boy (1947), Something About My Father and Others (1956). Fame came to A. in the 50's, when he began the saga of the integration of Eastern Europe. Jewish immigrants to Amer. about-ve. A. belongs to ser. autobiographer, rom., in the center of which is his \"alter ego\", writer D. Polonsky: \"Journey at Dawn\" (1951), \"Morning Light\" (1952), \"Sun at Noon\" (1955), \"Between Light and Darkness\" (1959), \"Early Spring\" (1961), \"Summer Storm\" (1963), etc. In these rom. A. created a whole gallery of Hebrews. types: from Yiddish speaking poor immigrants early. centuries before their Americanized descendants of the period of the 50s. and those who survived the Holocaust. Author Sat. verse. The Bell of Time (1967) and Sat. essays \"Tone of the Twenties\" (1966). In 1957 A. became the publisher of J. \"Literary Review\". He wrote rec. about the teacher and colleague G. Mencken (1956). Since 1969 A. - prez. Union of American Poets., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANIKST Abram Moiseevich (1887, Chisinau - |), member of the roar. movement, part., prof. and households. worker. R. in the family of a bricklayer. He graduated from a 4-grade school. Into the roar. movement from 1904, in 1906–07 anarcho-communist, participated in the revolt. movement in the south of Russia. Since 1907 - in exile, worked as an electrician, participated in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in France and Switzerland. Member overseas groups rus. anarcho-syndicalists. After Feb. Revolution of 1917 returned to Russia, collaborated with the Bolsheviks, was before. Pavlograd District Council of Workers' Deputies (Yekaterinoslavskaya Gubernia) Participated in the struggle for the Sov. power. In 1918 he joined the RCP (b). In 1919-22, members. collegiums and deputy. People's Commissar of Labor of the RSFSR, in 1920 at the same time. served as deputy. prev. Ch. to-that on universal labor service. In 1922-23 - deputy. prev. Ural region economic council; in 1923–25 - People's Commissar of Labor of Ukraine, employee of the Central Committee of the Union of Miners and the Central Committee of the Union of Builders. From the end. 1925 worked in the State Planning Committee of the RSFSR, was a member. his presidium. Arrested in 1937. Mind. in custody. Father AA Anikst. Author of the book: \"Organization of labor force\", collection of articles. Art., M., 1920; \"Labor force\", M., 1929; “Stages of development of Nar. Commissariat of Labor \", M., 1923; \"Rep. about VI Lenin \", M., 1933; \"Cultural construction in the five-year plan\", M., 1930., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANIKST Alexander Abramovich (1910, Zurich - 1989, Moscow), literary critic, theater critic. Doctor of Art History (1963). Son of A.M. Anikst. In 1930-33 he studied at the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. VI Lenin, in 1933–36 - in graduate school, defended by Cand. dis. based on the works of J. Milton (1940). In 1936–41 he taught English literature at Moscow. state pedagogical in-those foreign. languages. In 1941–44 he fought at the front. In 1944–49 - early. department of general nat. literature of the Military Institute of foreign lang., since 1946 - associate professor; in 1949–51 he taught at GITIS, taught a special course on W. Shakespeare; from 1955 until the end of his life - Art. scientific. employee of the Institute of History of Laws, doctoral dis. defended on the works of Shakespeare (1963). English history specialist and Amer. literature, theater. Participated in publications: “History of English. literature \"(M.-L., 1943-1945),\" History of Western-European. theater \"(M., 1956-1957),\" History of English. literature ”(1956). Ed. (jointly with A.A. Smirnov) 8-volume collection. op. Shakespeare (1957-60), author of articles for several volumes; the author will enter, Art. to the 6-volume collection. op. JB Shaw (1978–81). One of the initiators of the publication and ed. series \"B-ka playwright\". Author of 22 books, including: \"Bernard Shaw\" (1956), \"Daniel Defoe\" (1957), \"Shakespeare\" (1964, \"ZhZL\"), \"Theater of Shakespeare's Era\" (1965), \"Shakespeare. The playwright's craft \"(1974),\" The first editions of Shakespeare \"(1974),\" Goethe and Faust: From conception to accomplishment \"(1983),\" Tv. the way of Goethe \"(1986). Since the late 1960s. studied drama theory, published 5 volumes of \"History of the doctrine of drama\": \"Drama theory from Aristotle to Lessing\" (1967), \"Drama theory in Russia from Pushkin to Chekhov\" (1972), \"Drama theory in the West in the 1st half ... XIX century. \" (1980), \"Theory of Drama from Hegel to Marx\" (1983), \"Theory of Drama in the West in the 2nd half. XIX century. \" (1988) and others. The total number of published works is about 500. Honored. artist of the RSFSR (1987)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANINGOF, see Pichevka., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANISFELD Boris (Ber) Izrailevich (1879, Balti - 1973, New York), painter, theater artist. He studied at the Odessa rice. school, in the Academy of Arts (1900–09) at D.N. Kardovsky. An active member of the Blue Rose association. He worked in drama, t-re VF Komissarzhevskaya with VE Meyerhold (\"Zobeida's Wedding\" and others). As an artistic-decorator, together with the masters of the World of Art, he designed performances-entreprise by S.P.Dyagilev (1911–13) (the ballet scene “Underwater Kingdom” to music from the opera “Sadko”, etc.), productions by M.M. .Fokin (\"Islamey\" and others), tour performances by A.P. Pavlova, V.F. Nizhinsky. Since 1918 in the USA, he taught, designed opera performances in the t-ts of Chicago and New York. Constantly study. in exhibitions in the USA, France, exhibited his works at exhibitions in Leningrad and Moscow (1920s)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANNENKOV Yuliy Lazarevich (real family member Soliterman) (b. 1919, Vinnitsa), prose writer, playwright. Graduated from MIFLI them. NG Chernyshevsky in 1941. Participant in the 1941-45 war. He began to publish in 1946. The author of the romanized biographies of F. Joliot-Curie (\"Truth travels without visas\", Moscow, 1954), Pablo Neruda (\"Miner's Senator\", 1962). Front-line experience captured in production. A. about the fleet and the formation of personality during the war (novel \"Torpedo Boat Flag\", Moscow, 1958; \"Shturmanok Plots Course\", 1972, etc.). A. own plays for muses. t-ra: \"Sevastopol Waltz\" (1961), \"Polar Star\" (1966), \"Southern Cross\" (1971), etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANNENSKY Isidor Markovich (b. 1906, Olviopol, Kherson province - 1977, Moscow), film director. Studied in muses. school and lit. Faculty of Odessa University. He graduated from the theater school in Odessa (1922). He worked as an actor and dir. in theaters of Odessa, Arkhangelsk, Baku and other cities. Since 1931, actor and dir. Moscow Theater of the Revolution. In 1934 he graduated from dir. Faculty of GITIS, in 1936 dir. Faculty of VGIK. From 1938 to various film stations. country. He made his debut in 1938 as a short. f. \"Bear\". Subsequently, he filmed the stories of A.P. Chekhov (\"The Man in the Case\", 1939, \"Wedding\", 1944, \"Anna on the Neck\", 1954. Prospect \"Golden Olive Branch\" International Film Festival in Bordighera, Italy). Filmed also production. M.Yu.Lermontov (\"Princess Mary\", 1955), M. Gorky (\"Three\", 1969), AN Ostrovsky (\"Talents and admirers\", 1973). Among other ph. - \"Elusive Jan\" (1942, jointly with V.M. Petrov), \"Ekaterina Voronina\" (1957), \"Sailor from\" Comet \"(1958),\" First trolleybus \"(1963),\" Tatiana's day \"(1967 ). Honored. figure in lawsuits in the RSFSR (1971)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANNINSKY Lev Alexandrovich (nast, surname Ivanov-Anninsky) (b. 1934, Rostov-on-Don), critic. Graduated from Philology. Faculty of Moscow State University in 1956. Since 1956 he regularly appears in print with articles, essays, essays, dedicated. Russian literature of the 19th and 20th centuries, ethics and aesthetics of cinema. Art. A. are distinguished by polemicism, a wide range of the studied material and associations, emotional assessments, and relevance. He writes about the work of M.A.Bulgakov (\"Banner\", 1986, No. 5) and about the prose of S.E. Kaledin (\"Friendship of Peoples\", 1988, No. 5), about the problems of educating the young generation (\"Lit. Gazeta\" , 1985, no. 12) and about Anna Barkova's \"Way of the Cross\" (\"Lit. Oz.\", 1991, Mb 8). Author of the book: \"The kernel of a nut: Critical essays\" (Moscow, 1965), \"\" How the steel was tempered \"by Nikolai Ostrovsky\" (Moscow, 1971; caused controversy in the journal \"Questions of Literature\", 1973, Mb 6), \" Thirties-seventies: Lit.-critical. Art. \" (Moscow, 1977), \"Leo Tolstoy and the cinema\" (Moscow, 1982), \"Leskov's necklace\" (Moscow, 1982), \"Three Heretics\" (about A.F. Pisemsky, P.I. Melnikov-Pechersky , NS Leskov) (M., 1988), \"The Sixties and We: Cinematography, which has become and has not become history\" (Moscow, 1991)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTIK Vladimir Moritsevich (1882, Konigsberg - 1972, Moscow), publisher. Born into the family of a bank employee. After graduating in 1901 in Ryazan, he entered the law. Faculty of Moscow un-that, having graduated with a diploma of 1 degree. In 1904–06 he worked at the publishing house of br. Pomegranate is the distribution agent for their publications. In 1906 he founded in Moscow an independent book publishing house \"Polza\" following the example of the publishing house \"Cheap Library\" A.S. Suvorin, starting the release of ser. \"Universal Library\", with produced, izv. Zap.-Heb. and Russian authors. In addition to thin. lit-ry, in ser. published memoirs, East. sketches, dictionaries, popular science literature. Also \"Benefit\" produced: in 1906 - mid. \"Practical Encyclopedia\", in 1907 - mid. \"People's University\", \"Popular Science Library\", \"Pedagogical Academy in essays and monographs.\" After the revolution A. continued to lead the publishing house, where he released ser. \"General Library\", and in 1928 organized and headed the publishing house. ser. \"Cheap Library\" State Publishing House. In 1930, A. dealt with issues of book economics, submitted the idea of ​​creating \"book building\", paper and printing plants near sources of raw materials., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTIN Benjamin (1884 - |), lawyer. R. in Russia. He was educated in Law. School of New York. Was engaged in polit. activities. In 1920–22 he was a member. Legislation. Assembly pcs New York, in 1922-26 - the senator of this piece. A. owns important legislation concerning the education and protection of children, as well as numerous Art. on problems related to children and social. security. He wrote an autobiography under the title. The Gentleman of the 22nd (New York, 1927)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTOKOL, now part of the city of Vilnius (Republic of Lithuania). Since 1795 - part of Ros. empire. At 19 - early. 20th century - a suburb of Vilna. Since 1870 Benjamin Friedman was the rabbi in Armenia. By law of May 10, 1903, as an exemption from the Provisional Regulations of 1882, Jews were allowed to settle in Armenia. In 1916, a Jewish school was opened in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTOKOLSKY Lev Moiseevich (1872, Vilna - 1942, Sterlitamak), painter. The nephew of M.M. Antokolsky. Studied at the Academy of Arts (1891, 1893-1900) under I.E. Repin. One of the founders of the Artel Rus. thin in Petersburg. (1901–03). Rice was in charge. cl. in Vilna (1905–12). Secretary of Vilensky art-prom. about-va in memory of M.M. Antokolsky. From 1912 he worked in Moscow, was engaged in monum.-decor, painting (c / t \"Odeon\", \"Modern\"). Participated in the execution of paintings for the All-Russian. agricultural. exhibition (1923). Participant of exhibitions in the halls of Imp. AH (1903-10); “Exhibitions of paintings and sculptures. artist-Jews \", org. Heb. about-in the promotion of thin. in Petrograd (1916) and Moscow (1917; 1918); exhibitions of the Association (Society) art. them. IE Repin (Moscow, 1927–29), member. to-rogo first formulated the principle of \"social. realism ”, based on a combination of realism and romanticism. Deputy ed. and thin. g. Painting (1930–32)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTOKOLSKY Mark Matveyevich (Mordukh Matysovich) (1843, Vilna - 1902, Bad Homburg vor der Hee, buried in St. Petersburg), sculptor. Prof. (1880), d.h. AH (1893). He painted since childhood, was apprenticed to a woodcarver. At the age of 17 he left the owner, independently studied history, literature, French. language. He entered the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg (1862–68), where he studied under N.S. Pimenov and II Reimers. He became close with I.E. Repin, later with I.N. Kramskoy and V.V. Stasov, who played an important role in the formation of the artist. The first independent works are devoted to Jewish life, childhood impressions. There are sketches for the Jewish types and scenes conceived by A., such as Moses, Samson, Deborah, Shylock, Jeremiah, Spinoza, and others. He lived in St. Petersburg, from 1871 - in Italy, at the end. 1877 settled in Paris. In 1875 he took part in a competition for memory. A.S. Pushkin. In 1893 A. organized his exhibition in St. Petersburg, which was a success among the intelligentsia, but was greeted with extreme hostility by the Black Hundred circles; the artist was offended by the attacks of anti-Semites, who believed that he had no right to portray the heroes of Russian history, Christian saints. A. wrote a lot, his articles on the issues of art are known in \"St. Petersburg Vedomosti\", \"Week\", f. “Art and thin. prom-st \", in the\" Bulletin of Europe \"in 1887 publ. his \"Autobiography\", shortly before his death, wrote the novel \"Ben-Yzak\" - a chronicle from Heb. life (manuscript in the State Public Library named after M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin in St. Petersburg.), letters A., collected by V.V. Stasov, ed. Wolf in 1905. works: \"The Jew-Tailor\" (1864, village), \"The Miser\" (1868, bone, village), \"Boy stealing apples\" (1865, bone), \"Dispute about the Talmud\" (1868, wax, village. ), “Attack of the Inquisition on the Jews (1863–69, wax),“ Ivan the Terrible ”(1870–71, plaster of paris, lost; 1871 br .; 1875, mr., In 1871 received the title of academician for this sculpture),“ Death of Socrates \"(1875, mr.), Grave memorial. book Obolenskaya (1876, Rome), high reliefs \"The Last Breath\" and \"Irretrievable Loss\" (both - 1876), a bas-relief portrait of Baron M. Gintsburg (1878), \"Spinoza\" (1882, mr.), \"Yaroslav the Wise\" (1889 , majolica), \"Nestor the Chronicler\" (1890, mr.), \"Ermak\" (1891, mr.), \"Angel\" (for Tereshchenko's tombstone, 1895), a statue of im. Alexander II (1896), statue of imp. Alexander III (for installation in the halls of the Museum of Emperor Alexander III), a monument to Emperor. Catherine II for Vilna (1897) and others. Great evil. medal and badge of the hordes. Legion of Honor (1878, World Exhibition in Paris); first angry. medal (1892, International Exhibition in Munich); angry. Medal and Commander's Cross of the Legion of Honor (1900, World Exhibition in Paris). Honorary member of the Paris, Berlin and Urbinsky A.Kh. Works are kept in the State Russian Museum, the State Tretyakov Gallery, in the Saratov art. Museum named after A.N. Radischeva, in private collection, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTOKOLSKY Pavel Grigorievich (1896, Petersburg - 1978, Moscow), poet, translator, essayist. In his youth he worked dir. in the drama studio of E.B. Vakhtangov. First. collection of A. (\"Poems\", 1922; \"West\", 1926; \"Third Book\", 1927) bear the imprint of acmeism. schools. Center, place in TV-ve A. is occupied by Western-European. ist. themes (poems \"Robespierre and the Gorgon\", 1928; \"Francois Villon\", 1934, etc.). From the later works. naib. meaning poem \"Son\" (1943, Steel pr. 1946), collection \"Eternal Memory\" (1946) and \"Workshop\" (1958), \"Time\" (1973). Among the lane. A. naib. Izv. Sat. Civic Poetry of France (1955). The author of the book. \"On Pushkin\" (1960; poems and essays) and others., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTONOVICHI, see Antonovka, Dobrushinsky district, Gomel region., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTONYUKI, a village in the Nikolaev district of the Odessa region. (Ukraine) .Aug. 1941 19 Jews were killed in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTORIA, village of Tkibulsky city council (Georgia). Since 1810 - as part of Ros. empire, in the Kutaisi env. Imereti region, from 1840 - in Kutaisi u. Georgian-Imereti gubernia, since 1846 - in Kutaisi district. Kutaisi province. In 1918-21 - as part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 - in the Georgian SSR. According to the testimony of Acad. Petersburg. AN IA Gildenstedt, to-ry in 1770-72 traveled to the North. Caucasus and Georgia, A. - a Jewish village, where 50 Jewish families (smoke) from our neighboring countries moved. points. A fair was held in the village every Friday. The further fate of the Jewish community of A. is unknown., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTSELOVICH Naum Markovich (1888, Petersburg - 1952, Moscow), state, part. and prof. activist, member Communist. party since 1905. R. in the family of a carpenter, electrician. In 1906 he was subjected to a short period. arrest. In 1907–08 he worked in the trade unions of tanners, plumbers and printers, took part in organizing demonstrations, transporting weapons, etc. In 1908 he was arrested again and exiled from St. Petersburg. In 1910, prof. work in Odessa, chl. Bureau of the RSDLP. In 1911 he was arrested in Crimea and exiled to the Vologda province, where he stayed until 1913. In 1915 he was again arrested for participating in a campaign against the military-industrial. to-to (until Feb. 1917 - in exile). After Feb. Revolutionary agitator Petersburg. to-that RSDLP (b), dep. Petrosovet, cases. 7th Apr. Vseros. conference RSDLP (b), participated in the organization of trade unions, hands. union of electricians. One of the organizers of Kr. Guards in Petrograd, an active participant in Oct. coup of 1917, part. Petrogr. VRK, commissar over the offices of the quartermaster. In 1918 - member. Petrosovet Executive Committee, member Bureau Petrograd. to-that party, one of the founders of Petrograd. Gubernia Trade Council, member. its Presidium (in 1918–21 it was before.). In 1919 the deputy. early defense of Petrograd. In Sept-Dec. 1919 deputy. early political department of the RVS. South front. In 1923–31 - before. Central Committee of the Union of agricultural and forest workers (Vserabotzemles), in 1931–32 sec. All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions; in 1931–34 - deputy. People's Commissar of the RFL of the USSR; in 1934–38 - deputy. prev. Commissions of Sov. control under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR; in 1938–40 the People's Commissar of the Forestry Industry of the USSR. In 1941, 45 on polit. work in Kr. Army. Since 1945 - deputy. People's Commissar of Trade of the USSR, then Deer. moscow s-yes Glavmebelprom. Affairs. 9th, 12-18th Party Congresses, 1927-34 - Cand. in part. Central Committee, since 1938 - member. Central Committee of the CPSU (b); member All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Central Executive Committee of the USSR, dep. The USSR Armed Forces since 1937, works: Tasks of the Union of Agricultural and forest workers of the USSR, M., 1926; After October: (From the memoir about V. I. Lenin), \"Neva\", 1957, no. 11., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTSILEVICH Shneur-Zalman (1861, Ostrovets, Vilna province - 1936, Tel Aviv), rabbi. R. in the family of a rabbi. In 1897-1935 he served in Mozyr (Minsk province), from 1935 - in E.-I., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANCISS Julius Isaakovich (1903, Krinki of Grodno district and province - 1972, Moscow), Arabic philologist, translator. R. in the family of a leatherworker. He graduated from an Arab. dep. Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies (1927), later taught there, in 1936–43 at the same time. east. dep. ist. Faculty of Moscow State University. In 1928-29 he compiled (with S. S. Meisel) for students \"Reader Arab. polit.-econ. literature \"(with a dictionary). Since 1930 scientific. consultant and ed. per. tr. classics of Marxism-Leninism in Arab. lang. for ed.-ed. dep. Executive Committee of the Comintern, at the same time. sotr. in the Communist. un-those working people of the East and in N. - and. associations for the study of nat. and colonial problems under him, participated in the compilation of the Russian-Arab. dictionary of society.-polit. terminology for students from Arab countries. In 1943–47 he worked at TASS, in 1946–50 - scientific. ed. in the Publishing House of Literature on Foreign. lang. In the beginning. 1950s was persecuted in the course of the \"fight against cosmopolitanism\" campaign., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANTUZOVO, see Antazave., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ANUCHINO, a village, a regional center in the Primorsky Territory (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in the Primorsk region. In 1939, 25 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APATITY, a city (since 1966) in the Murmansk region. (Russian Federation). Vozn. In 1935, 6 Jews lived in Armenia in 1939, 197 in 1989, and 80 in 1998., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APOSTOLOVO (until 1923 - Pokrovskoe), a city (since 1956), a regional center in the Dnepropetrovsk region. (Ukraine). Main in the 18th century. At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Yekaterinoslavsky u. In 1939, 81 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APPEL Yehuda Leib (1857, Vekshni Shavelsky u. Koven province - 1934), leader of the Zionist movement, publisher. For 25 years he served as secretary of the department. \"Hovevey Zion\" in Vilna. There was also the secretary of the department. about-va \"Bnei Moishe\". In 1902 A. and S. Greber founded a publishing house that published Zionist periodicals and propaganda literature. From 1921 in E.-I., became the secretary of Isaac Leib Goldberg and the manager of his estate. The author of the memoirs on decomp. periods of the history of \"Hibbat Zion\" and Zionism in Russia, to-rye were publ. in the book. “B'tokh will decide ha-tkhiya” (“At the beginning of the revival”, 1936). He died in E.-I., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APRELEVKA, a city (since 1961) in the Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow region. (Russian Federation). Vozn. as a station settlement. 87 Jews (1.5%) lived in Armenia in 1939, 97 (0.5%) in 1970, and 79 Jews (0.4%) in 1989., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APRILSKY PRIISK, see Aprilsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APRESYAN Yuri Derenikovich (b. 1930, Moscow), linguist. Dr. philol. Sciences (1983), prof. (1991), acad. RAS (1992). Graduated from Moscow. state in-t foreign. languages ​​(1953) and postgraduate studies there (1956). In 1958-60 he worked as a teacher in Moscow. state in-those foreign. lang., in 1960-72 - in Ying-those rus. language of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1972-85 Art. scientific. employee, then head. sector VNII \"Informelectro\". Since 1985 in the Institute of Information Transmission Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ch. scientific. employee (1985–89), head. laboratory of computational linguistics (1989-94), since 1994 chap. scientific. employee. Since 1990, part-time in Ying-those rus. language of RAS, Ch. scientific. employee, since 1994 head. sector theoretical. semantics. research areas: semantics, syntax, theoretical. and practical. lexicography, formal language models and machine translation. Author of 6 monographs and approx. 200 articles. Took part in the work on dictionaries. Works: Experimental study of semantics rus. verb, M., 1967; Lexical semantics. Synonymous. means of language, M., 1974; English-Russian synonym. dictionary, M., 1972 (with E.M. Mednikova, A.V. Petrova and others, ed. 1977, 1979, 1987); New large English-Russian dictionary, v. 1–3, M., 1993–94 (with E.M. Mednikova, A.V. Petrova and others)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APRIL Aron (b. 1932, Vilkaviskis, Lithuania), painter, sculptor. In 1960 he graduated from the Moscow Art Institute. V.I.Surikov. Formation of creative. worldview took place among the artists of the sixties every year. moscow youth. exhibitions. Since 1958 academic. mosk., all-union, rep. and nick. exhibitions. Since 1972 in Israel. Lives in Jerusalem. Taught painting, drawing, comp. at Haifa University, Heb. un-those in Jerusalem, the Academy of Arts and the House of Artists (ibid.). From 1991 to. board creative associations in the village. thin Sanur (Shomron). In painting A. strives to convey the essence of the phenomena of language. plastics and color movement. Over the years of their stay in Israel, the artist has changed. orientation A .: higher. he finds ethical and aesthetic criteria in TANAKH, based on which he creates a number of productions. (\"Yaakov the Shepherd\", \"Yaakov, Leah and Rachel\", \"The Heir\", \"Yaakov's Old Age\", etc.). Since 1972, a number of personal exhibitions in Israel, America, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, France., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APT Solomon Konstantinovich (b. 1921, Kharkov), literary critic, translator. Graduated from Philology. Faculty of Moscow State University (1947). Translated into Russian. lang. op. Aristophanes, Aeschylus, Euripides “Hippolytus”, Plato “The Feast”, Menander “The Grouch” (1950–70s). Cand. philol. Sciences (1950). History specialist him. literature, author of biography T. Mann (1972, \"ZhZL\") and Art. \"Over the Pages of T. Mann\" (1980), translated into Russian. lang. his novels (including the tetralogy \"Joseph and His Brothers\"), art., letters, a number of op. G. Hesse (\"The Glass Bead Game\", \"Steppenwolf\", stories and sketches), R. Muzil (\"A Man without Properties\", \"Mental Troubles of Ter-Les' pupil\"), 6 plays by B. Brecht, novels by L. Feuchtwanger , M. Frisch, E. Canetti, K. Jaspers \"The question of guilt\", as well as manuf. E.T.A. Hoffmann, G. Kleist, F. Hölderlin, V. Gauf. them. Hesse (Germany, 1982), Austr. state pr. (1986), A. - hon. Dr. of Cologne University (1989)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=APTER Yakov Natanovich (1899, Shpola, Kiev province - 1941), graphic artist. He studied at the Odessa Art. school (OXU) (1915–18) and VKHUTEMAS-VKHUTEIN (1924–29) at KN Istomin and in the woodcut workshop of VA Favorsky. In the 30s. created a number of aqu., drawings, woodcuts and lithographs (\"AM Gorky among collective farmers\", \"Seated woman\", \"Kremlin\", \"Portrait of the artist VA Favorsky\", \"Landscape\", etc.). Collaborated in decomp. publishing house. Since 1932 constantly study. in sinks, and all. exhibitions of graphics, as well as exhibitions of owls. graphics abroad (London, Sofia, Nanjing, Brussels). Killed at the front during the defense of Moscow., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARAMIL, a city (since 1966) in the Sysertsky district of the Sverdlovsk region. (Russian Federation). Main in 1675. In 19 - early. 20th century - in the Yekaterinburg district Perm province. In 1939, 11 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARANOV (Aranovich) Shiko (Yeshayagu) Veniaminovich (1906, Tatarbunary Bessarabian province - 1969, Chisinau), composer, conductor. Studied at the Chisinau cons. by class French horns. In 1935 he graduated from the Bucharest Academician. muses. and dram. lawsuit according to cl. pipes and compositions. Since 1940 he organized a pop orc in Chisinau. at Mold. Philharmonic, directed it until 1945, in 1947-56 was a musician. hands. and conductor orc. Ensemble of plank beds. dance \"Jock\", in 1956-63 and 1967-69 thin. hands. jazz orchestra \"Bucuria\", in 1964-66 orchestra. Mold. state Committee on Radio and Television. All jazz orchestras in Armenia were typical big bands and were distinguished by good swing. A. played a significant role in the creation of mold. pop orc. music. Author of 12 fantasies for pop orc., Music for choreographic scenes, for mold. Ph.D. \"Liana\", \"Moldavian tunes\". Created many. treatments mold., rus., heb. bunk bed songs. Nar. art. Mold. SSR (1953)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARANOVICH Semyon Davidovich (b. 1934, Derazhnya Kamenets-Podolsk region), film director. He graduated from the navy. aviation mine and torpedo school (1955). In 1955-56 he served as a navigator in the sea. aviation. In 1965 he graduated from dir. Faculty of VGIK. In 1964–70 dir. to / st. \"Lenkinokhronika\" and \"Lennauchfilm\". Author of Historical and Doc. ph .: \"Friend of Gorky - Andreev\" (1966, Grand Prix \"Golden Dove\" X ICF in Leipzig, 1967), \"People of the Earth and Heaven\" (1969, Ch. Prize \"Silver Dove\" XII ICF in Leipzig), \" Dmitry Shostakovich \"(1981),\" I served in Stalin's apparatus \"(1990),\" The Great Concert of Nations, or the Breath of Cheyne-Stokes \"(1991, about the\" Doctors' Case \"). Fast. thin f .: \"The Red Diplomat\" (1971, t / f), \"Torpedo bombers\" (1983), \"Broken Horseshoe (1973),\" ... And Other Officials \"(1976),\" Rafferty \"(1980, t / f), \"Opposition\" (1985), \"Big Game\" (1988)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARANOVICH Yuri Mikhailovich (b. 1932, Leningrad), conductor. In 1952 he graduated from Leningrad. cons. in conducting class of N.S. Rabinovich. He also studied with N.G. Rakhlin (who, according to A. himself, was for him the ideal conductor) and K. 3anderling. He worked in Petrozavodsk and Saratov, in 1956 headed the orc. Yaroslavl Philharmonic. Since 1964 in Moscow, artist. hands. and ch. conductor symph. orc. All-Union Radio and Television. A.'s repertoire includes all the symphonies by P.I. Tchaikovsky and L. van Beethoven. He performed several concert performances. operas, incl. op. \"Iolanta\" by Tchaikovsky, \"Not only love\" by RK Shchedrin, \"Romeo, Juliet and darkness\" by KV Molchanov (about a Jewish girl from the ghetto), etc. Since 1972 in Israel. Since 1975, Ch. conductor of the Stockholm Royal Symphony. orc. and symph. orc. Cologne. Chevalier of the Royal Swedish Order of the Pole Star (1987)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARANOVSKY Mark Genrikhovich (b. 1928, Leningrad), musicologist. Cand. lawsuit (1967). He graduated from Leningrad in 1952. horse, studied the history of music (under the direction of E.L. Fried), in 1966 - graduate school Leningrad. in-ta t-ra, music and cinematography (M.K. Mikhailov), where he worked as a senior scientific. employee (1967–80). Since 1980 - in the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute. Institute of Art Studies (now Russian Institute of Art Studies). Author of the book: \"Melodica Prokofiev\", L., 1969, \"Symphonic searches\", L., 1979, as well as many others. scientific. articles dedicated. questions of theory and aesthetics of music, muses. thinking, creative process. He wrote a number of works about Russian. and owls. composers (including about D.D. Shostakovich)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARAZI Yehuda (1907, Lodz - 1959, Israel), politician. From 1923 in E.-I. While serving in the police from 1926–34, he passed information on to Gagana, helped arrested independence fighters, and smuggled weapons. In 1936–39 A. participated in a secret operation to purchase weapons from the Polish pr-va, and in the beginning. 2nd world. wars from the warehouses of the British army in the Middle East and North. Africa and smuggled it into E.-I. A.'s activities were disclosed by the British authorities. At the end of the war, he illegally left E.-I., arrived in Italy and headed a secret emigration activity. In 1946 he took part in the organization of the ferry from Italy to E.-I. two rescue ships with illegal refugees. In the summer of 1947, A. came to the United States and organized the purchase and smuggling into E.-I. light and heavy. weapons and aircraft for Gagana. Most of the equipment reached E.-I., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARBATOV Georgy Arkadievich (b. 1923, Kherson), political scientist. Acad. Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1974), Dr. Sciences, prof. Graduated from Moscow. state in-t international. relations (1949). In 1953 62 he worked as a scientific. editor of the publishing house \"Foreign Literature\", deputy. head Department \"Questions of Philosophy\", head. dep. g. \"Novoye Vremya\", editor-consultant Zh. \"Communist\" and deputy. head department and columnist. \"Problems of Peace and Socialism\". In 1962–64 - head. sector of the Institute of the world economy and international. relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1964–67 - a consultant, then hands. group of consultants of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Since 1967 - Director of the Institute of the USA and Canada of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He was a deputy of the USSR Armed Forces of the 9th, 10th and 11th convocations, pl. Deputy of the USSR (1989–92), member. Central Committee of the CPSU (1981–90). Since 1992, member. Presidential Advisory Council. Scientific interests of A. - the world economy, int. and US foreign policy, foreign policy of the USSR. Works: Foundations of Marxism-Leninism, Moscow, 1958; Ideological struggle in the present. int. relations, M., 1970; Modern US foreign policy, M., 1983; Protracted recovery (1953-1985), M., 1991, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARBATOVA Maya (1911, Dribin, Mogilev province), ballerina, choreographer. She danced in the Riga op. Since 1938 - in E.-I. Together with her husband, Ios. Holland, founded the studio ball. and humor \"Af-al-pi\". She danced in the bunk. op. She founded the studio classic. ball. Raised several. generations of students., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARDAGAN, see Ardahan., pronunciation=ARDAGAN, see Ardahan., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARDASHNIKOV Solomon Naumovich (1908, Buda-Koshelevo, Mogilev province. - 1963, Moscow), geneticist, radiobiologist. Honey. educated in Smolensk and 2nd Moscow. honey. in-takh (1924–31). Graduated from postgraduate studies at Medico-genetic. in-those (1935), in which he then worked until 1936; since 1937 in Vses. in-those experiment. Medicine (VIEM) in 1939–41 in Oncologich. in-those. During the war years 1941–45 he served as an assistant to the beginning. evacuation hospital in Tajikistan. In 1943 he was returned to Oncologich. Institute, since 1944 in Moscow. Research Institute of X-ray Radiology, Head. radiological department. In 1949 he was sent to Chelyabinsk - 40 hands. department of the plant \"Mayak\", but was soon relieved of his post (on denunciation of his studies in genetics), after which St. had no job for two years. Since 1951 - in physiotherapeutic. department, and then in a radiological. lab. Centre. in-that balneology and physiotherapy; in 1961 63 he worked in the department of radiobiology of the Institute of Atomic Energy. I.V. Kurchatov. Sci. research A. until 1939 dedicated. ch. arr. human genetics (papers on this topic have not been published). Later he was engaged in radiobiology (improvement of radiation sources and clinical dosimetry), studied the effect of radiation on the development of tumors (the so-called radiation oncogenesis), the role of viruses in oncogenesis after irradiation, biol. aspects of the action of alpha radiation. Cit .: Dosing of gamma radiation in curie therapy in X-rays, M., 1947 (with V.A. Kozlova); Protection against radioactive radiation, M., 1961., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARDATOV, city, regional center in the Republic of Mordovia (Russian Federation). In 1688 on the site of A. was founded. from. Novotroitskoe, since 1780 - a district town of the Simbirsk governorship, since 1797 - a provincial town, since 1802 - a district town of Simbirsk province. In 1910 there were 9 Jews in Armenia, in 1915 - 2 Jewish families, in 1926 - 1 Jew, in 1939 - 5 Jews. In 1910 there was a Jewish cemetery in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARDON, see Ardon., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AREGA Leon (b. 1908, Prasnysh Plock Province), prose writer. Voluntarily joined the French. army at the beginning. 2nd world. war. He was taken prisoner and escaped three times. prisoner of war camps. After his release, he received a French. order for courage. He began to write soon after the war, having published several in France. rom .: \"As if it ended\" (1946), \"Experience\" (1951), \"The same river\" (1954), \"Pseudonyms\" (1957) and \"Nobody's Trace\" (1963). Rum. \"Hand on Lips\" was written by him et al. with T. Sandra. Production style A. is distinguished by musicality and rhythm. Their main. theme - failure due to unfortunate circumstances, to-rye the author considers universal. Only an autobiographer. rum. \"As if it were over\" this theme is colored by Heb. color. Here A. describes the fate of a Jew who lives in France and volunteered to serve in the French. army. Despite all his efforts, he cannot become his own for the French., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARYOGALA, a city (since 1956) in the Rasein region (Republic of Lithuania). Izv. from the 13th century Since 1795 - part of Ros. empire. At 19 - early. 20th century - the town of Eiragola, Vilna province, from 1842 - Kovensky district. and lips. In 1918–40 it was part of the Republic of Lithuania, in 1940–91 it was in the Lithuanian SSR. In 1847, 1237 Jews lived in Armenia, in 1897 - 1541 (65%), in 1921 - 420, and in 1923 - 456 Jews (38%). Jews lived in A. from the middle. 18th century Main classes in the 19th century. - craft and trade, including cattle, flax and timber. Jews owned several. mills, a workshop for the production of felt boots, a distillery plant. In A. weekly were held. and 2 years. fairs in the 19th century. The rabbis in Armenia were Avrom Ragoller, Avrom (brother of Eliyahu from Vilna), Eliyahu (Kalisher), Tzvi-Yehuda Rabinovich-Taumim, and Benzion Fridman. Treasury rabbi A. in the 1880s. was S.P. Yashunsky. In the end. 19th century in Armenia there were 4 synagogues, 6 heders, a Talmud-Torah, and a yeshiva. 19 - early. 20th century several dozens of Jewish families left for the USA, South. Africa, in E.-I. During the 1st world. A. war was destroyed. In 1915 all Jews were expelled from Armenia. In the 1920s and 1930s. the A. community was headed by a deer. Jewish People's Bank Zvi Ziv. Jews owned 65% of A.'s shops and workshops. 1930s in A. there was a school with teaching in Hebrew and a cheder; the detachments of \"Ha-Shomer ha-Tsair\", Beitar, \"Maccabi\" operated. In the spring of 1931, an incident involving a \"blood libel\" occurred in Armenia, which led to the death of a Jew who was accused of murder. In 1940–41 an amateur theater continued to operate in Armenia. Yiddish team at hand. Yosef Markovich, created. in the 1930s. In the end. 1940 was staged a performance based on P. Hirshbein's play \"Der intellectual\". On June 23, 1941, the Lithuanian police shot several. Jews A., including community leaders Ziva, Michael Kaganovich, Markovich. In June 1941, a ghetto was created in Armenia. Between 28 Aug. and 2 Sept. 1941 in the region of the mill, the Lithuanian police shot 662 Jews from Armenia and the surrounding towns. In the beginning. 1990s a monument with an inscription in Yiddish was erected at the place of execution., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARENSBURG, see Kuressaare., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARGOV Nehemya (1914, Riga - 1957, Israel), state. and military. activist. From 1927 he took part in the “Ha-Shomer ha-Tsair” movement and soon became one of its activists in Latvia. From 1935 in E.-I., he was a builder, a worker. Since 1939, member. Gagans, adjutant of teams. Haifa district, later - adjutant of teams. Gagans Y. Dori, I. Sade and I. Galili. After the creation of the State of Israel (1948), the military. D. Ben-Gurion's advisor (was the closest person to him). He committed suicide (for Ben-Gurion, who was then in the hospital, a special edition of the newspaper was published, in which there was no message about A.'s death)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARGOV Sasha (Alexander Abramovich) (b.1914, Moscow), comp. Mother - Olga A. - a concert pianist. He has been writing music since he was 3 years old. One of his children's tunes became, 40 years later, the basis of the popular izr. songs. In 1932-34 - in Poland. Since 1934 - in E.-I. In 1934, 44 worked in a bank, at the same time. composed music. He wrote for kibbutz and army ans. The author is numerous. songs, pl. of which were the most popular songs of Israel in the 1940s – 1960s. He worked for t-ra and cinema. Has recorded 25 records of his music. The creator of the lyric and civic style of \"Eretz Yisrael songs\". In the end. 1950s inherited. shop in Tel Aviv rus. book \"Boleslavsky\", which became one of the centers of Russian. cultural life of the city, and owned it to the end. 80s, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARIARSKY Mark Arievich (b. 1928, Minsk), teacher. Graduated from Philosophy. Faculty of Leningrad state un-that. In 1948–79 he headed the movement for a qualitative renewal of the system of prof.-tech. education by integrating prof. and general cultural training of young workers. Since 1973 works in Leningrad. State Academy of Culture. He created a school of applied cultural studies. Author of more than 250 publications on the problems of cultural studies and education. Works: Organization of educational work in vocational schools, Moscow, 1965; Leisure Pedagogy, M., 1987; Fundamentals of Applied Culturology, M., 1993., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARIEL Yosef (real fam. Fisher) (1893, Odessa - 1964, Israel), diplomat. From an early age he actively participated in the Zionist. movement, was a member. student Zionist. org-tion \"ge-Haver\", for which he was arrested by the tsarist authorities. Since 1924 - in E.-I. He worked in Heb. nat. foundation. He was sent to Paris, where he headed the department. Heb. nat. fund until 1950. In Paris he published and edited a gas. La Terre Retruve, published twice a week. After the occupation of France by the Nazis in 1940, he supported the underground Zionist. activities in Lyon. Was one of the active members. organization \"Representative Council of the Jews of France\" since its inception. In 1950 he returned to Israel and was sent as ambassador to Belgium (1952–57). As an ambassador, he organized the visit of Queen Elizabeth to Israel. In 1960–64 - at the Yad Vashem Institute he studied the history of the French. Jews of the Holocaust period. Author pl. Art. in periodicals and a number of books., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARIEVICH Abram Mikhailovich (1896, Moscow - 1988, ibid.), Dermatovenerologist. Dr. med. Sciences (1947). Graduated from honey. Faculty of the 1st Moscow State University (1920). Until 1923 he worked as a doctor in the zemstvo hospital in the Klin district, until 1938 - in the Suschevskaya hospital, in the department. for patients with gonorrhea at the Botkin Hospital, Ch. doctor of the isolation ward for children with skin and venereal diseases. diseases in Moscow, simultaneously. (1925–35) headed the first dispensary in the country, which he created, and then the department. honey. mycology at the Center. dermatovenerologic. in-those (1938–67); 1967–70 scientific. hands. dep. deep mycoses and actinomycosis Ying-that honey. parasitology and tropical. medicine, since 1970 - head. mycological c. at Horus. dermatovenerologic. dispensary in Moscow. tr. A. dedicated ch. arr. fungal skin diseases - mycoses, incl. yeast lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. One of the first in the USSR to describe and research. mycosporia, mycoses caused by trichophyton, rubrophytosis, histoplasmosis, a number of candidiasis; proposed a classification of fungal skin diseases, as well as methods for the treatment of mycoses, incl. the method of detachment (method A.), the use of keratolytic agents, etc. Works: Atlas of fungal diseases, M., 1951 (et al.); Candidamycoses and other mycoses as a complication of antibiotic therapy, M., 1965 (et al.); Nail Pathologists, Tbilisi, 1976., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARIE-LEIB ben Eliyahu (1808, Satanov - 1888), rabbi. For some time he was engaged in trade, but by 1834 he headed the rabbinical court in Zaslav. This position A.-L. occupied until his death. Corresponded on halakha issues with leading authorities. His works: \"Arugat ha-Bosem\" (1869), commentary on the section \"Yore Dea\" of Shul-khan-Arukh, \"Shem Arukh\" (1874)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKADAK, a city (since 1963), a regional center in the Saratov region. (Russian Federation). Izv. from the 18th century At 19 - early. 20th century - from. Nikolskoe (other name. Arkadak) Balashevsky u. Saratov Gubernia, since 1939 it has been a workers' settlement. In 1939, 11 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKATOV (real family member Mogilevsky) Alexander Arkadievich (dates and places of birth and death unknown), film director. He worked as a journalist and theater critic. In cinema since 1912. Post. OK. 35 lb at different movie sites. Russia, including: \"God of Vengeance\" (based on the play by Sh. Asha) and \"Rachel\" (both 1912), \"The Mountain of Sarah\" (1913), \"I Want to Be a Rothschild\" (based on the story of Sholem Aleichem) and \" Judge, people ”(based on the story of I.-L. Peretz, both 1917). Filmed the stories and stories of N.S. Leskov (\"Katerina the gas chamber\" based on \"Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, 1915), N.V. Gogol (\" Nevsky Prospect \", 1915), V.M. Garshin (\" Signal \"1917) ... One of the founders of owls. \"Agitation\" in 1918-1920. - “About the priest Pankrat, aunt Domna and the revealed icon in Kolomna”, “Parasite”, “Four months at Denikin's”, “Two worlds”, “May Day”. Since 1920 abroad., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKHANGELSKAYA, a village in the Tikhoretsky district of the Krasnodar Territory (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in the Kuban Region. In 1939, 3 Jews lived in Armenia. 18 Sept. 1942 75 evacuated Jews were shot in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKHANGELSKOE, a village in the Budennovsky district of the Stavropol Territory (Russian Federation). Main in 1840. In 19 - early. 20th century - in Novogrigorievsky u. Stavropol province. In 1939, 2 Jews lived in Armenia. 1942 48 evacuated Jews were shot in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKHARA, urban-type settlement (since 1950), a regional center in the Amur region. (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - railway station in Amur Region. In 1939, 33 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKHAYGOROD, see Novoarkhangelsk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKHONSKAYA, a village in the Prigorodny district of the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in Vladikavkaz u. Tersk Region. In 1939, 6 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKHYZ, an urban-type settlement (since 1972) in Zelenchuk district of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian Federation). In 1928–43, he was part of the Karachay Autonomous District. 1942 in gas. 20 Jewish children evacuated to A. were killed in the cell of the special vehicle., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKIN Arkady Efimovich (b. 1904, Dmitrov, Moscow province), architect, town planner. Son of E.A. Arkin. In the 1930s. studied at VKHUTEMAS under N.A. Ladovsky, in 1931 he graduated from Hud.-tech. Institute in Leningrad. He worked for I.V. Zholtovsky. Main works: in Moscow - the project of the Red Stadium on Vorobyovy Gory (1924, as part of the group of students of VKHUTEIN, in 1925 the project received the Grand Prix at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris), the project of the T. Vl.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko (1932), the project of the Institute of Oriental Studies (1934), the project for the development of the southwestern district of Moscow (1934), as well as the project of the House of Prospect in Simferopol (1934)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKIN David Efimovich (1899, Moscow - 1957, ibid.), Architect, scientist, historian of architecture, critic of architecture. Ch.-c. Academy of Architecture of the USSR. Son of E.A. Arkin. In 1922 he graduated from philology. Faculty of Moscow State University. In the 1920s. promoted productions, art-in, later established. paid attention to the analysis of the classic. lawsuit. Persecuted during the period of the \"fight against cosmopolitans.\" Prof. Higher. art-prom. uch-schA (formerly Stroganovskoe). Main works: \"Art of household items\" (1932), \"Images of architecture\" (1941), \"Monumental sculpture of Leningrad\" (1944), \"Rastrelli\" (1954), \"Images of sculpture\" (1961)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARKIN Efim Aronovich (1873, Pinsk - 1948, Moscow), doctor, psychologist. Acad. APN (1947). He graduated from the city with a gold medal and honey. Faculty of Kiev University (1898). He worked as a factory and zemstvo doctor in the Dmitrovsky district of Moscow. lips. In 1903 he trained as a pediatrician in Switzerland. During the Russian-Japanese War, he served as a military man. doctor in D. Vostok, was the chairman of societies, a committee for helping refugee children. From 1906 - in Moscow, worked as a doctor for internal and children's diseases. In the years of the 1st world. war - head. Moscow mountains. soldiers' infirmary; organized assistance to refugee children. After the October coup, which he accepted sympathetically, he taught a course in physiology and psychology of childhood in various pedagogues. educational institutions of Moscow. In 1924 A. organized and headed the country's first cafe. preschool pedagogy at the 2nd Moscow State University (now Moscow Pedagogical State University). In 1936, without the protection of the dis. A. was awarded the degree of Dr. pedagogical. the science. - the founder of the doctrine of drugs, pathology, for the first time in the world. Liter in 1901 described the signs of drugs, diseases and proposed this term to designate it as an independent nosological form. Developed questions fiziol., Pa-tol., Hygiene and psychology. preschool age, as well as theoretical. problems of raising children. One of the first to pay attention to the beneficial effect of mother's love on the psyche. the development of the child, substantiated the position that by the age of one year, the child is a person. Developed theoretical. the basics of raising children in preschool institutions. Cit .: To the doctrine of medicinal rashes, M., 1901; Brain and Soul. M., 1921; Personality and environment, M., 1924; Human physiology, M.-L., 1928; On some questions of raising children, 1935; Features of school age, M., 1947; Child in preschool years, M., 1948., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARLOZOROV Haim (Victor) (1899, Romny, Poltava province - 1933, Tel Aviv), Zionist leader. labor movement. In 1905 (after the pogrom) he and his family moved to Germany. In 1918 he joined the ha-Poel ha-Tsair party, after its merger with the Gitagdut party (1920), one of the leaders of the new party. In 1924 he graduated from Berlin University, settled in E.-I. Since 1930 one of the leaders of the Israel Labor Party (Mapai). Since 1931, member. Zionist rule. org-tion and Heb. agency (headed by his polit, dep.). In the end. 1920s - early. 1930s began to doubt the reliability of the English. support for the idea of ​​creating Heb. state-va and in the ability to achieve mutual understanding with the Arabs. Confidential letter to H. Weizmann (June 1932, published in 1949) discussed the possibility of a transitional \"rev.\" period, in tech. to-rogo Heb. the minority must create conditions in the country for the reception of as many immigrants as possible, otherwise the coming peace. war and an Arab, nationalism will make it impossible to achieve the goals of Zionism. In 1933, A. took an active part in organizing mass immigration from Nazi Germany. In 1933 he was killed while walking. The revisionist Zionists were charged with the murder. However, circles not connected with the labor movement argued that the trial of A.'s murder had been fabricated by forces hostile to the revisionists. A number of settlements in Israel are named after A. Coll. op. A. (v. 1-7) (Hebrew) publ. in 1934–35., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARMAND David Lvovich (1905, Moscow - 1976, ibid.), Geographer and soil scientist, popularizer of science. He spent his childhood abroad (in Switzerland, France, Italy), where his parents lived, exiled from Russia for participating in the events of 1905. In 1913 the family returned to Russia. He graduated from the Pushkin Experimental Colony School of the 2nd stage (1924), in the same year he entered Moscow. e-machine-build Institute, after graduation from 1927 he worked at Moscow. s-de \"Dynamo\" - first engineer, then art. designer, and from 1933 - head. workshop. In 1936 he decided to change his profession, entered the correspondence department of geography. Faculty of Leningrad State University, and from the 3rd year he transferred to Moscow State University. He graduated from it in 1940. Since that time - at the Institute of Geography of the USSR Academy of Sciences (in 1960–65 - head of the department of physical geography, in 1965–70 - scientific director of the Kursk forest-steppe station, since 1970 - scientific consultant). Vice President Moscow Branch Geographer, Society of the USSR (1958–63). In years. 2nd world. war participated in geological and geogr. servicing Kr. Army. active Science of the RSFSR (1973). In the 1940s, he was engaged in regional studies. In 1946–49 he developed physical and mathematical research. and experiment. methods geographer, research, as well as theoretical. physical problems geography, publishing ser. monographs on these problems. Since 1949, he began a cycle of studies aimed at diet, use of natural resources, the fight against soil erosion, the protection of the biosphere and the relationship between man and the environment, and the determination of the role of radiation. frontiers at a physicist-geographer. zoning. From 1967 he developed a new direction in landscape science - landscape physics. He wrote a number of popular scientific books for children and youth. Vol .: Terrible forces: Stories about the terrible phenomena of nature, M., 1945; Science of landscapes, M., 1975; Geographer, environment and diet, use of natural resources, M., 1983., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARMON Avraham (1887, Cherikov, Mogilev province - 1960, Israel), teacher. Economist by education. Since 1913 - in E.-I. In 1928–31, dir. schools them. S Lemel in Jerusalem. From 1933 - school. inspector, and since 1948 Ch. school. Inspector of the Ministry of Education. Member collegiums of the Ministry of Education. The author of Art. and works on the problems of pedagogy. State pr. Israel for the teacher. activity (1960)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARMENIAN AUL, see Armavir., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARMENIAN BAZAR, see Armyansk., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARNOLDOV Arnold Isaevich (b. 1915, Moscow), culturologist. Dr. Philos. Sciences, prof. Received higher education. philol. education, completed postgraduate studies in philosophy at Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. As a military man. corr. The Sovinformburo took part in covering the Nuremberg trials. Hands. dep. science \"Lit. newspapers \"(1948–51), scientific. sotr. Institute of Slavic Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1951–52), head. Department of History and Theory of Culture Mosk. state Institute of Culture (1962–82), head. sector of philosophy. problems of culture of the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Honored. active science of the Russian Federation. Member Executive Committee of Europe. about-va culture. Research A. associated with the development of the theory of culture and cultural studies, humanistic. principles of cultural policy, with the rationale for decomp. types of cultural revolutions. Cit .: Culture and modernity, M., 1973; Lifestyle and culture, M., 1976; Ch. And the world of culture, M., 1992., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARNOLDOVA Elena Arnoldovna (b. 1928, Moscow), actress. After graduating from the acting department of GITIS (1949) she worked in Moscow. dram, t-re oil workers, led by M.F. Astangov. Played here Agniya, Lyudmila (\"Not everything for the cat is Shrovetide\", 1950 and \"Late Love\", 1951, AN Ostrovsky), Dorina (\"Tartuffe\" by J.-B. Moliere, 1953), Eva Grand (\"Mansion in a side street\" bro. Tur, 1952), Slavka (\"Earthly Paradise\" by O. Vasilev, 1953), Kapu (\"The Scarlet Flower\" by ST Aksakov, 1954), etc. In 1957, director was invited. AG Vovsi in the pop performance \"Husband, Wife and Entertainer\" by S. Grodzenskaya as a partner of GM Dudnik for the role of wife. From that moment on, their pop duet took shape, finally taking shape in the season 1963–64 and existed on the stage of St. 2 decades., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARNON Daniel Israel (b. 1910, Warsaw), biochemist and plant physiologist. Graduated from California University in Berkeley (1932). Since 1936 he has been working there (since 1950 - prof., Since 1961 - head of the Department of Cell Physiology). tr. on photosynthesis. He studied the photochemistry of chlorophyll in plants and in the cell-free system, the chemistry of the reduction of carbon dioxide by chloroplasts. Discovered the process of photosynthetic. phosphorylation (1954) and found that all enzymes necessary for photosynthesis are concentrated in chloroplasts. Research the role of ferredoxin in energetic. reactions of photosynthesis. He showed that molybdenum and vanadium are essential trace elements for the life of green plants. Pres. Amer. Society of Plant Physiologists (1952-53), member. Amer. Academy of Arts and Sciences (1962). Member Nat. AN (USA, 1961)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARNSHTAM Leo Oskarovich (1905, Ekaterinoslav - 1979, Moscow), film director, screenwriter, composer. Graduated from Leningrad. conservatory on class. piano (1923). He gave concerts. In 1924–27 the head. muses. part of the theater. Sun Meyerhold. Author of muses. design for a number of performances in the theaters of Leningrad. In 1929–42 he was a sound engineer and dir. movie theater \"Lenfilm\" and \"Mosfilm\". Film debut - 1931 (sound engineer and co-author of the script for the film \"Golden Mountains\"). Co-director, cum. with F.M. Ermler, f. \"Counter\" (1932). He independently put f. \"Girlfriends\" (1935), \"Friends\" (1938, jointly with V.V. Eisimont), \"Zoya\" (1944), \"Glinka\" (1946), \"Romeo and Juliet\" (with L.M. Lavrovsky, 1954, ave. International Film Festival in Cannes, Durban, Rio de Janeiro), \"History Lesson\" (1956, jointly with Bulgaria), \"Five days, five nights\" (1960, jointly with the GDR), etc. . Nar. art. RSFSR (1969), Steel. pr. (1946, 1947)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AROKH Arie (1908, Kharkov - 1974, Jerusalem), artist, diplomat. From 1924 in E.-I., he studied at the school of arts in \"Bezalel\" in Jerusalem and in the workshop of Collarossi in Paris. One of the founders of the group is thin. New Horizons (1948). Until the 1950s. creativity A. developed within the framework of expressionism, later he turned to themes and motives depicting folklore, developed a peculiar. style, characterized by the use of letters, graphic. signs and decoration. motives. In 1950–53 A. - 2nd, then 1st secretary. the Israeli embassy in Moscow, in 1956-59 the ambassador to Brazil, in 1959 62 - in Sweden. State Israel Ave (1970)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARON-SHMUEL ben Yisroel Kaidanover (Magarshak) (1614, Koydanovo - 1676), rabbi. In his youth he studied at the famous yeshiva Rabbi Yaakov from Lublin. During the pogroms of B.M. Khmelnitsky (1648) he fled to Vilno, where he became one of the mountains. religious judges. During the Swedish-Russian. During the war, his house was robbed, and the unique library was burned down. A. fled to Moravia. Later he was a rabbi in Glug, Fjord and Frankfurt am Main. After returning to Poland - the rabbi of Krakow. One of the largest rabbis of his time. Author pl. religious books., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARON SHMUEL ben Naftali Hertz ha-Cohen (1740 - 1814, Belaya Tserkov), rabbi. Comes from a well-known rabbinical family. He was a rabbi in Yampol and other cities. The author of comments to the \"Midrash Raba\", to the book. \"Bereshit\", and also Sat. sermons written in the form of a spiritual testament to sons., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONCHIK Aizik Borisovich (Itskhok-Aizik Berovich) (1858, Zhitomir | - 1889, Shlisselburg), a Narodnoye revolutionary. He graduated from the Kremenchug real school (1877) and supplemented. class of the Odessa real school (1878). In 1878 he entered the Institute of Railway Engineers in St. Petersburg, became close to the populist. circles. In 1879 he left the Institute and devoted himself entirely to the roar. activities. Since May 1879, members. terrorist, Freedom or Death group. From the fall of 1879 - Agent Execute, the roar. org-tion \"Narodnaya Volya\", participated in the preparation of a number of attempts on the imp. Alexander II. Arrested in St. Petersburg on the night of March 18, 1881. At the \"trial of 20\" (1882) he was sentenced to eternal hard labor. From March 1882 he was held in solitary confinement at the Alekseevsky Ravelin of the Peter and Paul Fortress. In July 1883 he fell ill with a mental breakdown, complicated by paralysis of the legs. In aug. 1884 transferred to the Shlisselburg fortress. A. until the end of his days remained in solitary confinement., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONIN Lev Solomonovich (1920, Samara - 1983, Moscow), chess player, international. master (1950), chess. theorist and journalist. Champion of Russia (1952) and Moscow (1965). Participant of 4 USSR championships; best result: 2nd-4th places (1950). As part of the USSR national team, the winner of the European Championship (1957). Member of the Moscow International tournaments (1959 and 1961). He contributed to the development of the theory of the Spanish game, the Sicilian and King's Indian Defense, and other openings., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONOV Alexander Borisovich (1921-1970, Moscow), director of the circus. In 1944 he graduated from the directing department of GITIS. In 1945-51 - thin. hands. Kalinin circus, in 1951–70 - dir. Moscow circus, at the same time - in 1955–65 - dir. Moscow dram, t-ra them. K.S. Stanislavsky. Among the works in the circus are illusion attractions, buffoon-satirical. en-tre, clown revues, etc. In t-re post. performances: \"On the Personal\" by V. I. Pistolenko (1957), \"The Opened Window\" by E. V. Braginsky (1958), \"The First Day of Freedom\" by L. Kruchkovsky (1960), \"The Life and Crime of Anton Shelestov\" by G. A. . Medynsky and VN Tokarev (1961), \"Salem Witches\" by A. Miller (1963), etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONOV Alexander Yakovlevich (b. 1934, Moscow), poet, journalist. The verse was known for a long time. \"Lilac\", publ. in the beginning. 60s in f. \"Youth\", as well as vivid performances on culture and gas literature. \"Moskovsky Komsomolets\", work as amended by to-rogo A. gave more than 30 years. The first collection of verses. A. appeared only in the era of \"perestroika\" (\"Island of Security\", M., 1987; \"Texts\", \"First Life\", both - M., 1989), having discovered the original poetry. world, in which Heb. is organically present. topic. Into verse. \"Ghetto. 1943 \"poetically interpreted one of the most tragic. pages of the Catastrophe - the attitude of the environment. peace to the death of the Jews., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONOV Arkady Girshevich (b. 1939), physicist, Ph.D. USSR Academy of Sciences (1990). In 1962 he graduated from Leningrad. electrical engineering in-t. After graduating from in-that - in Ying-those of nuclear physics and Phys.-tech. in-those AN. Works in the field of TV theory. body, semiconductor theory, theory of disordered systems., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONSHTAM Lazar Naumovich (1896, Naumovka, Poltava province. - 1938, Moscow), political worker Kr. Army, army commissar of the 2nd rank (1935), member. Communist. parties since 1915. He studied law. f-those Mosk. un-that (1 course). In civil war battalion commissar, military commissar of the regiment, art. division, brigade. Since 1921 the military commissar of the inspection of artillery and armored forces of the Red Army. He graduated from the 2nd course of the Military. Academy of the Red Army (1924). In 1924-29 sec. Vitebsk district committee of the CP (b) of Belarus. In 1929–33 a member. Military. Council and early. political department of Belarus. VO, in 1933–36 held the same position in the Separate Krasnoznam. Dalnevost. Army, in 1936-37 - in Moscow. IN. In May 1937 he was appointed member. Military. Council of Privolzhsky VO. Repressed in 1937., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONSON Boris (1898-1980), artist. t-ra, painter, sculptor. Son of Shlomo Aronson. He studied at the State. school of arts in Kiev, Berlin and Paris. Since the 1930s. - in USA. He worked successfully at Schwartz's Jewish Theater, Our Theater in the Bronx (New York), then on Broadway, where he created sets, in particular for plays in Hebrew. themes (\"Anne Frank's Diary\", \"An Incident in Vichy\", etc.). In the 1950s. becomes one of the most famous. theater, thin. America. In a number of his works he was close to surrealism. A. created the interior of the Washington synagogue. Organizer several personal exhibitions of manuf. painting and sculpture., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONSON Grigory Yakovlevich (1887, Petersburg - 1968, New York), writer. He participated in the revolutions of 1905 and 1917. Was arrested, was in exile. In 1922–51, he was a member. Central Committee of the Bund, zarub, delegations of the Social Democratic. parties of Russia; in 1926–31 - gen. sec. Ort-Union in Berlin. Since 1940 in the USA. In 1944-57 he was a columnist for New York gas. “New Russian. word\". Published during the period. ed .: \"Zukunft\", \"Unzer Zeit\", \"Forward\" \"Frey Arbeiter Shtimme\", \"New Journal\", \"Russian Review\". Was sred. \"Socialist Courier\"; \"Stories of the Bund\"; Against the Stream (1952-54); \"Books about Russian Jewry\" (part 1 - 1960; part 2 - 1968). The author of the book. Lyric Poems, 1915; Peace from Afar, 1923; Dawn of the Red Terror, 1929; “The problem of the Yiddish language in the Sov. Union \", 1944; “Jews in the Sov. Russia \", 1949; \"The Truth About Vlasovites\", 1949, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONSON Naum Lvovich (1872, Kreslavka, Vitebsk province. - 1943, New York), sculptor. Initial thin Educated at the Vilna drawing school. From 1891 in Paris, he studied at the School of Decorative Arts and at the Collarossi workshop. Participant pl. exhibitions, incl. “Exhibitions of paintings and sculptures by Jewish artists” (1917, “Moscow). One of the founders of the Society of Friends of Evr. music in Paris. Donated in Heb. orphanages in Kreslavka and Dvinsk. Experienced a strong influence of O. Roden, expressed in the sculptural portrait of Leo Tolstoy, made in 1901 in Yasnaya Polyana. On the way from Russia to Holland he made a sculptor. busts of the heroes of the Boer War (kept in the Museum in Pretoria). In 1905 at the International conference. exhibition in Liege presented a bust of L. Beethoven, in 1922 he created a bust of L. Pasteur for the Pasteur Institute (m.). Chevalier of the Order of the Legion of Honor. Since 1941 - in the USA., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONSON Shlomo (1863, Krucha, Mogilev province - 1935, Tel Aviv), rabbi. R. in the family of a local rabbi - A. Yaakov. Since 1887, a rabbi in Glukhov (Chernigov province), then in Nizhyn (Chernigov province), since 1906 - a rabbi of Kiev. From a young age he shared Palestinian views, was a participant in the Khivat Zion congresses. He defended Zionism on the pages of \"ha-Melitz\". He was a consultant on the part of the defense at the trial of M.M. Beilis. During the 1st world. war made a lot of efforts to help Heb. refugees from Galicia. In 1917 he headed the religion created on his initiative. party Ahdut Israel. From 1921 - in Berlin, where he was the rabbi of the community of immigrants from Russia. From 1923 in E.-I. Ch. Ashkenazi rabbi of Tel Aviv. There was also a member. the central committee of the Mizrahi movement., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONZON Boris (1898-1990), Brazilian businessman. R. in Ukraine. From 1931 he lived in Brazil. Founder and President Vaad ha-Hinukh. In 1935 he founded and until 1957 led the Hebrew. school. In 1958 59 - prez. \"Gabonym\". In 1955, 59 gene. secretary of the Zionist organization in Sao Paulo. The author of the articles published in f., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARONZON Leonid Lvovich (1939 - 1970, Leningrad), poet. Graduated from the Faculty of Rus. lang. and literature Leningrad, ped. Institute (1963), taught in an evening school, wrote scripts for scientific-popul. f. During his lifetime he was not published. First. publications abroad and in \"samizdat\" in 1976. In 1985 in Jerusalem published \"Selected\", compiled. E.A. Schwartz. In 1990 in Leningrad came out Sat. \"Poems\". Starting from the poetics characteristic of the circle of \"Akhmatov's orphans\" (IA Brodsky, EB Rein, DV Bobyshev), to which he joined in the beginning. 60s, A. creates his own unique style, inheriting N.A. Zabolotsky of the period \"Columns\" (he was dedicated to A.'s thesis) and based on light semantic. shifts and syntax. deformations, a combination of elements of irony and parody with unchanging lyricism. dominant and existential motives. In a number of texts A. was one of the first to introduce into Russian. poetry, some ultra-avant-garde techniques (spatial organization of the text, tautology, etc.)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARRAGO (real family. Levitin) Roman Semenovich (1893-1949), artist of the original genre. Studied on mat. f-those of the Sorbonne (Paris). In 1909 he performed with numbers of mnemonics in Brussels (t-r \"Skalya\"), then in plural. cities of Europe. Most of his life he worked in Russia. Instantly produced all kinds of arithmetic. actions on multi-digit numbers, solved problems of raising to a power and extracting a root from decimal numbers, answered questions from viewers about the exact dates of birth of famous people, about the dates of history. events., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Arshavsky Ilya Arkadievich (b. 1903, Ivanovka of the Slavyanoserbsky district of the Yekaterinoslav province), physiologist. Prof. (1939). Graduated from honey. Faculty of North Caucasus un-that (Rostov-on-Don) (1926), then postgraduate studies in physiology in Moscow; from 1929 he improved in Leningrad. un-those at hand. A.A. Ukhtomsky. In 1932–34, Assoc. Department of Physiology Biol. Faculty of Kazan University; from 1934 - in Vses. in-those experiment, medicine (VIEM), where in 1935 he organized and headed the lab. age physiology and pathology. In 1953 the laboratory was closed in connection with the \"doctors' case\" (restored in 1954). Since 1980, after the closure of the lab. - scientific. Consultant of the Institute of Biophysics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. - one of the founders of age physiology. His tr. played an important role in the formation of the concept of individual development (ontogenesis) and aging (on the importance of motor activity for the development of the body - the so-called energy rule of skeletal muscles). To the lab. A. revealed the regularities of the functioning of the organism for dec. stages of individual development. He put forward the concept of the dominant of pregnancy: the appearance of a corresponding focus of excitation in the center, the nervous system after fertilization of the egg and its implantation into the uterine mucosa. Offered (1967) fiziol. classification of periods of the individual, human development - from embryonic to extreme old age. The data obtained in the lab. A., made it possible to make a number of valuable suggestions in the practice of children. health care, in particular the recommendation of early feeding of the child with mother's milk (1952), and also to evaluate newborns not by morfol., but by fiziol. indicators, i.e. according to the degree of their maturity. Methods of compensation fiziol were developed immaturity and its prevention. Sci. tr. lab. A. were an important contribution to evolutionary, ecological, gerontological, and agricultural physiology. Cit .: Physiology of blood circulation in the prenatal period, M., 1960; Essays on age physiology, M., 1967; Physiological mechanisms and patterns of individual development, M., 1982.Syn A. - Yuri Ilyich (b. 1929, Moscow), neurophysiologist. Graduated from biol. Faculty of Moscow State University (1952) and postgraduate studies in physiology (1958). Since 1958 he has been working at the Institute for Information and Computing, the Head of the USSR Academy of Sciences. lab. neurophysiology. In 1988–89 he lectured in high fur boots in the USA, where he has been conducting research since 1990. work. Sci. tr. dedicated neurophysiology of mammals, problems of direct and feedback between nerve centers, cellular structure of nerve ganglia, etc. Vnuk A. - Vadim Yurievich (b. 1958, Moscow), biochemist. Graduated from biol. Faculty of Moscow State University (1981) and postgraduate studies there. He worked at the Institute of Biochemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1990 he has been working in a lab in the USA. biochemistry of Wisconsin University. Sci. tr. eating, neurobiochemistry, retinal biochemistry., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARSK, an urban-type settlement (since 1938), a regional center in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Main in the 13th century. Since 1781 - the district, since 1796 - the provincial town of the Kazan district. and lips. Since 1926 it was a rural settlement. In 1939, 5 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARTEM, a city (since 1938) in the Primorsky Territory (Russian Federation). Main In 1924, 70 Jews lived in Armenia in 1939. 1990s A community was created in Armenia, headed by Alexei Reichstadt. In 1999, approx. 50 Jews., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARTEMOVKA, a village in the Pechenezhsky district of the Kharkov region. (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Kharkovsky u. and lips. 1942 local policemen shot one Jew in A., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARTSIZ, a city (since 1963), a regional center in the Odessa region. (Ukraine). Vozn. in 1816.Since 1828 - in the Akkerman district. Bessarabian region, since 1873 - lips. In 1918–40 it was part of Romania, in 1940–91 it was the Ukrainian SSR. In 1930, 842 Jews (28.5%) lived in Armenia. 95 families - immigrants from Prussia and Poland. Jews lived in A. from the middle. 19th century Main occupations - trade and crafts. In A. worked several. manufacturing factories belonging to Jews. In 1900, 35 families (170 people) suffering from hunger and drought received help from St. Petersburg and Odessa. Since the 1900s. There was a Zionist organization in Armenia. Relations between Jews and Germans in Armenia were always tense, especially after the Jews were equalized as citizens in 1917. rights. Despite the economical. crisis early. In the 1920s, the Jews of Armenia actively helped refugees from the Ukraine. school network \"Tarbut\", later - cf. school and children. garden; there were 2 Jewish libraries, an orchestra, an organization VITSO. In 1923, 1929, and 1936 the Jewish population of Armenia suffered greatly from the drought. To the end. 1930s anti-Semitism and persecution by the authorities and German neighbors intensified in Armenia. In 1939 room. the authorities closed the Jewish children. garden. In the end. 1930s several dozens of young Armenian Jews left for E. I. Most of the Jews of A. in June 1941 were exterminated. The rest were deported to Transnistria., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARUIN Leonid Iosifovich (b. 1924, Moscow), pathologist. Dr. med. Sciences (1971), prof. (1983). R. in the family of a toxicologist, prof. (1940) Military Veterinary Academy of Joseph Solomonovich A. (1893-1946). In 1947 he graduated from the Naval Medical. acad., until 1960 served as a doctor in the Pacific and Baltic fleets. After demobilization, he worked in Moscow as a doctor in the mountains. hospital, head. pathologist. dep. 1st honey. in-that, since 1967 head. lab. Pathomorphology Research Institute of Gastroenterology. scientific. research dedicated clinics and functional morphology of the digestive system: establishing the role of violations of regenerative processes in the development of morphological. substrate of diseases of the stomach and intestines, pathomorphology of the stomach and intestines after resection, the peculiarities of the formation, chronicity and healing of ulcers, the importance of pyloric helicobacters in the origin of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Developed methods of differential diagnosis of chronic. liver diseases and described their morphological. features. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. I.V. Davydovsky (1983) and S.P. Botkin (1989). Deputy prev. Moscow about-va of pathologists, chl. reign of Vseros. about-va gastroenterologists. Cit .: General pathology h., M., 1st ed., 1982; 2nd ed., 1990 (et al); Structural Foundations of Adaptation and Compensation, M., 1987 (et al.); Peptic ulcer and pyloric Helicobacter. M., 1993 (et al.)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARZGIR, a village, a regional center in the Stavropol Territory (Russian Federation). Main in 1876. In 19 - early. 20th century - in Novogrigorievsk, from 1900 - Blagodarny u. Stavropol province. In 1939, three Jews lived in Armenia. 1942 in Armenia, St. 150 evacuated Jews., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ARZHENKA, now in the city of Rasskazovo (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - the village of Tambov u. In 1911, 71 subbotniks lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASH Abraham Joseph (1821 - 1887, New York), rabbi. Since 1851 - in the USA. Participated in the creation. first Orthodox congregation rus. Jews in America (\"Beth Midrash ha-Gadol\"), where he was a rabbi from 1860 until his death. Having a stable material base, he rendered great financial support to the congregation. In 1880 he created the Kashrut society, and in 1884 - the Talmud Torah. Fierce opponent of reformist teaches. in Judaism., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASH Nathan (b. 1902, Warsaw), writer. Since 1915 in the USA. He studied at high fur boots of Syracuse and Colombia. He wrote stories of Art. and book. reviews for publications: \"New Yorker\", \"Yale Review\", \"Virginia Quartels Review\", \"Harpers Bazaar\" and others; scripts for Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer and Paramount; and radio dramas for Radio Keith Orpheum. In 1942–45 he served in the US Army. Awarded the US Air Force Medal (1944) and the Bronze Star Medal (1945). Author of the book: \"Office\" (1925), \"Love in Chartres\" (1927), \"Day of the Pay\" (1930), \"Valley\" (1935), \"The Road: In Search of America\" ​​(1937)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASH Sholom (1880, Kutno, Warsaw Province - 1957, London), prose writer, playwright. R. in an orthodox family. Received a tradition. Heb. education. Suspected by his parents in disbelief, he was forced to leave his family, lived with relatives, teaching their children Heb. literacy and observing the life of the peasants. Then he moved to Wloclawek, where he made a living by writing letters for the illiterate. He debuted in literature in 1900 simultaneously. in Yiddish and Hebrew. In 1902 his first was published. Sat. stories in Hebrew, in 1903 coll. Yiddish. In the same years was published. pov. A. \"Moshele\". The turning point in the life of A. was his meeting with the Polish-Hebrew. the writer M.M. Shapiro, whose daughter he later married. The financial support provided to him by M. Shapiro gave A. the opportunity to do only literature. During the 1st world. During the war he lived in the United States, then returned to Poland, and from there he left for France. After visiting for the first time E.-I. in 1908 published ser. travel sketches, as well as a number of works, in which the bibl. subject. In 1938 he settled again in the United States. Last years of his life he spent in Bat Yam (c. Tel Aviv), in a house, which after his death turned into a memorial museum of A. Mir. fame came to A. with the publication in 1904 pov. \"Shtetl\" (\"Shtetl\"), where for the first time in Heb. lit-re dark image of Heb. life gave way to an awareness of her warmth and cordiality. His first play \"Mitn shtrom\" (\"Down the Stream\", 1904) also enjoyed great success, followed by other dramatic plays. manuf., delivered in rus, gender. and it. scenes. The most famous of these was the drama Got fun nekome (Gd Revenge, 1907). In 1913 A. publishes his first. rum. \"Maria\" and its sequel \"Der veg tsu zikh\" (\"The Way to Oneself\"), which reflects the common problems of Jews around the world. In the 20s. his rum appears. from Amer. life \"Mother\", \"Death Sentence\", \"The Return of Chaim Lederer\", \"The Witch of Castile\". One of the naib. meaning manuf. A. - the trilogy Farn Mable (Before the Flood, 1929–31), which describes the life of the Jews in the first decades of the 20th century. in St. Petersburg (\"Petersburg\"), Warsaw (\"Warsaw\") and Moscow (\"Moscow\"), the events of the revolution and civil. war. In the end. 30 - early. 40s A. created a trilogy about the origin of Christ \"Derman fun Neutseres\" (\"The Man from Nazareth\", 1943), \"The Apostle\" (1949) and \"Mary\" (1949). Rum was devoted to topical issues. East River (1946), Der Brenendiker Dorn (Burning Bush, 1946), Moses (1951), and others. A. introduced the Hebrew for the first time. lit-ru in Yiddish in the context of Europ. and Amer. culture. Was honorary before. Union of Hebrews. writers (PEN Yiddish Writers' Club)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHAGA ARAG, see Arak., pronunciation=ASHAGA ARAG, see Arak., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHANSKY (Oshiansky) Abel-Aaron Itskovich (1825–1899), sergeant major, veteran of Her Majesty's Cavalry Regiment. A stove-maker by profession. In 1846 he was recruited, served in a military workers' company, in 1863 he was transferred to the Cavalry Regiment, in 1874 he reached the highest rank of sergeant major for a non-combatant command for a soldier, in 1881 he was transferred to the combatant, in 1890 due to his advanced age he was appointed as a warden of the sick. The 50th anniversary of A.'s service (1896) was celebrated by the entire regiment (the order specifically mentions A.'s devotion to his unit). Service A. in the guard. shelf - will be excluded. case in Russian. army, because usually Jews who did not accept Christ were not allowed to remain in the ranks beyond their obligation. term. After A.'s death, he was buried with honors in Hebrew. Transfiguration Cemetery. In Petersburg., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHENDORF Yisroel (b. 1909, Mill of Volyn province), prose writer, playwright. Grew up in Lviv, where he studied in the Nar. school and teacher. seminar. He made his debut in 1927 with a ballad, was published in different editions. Heb. periodic. ed. During the war he was in the USSR. In 1945 he returned to Poland. In 1948 he moved to Paris, and from 1963 to Argentina. Throughout many. years combined lit. activity with pedagogical. Author of the book: \"Montik Inderfree\" (\"Monday morning\"), 1937; Grusn in der white (Greetings into the distance), 1939; \"Wei un wander\" (\"Pain and wandering\"), 1950, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHEROV Mashia (Misha) (b. 1924, Samarkand), actor, director. From 1934 in E.-I. He studied at the drama studio \"Habima\" (1945–48). From 1949 he worked in the \"Habima\" t-re, from 1961 a member. management of the t-ra (manager in 1957–61). Naib, major works: Greenwald (\"The Rise of Cain\"), Jimmy Porter (\"Look Back in Anger\" by J. Osborne), Mark Antony (\"Julius Caesar\" by W. Shakespeare). Fast. performance \"Long, short and high\" by V. Hall and others., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHINSKY Aharon Mordechai (1866, Raigrad of Shchuchinsky u. Lomzhinsky province. - 1954), rabbi, leader of the religious Zionist movement. Since 1895 - in the United States, where he was a rabbi in dec. communities of Syracuse and Detroit. In 1898 he became a rabbi in Montreal and served as a military man. a rabbi in the Canadian Forces. Subsequently, he became the rabbi of the Bet ha-Midrash ha-Gadol community in Pittsburgh and remained so until the end of his life. He was engaged in organizing Heb. education and participated in the creation. religious schools. One of the founders of the Mizrahi organization in America and in tech. pl. years her vice-president. A. was also one of the creatures. Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHKENAZI Israel Markovich (b. 1917, Nizhny Novgorod), painter, muralist. Ml. brother thin. M.M. Ashkenazi. He studied at the 1st year of the Gorky thin. school (1937–38), will prepare. courses of Institute of painting, sculptor. and architect. Vseros. AH (1940), in the Kiev art. in-those (1951–57) in the workshop of A.A. Shovkunenko. 1941-1948 in the army. He worked in Odessa art. workshops (1948–51). In 1959 he made the first monument in Gorky, painting in the alfresco technique (c / t \"Petrel\"), and in the 1960s - 70s. a number of similar works for residential and societies, city buildings, in which A. goes to stylization and decor, the rhythm of the comp., subordinating the image. elements of the general architect-art. conception, brings in architect. decor, beginning and enriches it (\"Girl and Sail\", \"Space Connection\", \"Sea Legends\", etc.). A. also created a whole gal. manuf. easel painting (portraits, landscapes, genres), where color and plastic expressiveness of the means play an active role (\"Self-portrait\", \"In the waiting room\", 1950s, mid-landscapes \"Hot Key\", \"Gurzuf\", 1970- e and others). Since 1957 academic. in the region. exhibitions. First solo exhibition in 1979., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHKENAZI Meir (1890, Petrikov Mozyr district, Minsk province - 1954, USA), rabbi. He studied at the \"Tomkhey Tmimim\" yeshiva (Lubavichi). Rabbi in Vladivostok (1914-18), Shanghai (in 1920-1940s) A.'s grandson - Mordechai (b. 1943), rabbi of Kfar-Chabad (since 1970)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHKENAZI Moisey Mordukhovich (1913, Bobruisk, Minsk Province - 1941, Kolpino, Leningrad Region), painter, graphic artist. Brother I. Ashkenazi. Studied at the Kazan United, artistic-theater. technical school, Nizhny Novgorod art studio under the hands. L.A. Khnygina (1929–33), then in the Saratov art. technical school (1935–37), at the Institute of Painting, sculptor. and architect. Vseros. Academy of Arts in Leningrad (windows 1940) .In the 1930s. A. created a number of aqu. (\"Chess Players\", \"Memories of the Civil War\", \"A Girl in a Yellow Dress\", \"Spring\", etc.), but DOS. creative searches thin. concentrated in painting (\"Ronya: Girl with a Book\", \"Lisa: Study\", \"Self-portrait in a cold scale\", etc.). Killed in battle during the defense of Leningrad., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHKENAZI Vladimir Davidovich (b. 1937, Gorky), pianist, conductor. His father is a well-known pop virtuoso pianist David A. (in particular, accompanist K.I.Shulzhenko). In 1960 he graduated from Moscow. cons. by class php. L.N. Oborin. 2nd ave. To Mezhdunar. competition them. F. Chopin in Warsaw (1955), 1st avenue to the Intern. competition them. Queen Elizabeth (Brussels, 1956), 1st Ave. to Intern. competition them. P.I. Tchaikovsky (Moscow, 1962). In 1963 he went abroad and settled in London. In the 70s. A. began performing as a conductor, since 1981 - permanent conductor of the King of London. Philharmonic Orc., since 1987 has headed it. A. also hands. orc. West Berlin Radio and Guest Conductor of the Cleveland Symphony. orc. (USA). From the very first performances, A. the pianist demonstrates phenomenal technique, his interpretations are distinguished by rare architectonicity, timbre variety, creating an impression of orchestral sound. He constantly gives concerts, made a huge number of recordings, constantly striving to create \"complete collections of op.\" this or that composer. He recorded all concerts for the FP. with orc. S.V. Rachmaninov, S.S. Prokofiev, B. Bartok; A. recorded all the concerts of W.A. Mozart with an orc, which he directed himself. Among the solo recordings there are sonatas by L. van Beethoven, F. Schubert, A. N. Skryabin, practically all fp. Rachmaninoff's legacy. His conductor's interpretation of the classics is distinguished by innovation, unconventionality, which is especially evident in the performance of works. Russian composers, first of all PI Tchaikovsky. He pays close attention to A. and the music of 20th-century composers., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHKENAZI Eugene (1845, Odessa - 1903), botanist. Moved to Dresden. He specialized in botany at Heidelberg University, in 1872 he became a member of the department, in 1891 prof. Investigated chlorophyll and other plant pigments, the physiology of growth and flowering, physical. the forces involved in the rise of water along the stems of plants. Wrote \"A Report on the Critical Treatment of Darwin's Theory\" (1872)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHKINAZI Vladimir Alexandrovich (1873, Kerch, Tauride province - not earlier than 1941, Paris |), writer, feuilletonist, translator. He wrote under the ps. V. Azov. R. in the family of a doctor. Studied the history of arts and law in high fur boots in Paris, Zurich, Bern. The first feuilleton publ. in 1895. In gas. \"News of the day\" under ps. Peck from 1896 chronicled lit. and theater, life. In 1906 he began to publish satirical. g. \"Good mate\", to-rye was closed after the first issue. Published in f. \"Pencil\", \"Zarnitsy\", \"Spectator\", \"Dragonfly\", \"Alarm Clock\" and others. Collaborated in gas. \"Rech\" (since 1912). In 1910 he published the almanac “Literary and artistic cabaret“ Black Cat ”(1910), in which Sasha Cherny, N.A. Teffi, T.L.Schepkina-Kupernik, and others participated. sotr. g. \"Satyricon\", since 1913 - \"New Satyricon\". In 1916 he received the title of hereditary honor. citizen. Since 1918 - translator at the publishing house \"World Literature\". Translated by O'Henry, J. Conrad, L. Carroll, H. Wells and others. Since 1926 in France. Works: Truly Russian folk tales, St. Petersburg, 1911; Colored glasses, St. Petersburg, 1911; Thorns without roses, P., 1916, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASHLAG Yehuda Leib (1886, Warsaw - 1954, Israel), rabbi. The largest kabbalist of the 20th century in Europe, per. in Hebrew book. \"Zohar\". Living in Poland, he combined entrepreneurial activity (he owned a factory for the production of soap) with teaching. From 1922 to E.-I. Since 1927 - Rabbi Givat Shaul. Founder of the Yeshiva Itur Rabanim. The founder of the Hasidic dynasty. His 21-volume work \"Sulam\" (trans. \"Zohar\" with commentary) became the basis for the study of Kabbalah in modern times. Israel., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASKENAZI Shimon (Simon) (1866, Zavikhost of Sandomierz district of Radom province - 1935, Warsaw), historian. Studied at Warsaw and Göttingen fur boots. In 1897-1914 he taught history at Krakow University (from 1902 prof.). Since 1910, members Krakow Academy of Sciences. During the 1st world. war member. Polish nat. council in Switzerland. In 1920–23 the representative of Poland in the League of Nations. Since 1927 prof. Warsaw University, brought up several. generations of Polish. historians. Author of works on the history of Poland, 2nd half. 18 - 1st floor. 19th centuries, founded. paid attention to the era from the 1st section of the Commonwealth (1772) to the national liberation. uprising 1863-64. tr. (on the floor. lang.): “Prince Joseph Po-nyatovsky. 1763-1813 \"(1904, translated into German and French, 2nd ed. - 1910),\" Russia - Poland. 1815-1830 \"(1907),\" Lukasiński \"(vols. 1-2, 1908, 2nd edition - 1929),\" Napoleon and Poland \"(vols. 1-3, 1918-19),\" Gdansk and Poland \"( 1919, translated into German, French and English) and other works: Kingdom of Poland. 1815-1830, M., 1915., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASKHABAD, see Ashgabat., pronunciation=ASKHABAD, see Ashgabat., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASKNAZI Abram Isaakovich (1887, Petersburg - 1937), meteorologist and forecaster. Son of I.L. Asknazia. Graduated in 1911 from St. Petersburg. un-t on the department of chemistry. During his studies, he began to conduct a synoptic. issl., worked in Ch. physical observatory. Since 1921 in Ch. military meteorological. management in Moscow, later in Moscow. region weather bureau. In 1929, on a business trip to Germany and Norway, he got acquainted with the work of the hack, weather forecasters. Upon his return, he headed the USSR Forecast Bureau (1930; later Center, Institute of Forecasts). Fact. scientific. hands. synoptic country service. The frontologist actively promoted. methods in the work of weather services. He put forward the idea of ​​a dynamic. climatology, studied the problem of air transformation. masses, discovered the existence of Eastern Europe. summer polar fr. and explained the reasons for its formation, proposed a method for generalizing synoptic. processes using average maps for the phases of processes, gave critical. analysis of the methodology of long-term forecasts by B.P. Multanovsky. Created scientific. school, preparing nauch. cadres of forecasters, which for many years determined the level of meteorology in the country. Brother A. - Samuel (1888, Petersburg - 1952), lawyer, specialist in the region. civil law, Dr. Sciences (1947), prof. department of civil. Leningrad rights. un-that since 1945., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASKNAZI Isaak Lvovich (1856, Drissa Viteb. Gubernia - 1902, Moscow), painter. Volunteer of the Academy of Arts (1870–74), then became an academician (1874–79). In 1880 A. was sent to study abroad (1880–83), worked in Berlin, Dresden, and Rome (with G. Makart). In 1885 he received the title of Acad. (\"Moses in the Wilderness\", 1882). Since 1902, members St. Petersburg. about-va thin. Follower of Acad. schools. In the 1880s - 90s. created paintings on biblical themes (\"The Coming of Saturday\", \"Parents of Moses\", etc.), genre canvases (\"For a favor\", \"Girlfriends\", etc.), less often portraits (\"The Cellist\", \"Coffee Shop\", \" and etc.). From 1881 academic. exhibitions of the Academy of Arts and St. Petersburg. about-va thin., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASKOLDOV Alexander Yakovlevich (1932, Moscow), film director. In 1955 he graduated from philology. Faculty of Moscow State University, in 1958 graduate school Lit. in-ta them. M. Gorky. In 1959-60 the inspector of the department. t-ditch of the Ministry of Culture of the USSR. In 1960–64, Ch. ed. Production Department f. Ministry of Culture of the USSR, member. script ed. Collegiums of the Committee for Cinematography of the USSR. In 1966 he graduated from dir. dep. Higher. courses for scriptwriters and dir. In 1966–81, dir. to / st. them. Gorky. Dir. doc. f. \"Comrade KamAZ\" (1972), \"My destiny KamAZ\" (1975). In 1981–85, director, artist. hands. state cinema and concert hall \"Russia\". Post, your only f. \"The Commissioner\" in 1967. The film was banned by the censorship in large part because one of the center, the character. - Jewish tinsmith - one of the few Jews in the Sov. the screen of the 50-60s. The picture was released on the screen twenty years later, in 1987. Prize \"Silver Bear\", pr. FIPRESCI, prize Int. catholic jury, prize Int. evangelical. jury at 38 International, film fest. in West Berlin., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASNIS Avram (Arkady) Efimovich (1908, Odessa - 1987, Kiev), engineer, specialist in the region. welding and structural strength. Dr. Tech. Sciences (1962), prof. from 1968. Graduated in 1934 from Leningrad State University. in-t Ing. railroad transport. Since 1938 in Kiev in the Institute of Electric Welding of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Main tr. in the region. metal welding technologies structures, strength of welded structures. State pr. Ukrainian SSR. (1972, 1982). Honored. Scientist of the Ukrainian SSR (1981). Works: Gas welding and cutting, Kiev-M., 1958; Strength increase of welded structures (et al.), 2nd ed., Kiev-M., 1985., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASSERN, see Asare., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASSINOVSKAYA, a village in the Sunzhensky district of the Ingush Republic (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in the Vladikavkaz env. Tersk Region In 1939, 8 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ASTRAKHANKA, a village in the Melitopol district of the Zaporozhye region. (Ukraine). At 19 - early. 20th century - Berdyansky settlement Tauride province. 1941 one Jew was killed in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATTACK, see Otach., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATENI, a village in the Gori region (Georgia). Main all R. 11th century Before joining Russia in 1801 - as part of the Kingdom of Kartli, from 1802 - in the Georgian province, from 1840 - in the Gori environs. Georgian-Imereti gubernia, from 1846 - in the Gori district. Tiflis province. In 1918-21 it was a part of the Georgian Democratic Republic, in 1921-91 - the Georgian SSR. In the 13-18th centuries. A. is a major bargaining. and adm. Centre. In the 18th century. as a result of the raids of the Dagestanis he was ruined. According to the testimony of Tsarevich Vakhushti Bagrationi (1745), in Armenia, along with Georgians and Armenians, there were Jews who had a synagogue. In connection with the decline of the city, the Jewish population left it. Separate Jewish families lived in Armenia until 1808, when the Jewish community ceased to exist. D.M. Khananashvili, pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATKARSK, city, regional center in the Saratov region. (Russian Federation). Main in 1781 as a district town of Saratov Gubernia. 89 Jews lived in Armenia in 1910, 47 Jews in 1926, and 42 Jews (0.2%) in 1939. In 1910 there was a Jewish cemetery in Armenia., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATLAS Eliezer (Lazar) (1851, Beysegole, Kovensky district and province - 1904, Bialystok), critic and publicist. He studied at the yeshiva in the m. Zhagory Shavelsky u. Covenskaya lips. In the beginning. In the 1870s, while living in the Novaya Zhagora metro station, he became close to the leaders of the \"Haskala\" movement, was engaged in self-education, from 1875 sotr. gas. \"Ha-Carmel\". In the 2nd half of the 1870s - the 1st half. 1880s in search of earnings wandered around the cities and m. Sev.-Zap. the edges. In 1884 he settled in Warsaw, was engaged in journalism, the author of Art. on the history of Jews in Russia and Poland, as well as on Hebrew literature. In 1888 he published the collection. \"Ha-Kerem\" attracted many others to participate in it. prominent Hebrews. writers and publicists, however, the intention to turn sat. in f. had no success. In 1898 A. published the collection. his lit.-critical. Art. Forward or backward. In the 1880s. A. is close to Palestinophilism, but already in the 1890s. walked away from him. In publicistic. Art. 1890s sharply opposed both the Palestinophiles and polit. Zionism T. Herzl and it grew. followers, became close to orthodox circles grew. Jewry, publ. a number of anti-Zionist, Art. in their organ \"Ha-Peles\", in 1900 issued a pamphlet against the Odessa Zionist. to-that. Feeling tragic. the gap between Heb. intelligentsia and the mass of Heb. people, A. tried to find a way out of this situation in the synthesis of the ideas of \"Haskala\" and trad. Heb. ideology. From 1902 A. worked as a home teacher in Moscow. In 1904, despite a serious illness, he was expelled from the city as having no right of residence in the capitals. Through several. days after the expulsion died., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATLAS Iehezkel (1913, Rava Petrokovskaya province - 1942), doctor, one of the hands. partisas. movement on the territory. Poland. After the occupation of Poland by Germ. troops (1939) fled to Kozlovshchina, where his family was destroyed by the invaders, and A. himself was sent to work as a doctor in the village of Vylka-Volya. Organized and led the partisans. a detachment of young Jews (120 fighters), who managed to escape from the ghetto in Derechin on the day of its liquidation. Soon the detachment A. joined the Sov. partisas. connection operating in the Lipichansk forests. In aug. - Oct. 1942 the partisans of Afghanistan destroyed the Germans. garrisons in Derechin, Kozlovshchina, Rude-Yavorskaya, sabotage. group under com. A. blew up a train on the railway. Lida-Grodno line and a strategic bridge across the river. Neman. In the course of the September battles of 1942, the guerrillas of Armenia captured an enemy plane, which made an emergency landing in the area where the detachment was located. A. died in battle with the punishers., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATLAS Mariam (Miriam) Semenovna (b. 1912), economist. Dr. econ. Sciences (1957). Z.V. Apglas's cousin. Graduated from econom. Faculty of Kazan high fur boots (1931). From 1933 to scientific and teaching. work in Moscow (since 1958 prof.). Author and ed. a number of textbooks on political economy and economics, incl. textbook \"Polit. economy of socialism \"(1962), uch. manuals for universities \"Fundamentals of the functioning of econ. systems \"(1991) and others, ed. collection of articles \"Questions of watered, economy\" (1958, 1963), \"Methods of teaching watered, economy in economics. universities \"(1961),\" The law of saving time ... \"(1987, 1991) and others. Works: Nationalization of banks in the USSR, M., 1945 (2nd ed. M., 1948); Credit reform in the USSR, M., 1958; The development of banking systems in the socialist countries, M., 1967., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATLAS Petr Matveyevich (b. 1926), mechanical engineer. He graduated in 1948 Moscow. engineering-physical in-t. In 1948–53 he worked as an art. Ing. in the system of the Main Directorate of Shipbuilding of the Navy of the Ministry of Defense. Since 1953 at the Tizpribor plant in Moscow, since 1962 ch. constructor. Cand. tech. Sciences (1974). tr. associated with development and research. system of means cyclical. pneumoautomatics for control of discrete processes in chem. production-wah and other branches of industry. Participated in the creation. and development in 1957 at the plant \"Tizpribor\" of the aggregate unified. systems of elements prom. pneumoautomatics - USEPP, which became the basis. element base of fatherlands, pneumatic. instrumentation. In the beginning. 1970s developed a new system \"Start\", covering a wide range of instruments assembled from standard USEPP elements. Author of printed scientific. works. Linen. pr. (1964). Cit .: Development of equipment and expansion of the capabilities of the system CYCL, Moscow, 1975 (in co-authors)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATLAS Shmuel (1899, Komay Novoaleksandrovsky u. Kovno province - 1977, New York), teacher. In 1913-18 he studied at the Lithuanian yeshivas, then in 1921-28 he studied philosophy and jurisprudence in the high fur boots of Russia (Moscow University) and Germany (Berlin, Marburg, Giessen). He taught philosophy and the Talmud at the highest. uch. institutions in Poland and England: in 1929–34 - Heb. Institute in Warsaw, in 1935–39 - Cambridge University and Magdalena College in Oxford. Since 1942 in the USA. Prof. philosophy and the Talmud in the United Heb. College of Cincinnati and Heb. in-those religions in New York. Author of works on medieval Hebrews. philosophy., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATLAS Zakhar (Zakhary) Veniaminovich (1903, Astrakhan - 1965, Moscow), economist. Dr. econ. Sciences (1939). M.S. Atlas's cousin. Graduated from econom. Faculty of Don State un-that (Rostov-on-Don) (1924), worked in the econom. and finance. institutions. Since 1935 on scientific and teaching work at the econom. Faculty of Moscow State University (since 1939 prof.), since 1963 - in Moscow. finance. in-those. Participated in the theoretical. substantiation, preparation and implementation of the 1947 monetary reform in the USSR. Member scientific and expert commission under the President. Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Specialist in money circulation and credit, author of works on the political economy of socialism, cost accounting, money circulation, finance, credit, pricing, currencies of foreign countries, countries, etc. One of the authors of the textbook for universities \"Money circulation and credit in the USSR\" (1957, repeatedly reprinted) Vol .: Money and credit under capitalism and in the USSR, parts 1–2, Moscow, 1930; Essays on the history of money circulation in the USSR, M., 1940; Household. calculation and its role in the conditions of Otech. war, M., 1944; Inflation and Currency Crisis in England after the 2nd World. war, M., 1949; Socialist. monetary system, M., 1969., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATRAN Frank (1885, - 1952, USA), entrepreneur, philanthropist. After Oct. 1917 he emigrated to Belgium, was engaged in the production and sale of textiles. Subsequently, he transferred the company to France, then to the USA (New York), where it reached its peak. In the last years of his life he made kr. contributions to charity. goals and in favor of decomp. Heb. org-tions, especially in favor of Heb. labor to-that, to-ry opened the House of Heb. culture them. A. In 1950 he donated 1 million dollars to the construction of the lab. the building of the b-tsy on Mount Scopus (Israel). For several. month to death he founded the chair of Heb. lang., literature and culture at Columbia University (USA)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ATSARKIN Vadim Alexandrovich (b. 1936, Moscow), physicist. Dr. Phys.-Math. Sciences (1971). Graduated from Moscow. un-t (1959). Since 1959 he has been working at the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, since 1986 - head. lab. Since 1990 simultaneously. prof. Moscow Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation. interests - magn. radio spectroscopy tv. bodies, quantum electronics, superconductivity. Let's experiment. found the main. patterns of change in spin temperatures at magn. resonance in tv. bodies (1967–73), as well as the collective mechanism of dynamic. polarization of nuclei (dynamic cooling). Predicted and experiment. discovered the effect of a giant amplification of the longitudinal magn. susceptibility at paramagnetic resonance. Author approx. 100 scientific. works, Cit .: Dynamic. polarization of nuclei in tv. dielectrics, M., 1980., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AUER Leopold (Lev) Semenovich (1845, Vesprim, Austrian Empire - 1930, Lovshits, Germany), violinist, teacher, conductor. The founder of the Russian. (petersburg) violin school. R. in a poor family of artisans. Thanks to his wealthy patrons, he studied violin at the age of 8, first in Pest with R. Kon, then in 1857–58 in Vienna with J. Dont. With funds from concerts, he continued his studies in Hanover (1861–63) under J. Joachim, whose teaching principles later became the basis of his own. pedagogy. In 1863-67 he was a concertmaster in the orc. Dusseldorf and Hamburg; performed in concerts as a soloist and ensemble player. In 1868, having received an invitation to the post of prof. Petersburg. cons. came to Russia. A. spent half a century in St. Petersburg: he taught violin, quartet and chamber ensemble classes in the cons., Headed symph. collection and the famous quartet of Petersburg. branch of the RMO (Russian music society), was a soloist of the orc. imperial t-ditch, simultaneously toured (in Russia and in Europe). He has performed with major pianists - A.G. Rubinstein, T. Leshetitsky, A.N. Esipova, E. d'Albert, R. Punio, I. Hoffman. To study with A. in St. Petersburg (as well as in London, where he opened a studio school), violinists from many of them came. countries. A. dedicated their op. PI Tchaikovsky (\"Melancholic Serenade\"), AK Glazunov (concert for skr. With orc. 5th quartet), A.S. Arensky (concert for skr. With orc.), S.I. . Taneyev (\"Concert Suite\") and others. Since 1918 he lived in the USA. He taught at the New York Institute of Music. lawsuit, at Curtis-in-those in Philadelphia; wrote a number of methodological literature. tr., the main of which have been translated into Russian. lang .: \"My school of playing the violin\", L., 1929; \"Among the musicians\", M., 1927. Among the students of A. - Y. Kheifets, M.B. Polyakin, N.M. Milstein, M.S.Elman, E.A.Tsimbalist, L.M. Zeitlin, Yu.I. Eidlin, B.O.Sibor.A. - the author of violin pieces, transcriptions, cadenzas (in particular, to concerts by L. van Beethoven, I. Brahms); as well as editor pl. op. (including concerts by Tchaikovsky, Glazunov)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Auer Misha (nast, name and surname. Mikhail Simonovich Unskovsky) (1905, Petersburg - 1967, Rome), film actor. Since 1928 in the USA - together with his grandfather, the violinist L.S. Auer, he took on his fam. He worked at the Broadway t-ts in New York. In 1928, dir. F. Tuttle on ch. role in f. \"Something always happens.\" Ch. arr. starring Indians, Mexicans, gypsies. In f. \"My Man Godfrey\" (1936) showed a bright comedic talent and became one of the most popular Amer. comedians of the 1930s. The greatest success was accompanied by A. in comedy films dir. F. Kapra - \"You will not take anything with you to the grave\" (1938), R. Claire \"In the end, no one will be left\" (1945), O. Wells \"The Secret Dossier\" (1955). After the 2nd world. war worked in Zap. Europe (France, Italy, Great Britain), starred in f. \"Viva, Villa!\" (1934), \"Beauty from New Orleans\", \"Helzapoppin\" (both 1941), \"Natalie\" (1957), \"Goodbye, baby\" (1966), etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Auerbach Avraham Dov-Ber (1761, Khmilniki - 1840, Safed), Hasidic rabbi. Head of the rabbi, court in Khmilnyky. Since 1785 - rabbi in Ovruch. Since 1824 (5 |) the head of the rabbi, the court in Zhitomir. From 1832 - in E.-I. in Safed, the rabbi of the Hasidic community. He headed the work to restore the Hebrews. quarter after the pogroms (1834; 1837) and the earthquake (1837)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AUERBAH Ephraim (1892, Balti, Bessarabian province - 1973, Petah Tikva), poet. In 1908 he began to publish stories in Russian. lang., and in 1909 he debuted a verse in Yiddish. In 1911 he came to Warsaw. Published periodically. ed. In 1912–15 in E.-I., he worked in kibbutzim. Since 1915 in the USA. Participated in the 1st world. war in the Heb. legion. After demobilization, he returned to the United States; was engaged in lit. active Since 1970 in Israel. Author of the book: \"Oifn Shvel\" (\"On the Threshold\"), 1915; \"Caravans\", 1918; Far Groys un Klein (For Big and Small), 1921; Dry Rizn (Three Bogatyrs), 1937; \"Yankevs getselt\" (\"Tents of Jacob\"), 1945, etc., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AUERBAKH Elizaveta Borisovna (b. 1912, Moscow), author-performer of stories. In 1935 she entered the directing department of the Theater College, after completing the 2nd year in 1937 she was accepted into the auxiliary. the composition of the Moscow Art Theater. In this t-re A. worked for a quarter of a century, played mainly secondary roles - the saleswoman of cigarettes (\"Love Yarovaya\" by K.A. Trenev), the Fifth Princess (\"Woe from Wit\" by A.S. Griboyedov), one of the lady's maids Tizl (“School of Scandal” by R. Sheridan) and others. In 1941–45 she gave concerts as part of front-line brigades. She began writing stories after the war. Performances with them in concerts were a success. In the late 50s - early. 60s A. left the theater, devoting herself entirely to the stage. Her early stories are mostly about front-line themes and theater. For the first time publ. in f. Theater (1956). And, she wrote and numerous. stories about children, the world to-rykh she understands and conveys. A. speaks in schools, arranging, as it were, a complementary lesson, in which she reads both classics to children and her own. stories, cit .: My stories, Moscow, 1959; Small ensemble, M., 1971., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AUERBACH Chaim ben Yitzchok (| - 1839), rabbi, writer. On the maternal side, he descended from I. Karo. A. held the post of rabbi in Lenchitsa, dealt with issues of rabbinical law. character, \"Dibre Mishpat\" (Kropotin, 1835), research. on questions stated. in dep. \"Shoshen Mishpat\" by I. Karo, published by A.'s son, Menachem, a rabbi in the Island, with additions., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AULIE-ATA, see Zhambyl., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AUSLENDER Sergei Abramovich (1886, Petersburg - 1943), prose writer, playwright, critic. The son of the People's Will A.Ya. Auslender. Mother - from the nobility, sister of the poet M.A. Kuzmin. He graduated from the 7th city in St. Petersburg (1906). In 1906-10 he studied at the verbal department. ist.-philol. Faculty of St. Petersburg un-that. In 1908 - a member of the Pushkin seminary of S.A. Vengerov. In 1906–08 he collaborated with VF Komissarzhevskaya. Began to publish in 1905 in g. \"Bulletin Wed. institutions ”,“ Lights ”,“ Students ”,“ Spring ”. From 1910 he published critical. Art. into gas. \"Speech\". First Sat stories - \"Golden Apples\" (1908). In 1912 A. released the 2nd collection. - \"Stories\", in 1913 - rom. \"The last satellite\", in which he tried to convey the atmosphere of lit. and artist. Petersburg in the 1910s. From 1914 he acted as a playwright. From the end. 1915 printed correspondence from the front to Petrograd. editions, in 1916 ed. Sat. stories \"Warrior's Heart\", after eating, the events of the 1st world. war. In 1918 - in Moscow, collaborated in gas. \"A life\". From Jan. 1919 was published in Kolchak gas. \"Sib. speech \". Publ. it contains the last rum. \"Visions of Life\" (about the time of the 1st World War). Since 1922 again in Moscow, broke with the former literature. environment, wrote Ch. arr. ist.-rev. stories and stories for youth. Coll. op. (v. 1–5, 7, M., 1928) consists only of children. novellas written after 1922. In 1937 he was repressed., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBAKH Ilya Alexandrovich (1934, Leningrad - 1986, ibid.), Film director and playwright. Graduated from the Leningrad Medical Institute, worked as a doctor. Graduated from the Higher. courses for directors and screenwriters at the Lenfilm studio. The author of scripts for popular science and game f. He made his directing debut in 1967. He staged fiction films. \"Degree of risk\" (1968, Grand Prix at the International Film Festival of the Red Cross in Varna, Bulgaria, 1969), \"Monologue\" (1972), \"Letters from Others\" (1975, special jury at the I IFF in Naples, Italy, 1976 ), \"Declaration of love\" (1977), \"Voice\" (1982) and others. active lawsuit in the RSFSR (1976)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBAKH Leopold Leonidovich (1903, Saratov - 1938), lit. critic, publicist, literary society. activist. R. in the merchant. family. He studied at the city. Member of the RKSM of the first composition. On instructions from the Comintern of Youth, he worked abroad. Ed. g. Young Guard (1922–24), then railway “On lit. post ”(1926–32) and gene. sec. The RAPP, which tried to turn the writers' organization into a \"cell of the Central Committee with literature\" and pursued a policy of ousting writers-\"fellow travelers\". Publicistic. and critical. A.'s works were distinguished by intolerance, class limitations, and vulgarization of the nature of the arts. creativity. After the liquidation of the RAPP, he took part in the preparation of the 1st All. Congress of Sov. writers and the implementation of a number of undertakings by M. Gorky (collection of articles about the White Sea-Baltic Canal, ser. book: \"History of Factories and Plants\", etc.). Auth. book “Cultural Revolution and Modern Issues. literature \", M.-L., 1928; “On the tasks of the flight. literature ”, ibid., 1928, etc., which today are of interest only as a document of the era. Repressed., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBAKH Mikhail Iosifovich (1872, Mariupol - 1944, Moscow), ophthalmologist, acad. USSR Academy of Sciences (1939). Graduated from honey. Faculty of Moscow un-that (1895) and was left at the clinic of eye diseases. From 1900 he worked at the Ophthalmological Hospital. V.A. and A.A. Alekseevs (since 1903 chief doctor), on the basis of a cut in 1910 founded the Department of Eye Diseases Mosk. higher wives. courses. In 1931–44 he headed the founder. named after the Department of Eye Diseases Center, Institute for Advanced Training of Doctors, at the same time (1935–44) Dir. Research Institute of Eye Diseases. G. Helmholtz, in the organization to-rogo he took an active part. Prev Vses. and Mosk. about-in eye doctors. scientific. A.'s works are devoted to various refractions of the eyes (doct. dis., 1900), problems of trachoma, glaucoma, eye traumatism, blindness, pediatric ophthalmology, ophthalmosurgery (developed and introduced into practice a number of new operations), etc. A. - the creator of scientific. schools (M.L. Krasnov, P.E. Tikhomirov and others). Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR established the prize MI Averbakh, awarded for the best scientific. work in the field of ophthalmology. His name was given to the eye clinic of the 2nd Moscow. honey. in-that, children's eye hospital at the Research Institute of Eye Diseases. G. Helmholtz, on the territory. a bust of A. was installed in 1952; on the Golitsynsky building of the First city hospital - mem. plaque in honor of A. Zasl. Scientist of the RSFSR (1933). Became. pr. (1943). Works: Ophthalmological essays, M.-L., 1940; The main forms of changes in the optic nerve, M., 1944; Damage to the eyes and their surrounding parts, M.-L., 1945., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBAKH Mikhail Mikhailovich (b. 1925, Moscow), pathologist and immunomorphologist. Dr. med. Sciences (1962), prof. (1964). Father - A. Mikhail Mikhailovich (1902-1955), obstetrician-gynecologist, associate professor, dean to lay down. Faculty of the 2nd Moscow honey. in-that; grandfather M.I. Averbakh. In 1949 he graduated to lay down. Faculty of the 2nd Moscow. honey. in-that, entered graduate school at the department of pathological. anatomy of the same inst. Since 1952 scientific. sotr., and then deputy. dir. by scientific. work Center. Institute of tuberculosis. scientific. works (St. 300, including 10 monographs) are devoted to the problems of pathogenesis, immunomorphology and immunogenetics of tuberculosis and other lung diseases. Honored. active sciences of the RSFSR. Cit .: Immunobiological bases of anti-tuberculosis vaccination, M., Medicine, 1970; Delayed type hypersensitivity and anti-tuberculosis immunity, M., Medicine, 1974; Immunology and immunopathology of tuberculosis, M., 1976; Immunological aspects of lung diseases, M., 1980; Immunogenetics of infectious diseases, M., 1985., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBAKH Yuri Lvovich (b. 1922, Kaluga), chess player; int. grandmaster (1952), international. Arbitrator (1969). Member Executive Committee (1978–82) and the Central Committee (1974–82) of FIDE. Prev chess. Federation of the USSR (1972–77). Ch. ed. g. Chess in the USSR (1962–91) and Chess Bulletin (1991–93). Shahm. theoretician, historian and writer, Champion of Moscow (1949, 1950, 1962) and the USSR (1954). Participant in the Candidates Tournament (1953) and Interzonal Tournaments (1952 and 1958). Winner of the Intern. tournaments (including Dresden (1956), Vienna (1961), Moscow (1962), Rio de Janeiro (1956), Polyanica-Zdroj (1975)). A.'s research in the region. endgame and chess history received an international. recognition. Cit .: In search of truth: (Notes of a grandmaster), M., 1967 and 1993; Travel to chess. Kingdom, 2nd ed., M., 1976 (et al.); Shahm. graduation, M., 1980., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBUKH Jacobo (1904, Kamenets - |), industrialist. Studied philosophy and societies. Sciences. There was a prez. youth organization \"Kadima\" in Kamenets; headed by Gehaluts (Bukovina, Romania). He worked in the electronic industry. Since 1940 Gen. Secretary of the Zionist Federation of Colombia. Founder of the Cultural Center for the Jews of Colombia, the first Hebrew. schools in Bogota. Published in Colombian periodicals. ed. and abroad., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVERBUKH Rebekka Abramovna (1891, Kazan - 1978, Moscow), historian. Dr. East Sciences (1938). Graduated from the Higher. wives courses at Kazan University, those taught history in Wed. school. From 1924 in Moscow, in 1924–27 she studied at the graduate school of the Institute of History RANION in the seminars of prof. N.M. Lukina and acad. V.P. Volgin. In 1925–29 he was a scientific secretary. section on the history of the West in the Society of historians-Marxists under the Communist. Academy, read a course on general history in the Communist. un-those working people of the East and the Academy of Communist. upbringing them. N.K. Krupskoy, after graduate school - Art. scientific. sotr. Institute of History Communist. Academy (from 1936 - Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, from 1969 - Institute of General History). In 1944–58 - prof. ist. Faculty of Moscow State University. Author of works on the history of modern and modern times (the history of Hungary, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the 19th and 20th centuries). She participated in the preparation of a number of calls. works, monographs, uch. manuals. Cit .: The Tsar's intervention in the fight against the Hungarian. the roar of 1848-1849, M., 1935; Italy in the first and second world. wars, M., 1946; Revolution and national liberation. wrestling in Hungary 1848-1849, M. 1965; Revolution in Austria (1848–1849!), M., 1970., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=Averbukh Wolf (1890-1936 |), polit. activist. From his youth he participated in the roar. movement. Under the influence of Art. brother Zvi (ps. - Alexander Khesin) joined Poalei Zion. During the 1st world. war, being a Russian soldier. army, got into Austr. captivity. After the revolution of 1917, a lion was at the head. Poaley Zion wing in Russia. From 1922 - in E.-I. Was engaged in illegal desks. activities. He was the first Heb. communist. a figure who established ties with the Arabs of Shechem and Nazareth. Collaborated in the communist. press. Articles were signed by ps. Abu Zion. In 1930 he was exiled to Russia, where the NKVD was arrested and, apparently, died in prison., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIDA Mordechai (b. 1909, Plock), diplomat. Studied at McGill University (Montreal), Heb. un-those (Jerusalem). Since 1930 in E.-I. In 1943–48 ed. Heb. British programs radio broadcaster. service in E.-I. In 1948–49 - deputy. dir. dep. British Commonwealth Foreign Office; in 1949–52 - one of the founders and director. radio \"Kol Zion la Gola\" (\"Voice of Zion for the Diaspora\"). In 1953–56 he was the cultural attaché of the Israeli mission in Buenos Aires. In 1956–58 he was responsible for South Amer. inf. dep. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1958–61 - Counselor at the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, from 1961 - Director. Dept. on cultural relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIDAR-CHERNOVITS Yamima (b. 1909), writer. From 1921 in E.-I. Graduated from the Herzliya government in Tel Aviv; high fur boots of Vienna and Berlin (she studied individual psychology with Alfred Adler). Published approx. 40 kn. for kids. State Israel Ave (1984)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIDAR Yosef (b. 1906, Kremenets, Volyn province), military man. activist and diplomat, brigadier general. From 1925 in E.-I., from 1927 a member. Gagany, in 1937–46 was a member of its higher. command. In 1946 the deputy. early Gene. headquarters of Gagana, in 1947–49 he headed the supply department. In 1950–55 teams. Center, and North. districts. In 1955–58 he was ambassador to the USSR. In 1958-60 gen. dir. Ministry of Labor. In 1960–68 he was ambassador to Argentina. 1968–71 finance. Inspector Histadrut., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIDOR (Burshtein) Moshe (b. 1906, Kiev), education worker, society. activist. From 1913 to E.-I. In 1931 he graduated from Columbia University. Doctor of Philosophy (1933). In 1933–42 he taught history at the Herzliya state institution (Tel Aviv). In 1942–48 - an inspector of the Hebrews. schools in E.-I. In 1948–52 - inspector for special affairs of the Israeli Ministry of Education and Culture, in 1952–53 - his general. dir. He held the post before. Nat. Commission of UNESCO (since 1954), Societies. Broadcasting Council (since 1961). Member Execute. Committee of UNESCO (since 1962). Author of the book: \"Self-government of Jews in E.-I.\" (1934), Education in Israel (1958). Published Art. on history and education in Heb. and English. g., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIDUV Yani (1891-1970, Israel), leader of the Zionist movement. In E.-I. since 1921. Member. party ha-Poel ha-Tsair. One of the organizers of illegal immigration through sowing. border, as well as from Greece and North. Africa. In the period preceding the creation of the state of Israel, he, together with Israel, managed to bring to E.-I. thousands of date palm seedlings, which served as the basis for date plantations in the Arava., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIGDOR Ben Shmuel (| - 1771, Vilna), rabbi. In 1719-1768 he served as a rabbi in Pruzhany, Pruzhany, Vilkavishki and Zelva. The author of responses. A.'s son - Shmuel, the rabbi of Vilna., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVIGDORI (Vendorkhoys) Shneur Zalman (1891, Nikolaev - 1960, Israel), doctor, one of the first fighters against malaria and tuberculosis in E.-I. Received a tradition. Heb. education. Graduated from honey. Faculty of Yuryevsky University. During the 1st world. war - military. doctor of the Russian army. In 1919 he arrived at E.-I. on the ship \"Ruslan\". He was a doctor in Galilee, and later in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. One of the founders of public medicine in Israel. Founder of the League Against Tuberculosis and the Doctors' Union., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АВИНОСТО, см. Авинюоста., pronunciation=АВИНОСТО, см. Авинюоста., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АВИНОВИЦКИЙ Яков Лазаревич (1897–1938, Москва), военачальник, корпусной комиссар (1935); д-р пед. наук (1936). Сын учителя. Окончил нач. нар. уч-ще (1913), спец. пед. курсы (1916), работал учителем. С 1919 в Кр. Армии. Зам. пред. ЧК при к-те обороны Литовско-Белорус. республики. Затем до окт. 1920 – на Зап. фр. В 1921 один из рук. подавления т.н. антоновского мятежа в Тамбовской губ., затем комиссар хим. курсов усовершенствования комсостава. Окончил эти же курсы (1922), 2 курса экон. ф-та Ин-та им. К.Маркса (1923). В 1932–34 нач. и военком Военно-хоз. академии РККА, с 1934 – нач. и военком Воен. академии химзащиты, один из создателей и организаторов хим. службы Кр. Армии. Расстрелян., pronunciation=АВИНОВИЦКИЙ Яков Лазаревич (1897–1938, Москва), военачальник, корпусной комиссар (1935); д-р пед. наук (1936). Сын учителя. Окончил нач. нар. уч-ще (1913), спец. пед. курсы (1916), работал учителем. С 1919 в Кр. Армии. Зам. пред. ЧК при к-те обороны Литовско-Белорус. республики. Затем до окт. 1920 – на Зап. фр. В 1921 один из рук. подавления т.н. антоновского мятежа в Тамбовской губ., затем комиссар хим. курсов усовершенствования комсостава. Окончил эти же курсы (1922), 2 курса экон. ф-та Ин-та им. К.Маркса (1923). В 1932–34 нач. и военком Военно-хоз. академии РККА, с 1934 – нач. и военком Воен. академии химзащиты, один из создателей и организаторов хим. службы Кр. Армии. Расстрелян., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVITSUR Shmuel (b. 1908, Baku), geographer, ethnographer. Studied at Baku University. In E.-I. - from 1931. In 1938 he founded the first in E.-I. Department of Regional Studies. In 1952 he founded the Institute of Local Lore. Haim Avshalom. Prof. Tel Aviv University. Etc. Israel Geography (1977). The author of works on geography, local history and archeology E.-I., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АВНЕР (Зеликович) Элимелех (1897–1957, Израиль), воен. деятель, генерал (1948). С 1917 в Э.-И., мобилизован в тур. армию, командовал ротой на Македонском фр., затем на фр. Газы. В 1918 вступил добровольцем в Евр. легион Брит. армии, где прослужил 2 года. В 1921 участвовал в выработке осн. плана учений Гаганы, тогда же возглавил первый в Э.-И. курс подготовки офицеров. С 1931 входил в высшее командование Гаганы, был ее командующим в Тель-Авиве, позднее – в Юж. Галилее., pronunciation=АВНЕР (Зеликович) Элимелех (1897–1957, Израиль), воен. деятель, генерал (1948). С 1917 в Э.-И., мобилизован в тур. армию, командовал ротой на Македонском фр., затем на фр. Газы. В 1918 вступил добровольцем в Евр. легион Брит. армии, где прослужил 2 года. В 1921 участвовал в выработке осн. плана учений Гаганы, тогда же возглавил первый в Э.-И. курс подготовки офицеров. С 1931 входил в высшее командование Гаганы, был ее командующим в Тель-Авиве, позднее – в Юж. Галилее., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVNIEL Mordechai (1900, Pinsk - |), artist, lawyer. Hood. educated at the Higher School of Arts in Yekaterinburg. Delegate from \"Tseirei Zion\" Yekaterinburg at the Zionist congress in Moscow (1920). In E.-I. - from 1921. In 1923–28 - director. and teacher of the miniature department at the Bezalel Academy. In 1929–34 he collaborated in the revisionist press. In 1932 he graduated from law. school in Jerusalem and began to practice law. In 1948–65, he was a member. mountains. Haifa Council from Herut Party; was a member of the Supreme Court. As a landscape painter, he participated in art. exhibitions in Israel and other countries., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVNIMELEKH Moshe (1899, Warsaw - 1971, Jerusalem), geologist, paleontologist. He studied at high fur boots in Warsaw, Göttingen and Grenoble. An activist of \"ha-Shomer ha-Tsair\". In E.-I. from 1922. In 1925 he returned to Poland and taught at the Tarbut school. He returned to E.-I. in 1930, taught in Heb. un-those in Jerusalem. Since 1952 - prof., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVNON Yaakov (b. 1919, Vilno), diplomat. Since 1937 in E.-I. Graduated from the Technion in Haifa. In 1940–46 he served in Britain. army, demobilized with the rank of major. From 1950 to a diploma. work: in 1952–55 1st sec. Embassy of Israel in Sweden, in 1955-61 gene. consul in Los Angeles, then ambassador to Sierra Leone., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVRAAM-SIMKHA MSTISLAVSKY (early 19th century - 1864), tzadik. Son of Rabbi Pogostsky and nephew of H. Volozhinsky. Under the guidance of his uncle, Rabbi Chaim, he studied the Talmud and Kabbalah in Volozhin, and after the death of Rabbi Chaim he became a yeshiva teacher. About 1835 he took up the post of rabbi in Mstislavl, Mogilev province, where he was until 1864. The author of the correspondence with the present-day. rabbis for jurisprudence. The part of the book that remained after the fire was published after his death by his son Chaim-Joseph., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVRAAMOVO, see Abramovo., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVREKH Aron Yakovlevich (1915, Kirsanov, Tambov province - 1988, Moscow), historian. Dr. East Sciences (1967). Graduated from East. Faculty of Moscow State University (1940) and taught history at ped. in-those of Mr. Engels. Since Aug. 1941 at the front. After demobilization (1946) he taught history at the Arkhangelsk pedagogue. in-those, in 1947-50 he studied at the graduate school of Moscow State University. In 1950–54 he worked in the system of the USSR Academy of Sciences as a consultant on problems of history, from 1954 at the Institute of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1968 at the Institute of History of the USSR of the USSR Academy of Sciences). Since 1954, deputy. responsible secretary, in 1958–61 responsible. sec. collection \"East. notes \". Author of works on the history of the state. building, int. politics and societies.-polit, struggle in Russia at the beginning. 20th century Articles A. “On certain questions of the rev. situations ”(“ Questions of the history of the KPSS ”, 1966, No. 5) and“ Rus. absolutism and its role in the establishment of capitalism in Russia \"(\" History of the USSR \", 1968, No. 2) gave rise to a lively scientific. discussions. Participated in the preparation of a number of multivolume publications, incl. \"History of the USSR from ancient times to the present day\", vol. 6 (Moscow, 1968). Cit .: Tsarism and the third June system, Moscow, 1966; Stolypin and the Third Duma, M., 1968; Tsarism and the IV Duma. 1912-1914, M., 1981; The collapse of the third June system, M., 1985; Tsarism on the eve of the overthrow, M., 1989; Freemasons and Revolution, M., 1990; P.A. Stolypin and the fate of reforms in Russia, M., 1991., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVROM-ABELE ben Avrom-Shloyme (1764 1836), rabbi. Known as Abele Posvoler. He was a student of Shloyme from Vilkomir. In his youth, he became a rabbi in Posvol (near Kovna), from 1802 - the head of the Vilna \"beis-din\", held this post in tech. 30 years. In 1835 he intervened in a discussion between ed. Talmud by the Romm family (Vilna) and the Shapiro (Slavuta) brothers. (Publishing house from Slavuta started work earlier and believed that the Romm family usurped their initiative). In 1822 Jews E.-I. financial difficulties arose, and A. called on the Jews of Poland and Lithuania to help them. A. failed to publish. his tr., but some of them have survived in the records of his contemporaries. A. approved \"Teuda be-Israel\" I.B. Levinzon, one of the leading grew. \"Maskilim\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVRUNIN Abraham (1869-1957), philologist and specialist in the region. Hebrew grammar. Rod. in Russia; joined the Hibbat Zion movement and became a staunch Zionist. In 1898 he taught Hebrew in Minsk and devoted himself to the study of Hebrew linguistics. From 1910 in E.-I., where he taught in Wed. schools in Tel Aviv and the College of Educators for Children. gardens, d. his student I. Galperin. A. fought for the use of pure and literate Hebrew. The author is etymological. and linguistic. works, Hebrew grammar (with A. Pepper, 1922), wrote poetry and epigrams, led a linguist's column in the gas. \"Haaretz\" and was co-editor of the periodical. ed. \"Va'ad ha-Lashon\", \"Leshonenu la-Am\". He wrote commentaries on the \"Book of Job\" (jointly with AZ Rabinovich, 1916); research \"Medieval poetry in Hebrew\" (1929); prepared by ed. books by Y. Al-Kharivi with a preface and commentary (1945)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVRUSHCHENKO Vladimir Izrailevich (1908, Yampol, Podolsk province - 1941, approx. Pyryatin), poet. From 1918 to 1925 he lived in Poltava, where he graduated from high school. Here he began to write poetry. The first verse, published in the Kharkov Komsomol, Gaz. in 1925. In the same year he moved to Moscow, where he studied at the Higher. lit. courses and in Lit. in-those. His poems were published in the newspaper: \"Komsomolskaya Pravda\", \"Literaturnaya Gazeta\", \"Krestyanskaya Gazeta\", in f. Ogonyok, Molodaya Gvardiya, Novy Mir, Oktyabr and others. Before the war of 1941–45, more than 100 verses were published, and more than 50 trans. in Russian lang. from Ukrainian, Belarusian, Ossetian. and other languages. In 1932, Sat. his poems \"The Fourth Battalion\", in 1935 in Poltava Sat. \"Poltava\", in 1937 in Kiev - Sat. \"Gardens\". In the beginning. During the 1941–45 war, he volunteered for the French, worked for the army gas. \"Combat Campaign\". He was wounded, captured and executed. In 1971, the book was published. his poems \"The Oath\"., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVRUTIK Avratam N. (1909, Kherson - 1982, USA), rabbi, religious activist. In 1921-29 he lived in Canada. Since 1929 - in the USA. Bachelor of Arts (1934). Rabbi since 1936 (after graduating from the Theological Seminary of Rabbi Isaac Elhanan). Since 1947 hand. decomp. religious associations: member. executive committee of the Union of Orthodox Jews. communities of America; in 1948-50, vice-president. Council of America's Rabbis, in 1950–56, founder and 1st Pres. Connecticut Rabbis Council, since 1962 - Pres. Council of America's Rabbis., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVRUTIS Chaim Avraamovich (b. 1928, Baryshevka, Kiev region), painter, graphic artist. From a Hasidic family, but after the death of his father and grandfather, he lost contact with Heb. tradition. Since 1933 in Moscow. Studied in a private art. N.V. Sinitsyn's studio (1937–40), in the Moscow Art School (1940–47) in the class. V.V. Pochitalov, then at the Moscow Art Institute. VI Surikov (1947–53). In 1954–67 he lived in Novosibirsk, worked primarily. in the portrait genre (the Theorists series, etc.). At the turn of the 50-60s. joined the so-called. \"Severe style\", which is usually characterized by a dark color and expressive heavy brushstroke. At the same time. A. worked a lot in the region. book ill. for children, led by teach. and will enlighten. active Since 1971 he has been living and working in Troitsk Moscow. region He created a number of cycles (ch. Arr. Tempera), the best of which is the \"Great French Revolution\". Whole sir. works devoted to Heb. subject (\"The scripture says ...\", \"Boy and the Talmudists\", \"Menorah: The Tree of Martyrs\", etc.). In recent years. paints portraits and landscapes of the Moscow region. Participant of group and personal exhibitions., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АВРУЦКИЙ Григорий Яковлевич (1924, Москва – 1993, там же), психиатр. Д-р мед. наук (1968), проф. (1969). После окончания Военно-мед. академии в Ленинграде (1948) служил воен. врачом-психиатром. С 1953 и до конца жизни работал в Моск. НИИ психиатрии МЗ РФ (его учителями были М.Я.Серейский, Д.Е.Мелехов, С.Г.Жислин). В 1961 совершенствовался в Англии и Франции, в т.ч. у франц. ученых Ж.Делея и П.Деникера – пионеров психофармакотерапии.С именем А. связано становление и развитие психофармакотерапии в СССР. Его науч. тр. посв. психофармакологии, орг-ции внебольничной терапевтич. помощи душевнобольным и др. проблемам психиатрии. Засл. деятель науки РСФСР (1987). Гос. пр. СССР (1980).Соч.: Лечение психически больных, М., 1981 (соавт.)., pronunciation=АВРУЦКИЙ Григорий Яковлевич (1924, Москва – 1993, там же), психиатр. Д-р мед. наук (1968), проф. (1969). После окончания Военно-мед. академии в Ленинграде (1948) служил воен. врачом-психиатром. С 1953 и до конца жизни работал в Моск. НИИ психиатрии МЗ РФ (его учителями были М.Я.Серейский, Д.Е.Мелехов, С.Г.Жислин). В 1961 совершенствовался в Англии и Франции, в т.ч. у франц. ученых Ж.Делея и П.Деникера – пионеров психофармакотерапии.С именем А. связано становление и развитие психофармакотерапии в СССР. Его науч. тр. посв. психофармакологии, орг-ции внебольничной терапевтич. помощи душевнобольным и др. проблемам психиатрии. Засл. деятель науки РСФСР (1987). Гос. пр. СССР (1980).Соч.: Лечение психически больных, М., 1981 (соавт.)., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AVSHALOM (Fridman) Chaim (1890-1952, Israel), trade unionist. In his youth, he was an activist of the Ceireytsion. After the revolution in Russia, together with I. Trumpeldor, he created \"Ge Halutz\". From 1919 - in E.-I. He worked as a road worker, was a delegate to the founding congress of trade unions (1920). One of the founders of the union of working youth. Hereinafter - Member. Tel Aviv Workers Council, held leading positions in central prof. organs, mainly. related to culture and education. The \"Avshalom Institute\" at Tel-Aviv University, engaged in local history E.-I., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АВШАУЛОВ Хизгил Давидович (р. 1913, с. Нюгди Дагестанской обл.), писатель, фольклорист. Пишет на татском и рус. языках. Классик советской литературы горских евреев. Участник 2-й мир. войны. До 1956 занимался журналистикой. Сотрудничал в ежегоднике «Совет Ватаниму», выходящему на татском языке. Первая повесть – «Влюбленные» опубликована в 1939. Один из первых собирателей и публикаторов фольклора горских евреев. В 1940 издал сб. «Татский фольклор». Автор пьесы «Любовь в опасности».Соч.: Встреча у родника, М., 1960; Под чинарами, М., 1960; Толмач имама, 1967; Сказание о любви, Махачкала, 1972; Возмездие, М., 1978., pronunciation=АВШАУЛОВ Хизгил Давидович (р. 1913, с. Нюгди Дагестанской обл.), писатель, фольклорист. Пишет на татском и рус. языках. Классик советской литературы горских евреев. Участник 2-й мир. войны. До 1956 занимался журналистикой. Сотрудничал в ежегоднике «Совет Ватаниму», выходящему на татском языке. Первая повесть – «Влюбленные» опубликована в 1939. Один из первых собирателей и публикаторов фольклора горских евреев. В 1940 издал сб. «Татский фольклор». Автор пьесы «Любовь в опасности».Соч.: Встреча у родника, М., 1960; Под чинарами, М., 1960; Толмач имама, 1967; Сказание о любви, Махачкала, 1972; Возмездие, М., 1978., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AYALON (Leshchiner) Zvi (b. 1911), military. activist and diplomat, gen. Israel Defense Forces (1948). From 1923 in E.-I. He studied at the Ga-Reali state institution in Haifa and in s.-kh. school \"Mikve-Israel\". In 1927 he joined Gagana, worked his way up from ml. com. to the leading officer of her gen. headquarters. After the creation of the Israel Defense Forces (1948) - deputy. early Gene. headquarters. During the War of Independence, the Center commanded, fr. In 1952, he headed the quartermaster department of Gen. headquarters. In 1954 - teams. Center, neighborhood. In 1955–57 he trained in the USA, from 1957 the beginning. dep. building of the Ministry of Defense of Israel, since 1958 deputy. gene. dir. this min-va. In 1959 he headed a delegation of the Ministry of Defense in Great Britain. Since 1964 - Ambassador to Romania., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AYAN, village, center of Ayano-Maisky district of Khabarovsk Territory (Russian Federation). At 19 - early. 20th century - in the Primorsk region. In 1939, 20 Jews lived in Armenia., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EICHENWALD Alexander Yulievich (1904, Moscow - 1941, Oryol), economist, publicist. Son of Yu.I. Eichenwald. In 1919–20 p. Krasnopresnenskiy RK and MGK RKP (b), instructor and agitprop party committee in Pyatigorsk. In 1920–21 he studied at the Communist. un-those them. Ya.M. Sverdlov in Moscow. In oct. 1924 - scientific. sotr. this un-that. In 1924–25 he was a propagandist in the town of Bezhitsa, Bryansk province. In 1925-28 he studied economics. department of the Institute of red professors in Moscow. In 1926-27 he was a member. edition w. \"Communistich. International\". In 1928-29 - prof. political economy in Tatar Communist. un-those in Kazan; author of the brochure \"On the tactics of the Comintern in China\" (1927), pl. articles on the theory of economics and world economy, in f. \"Bolshevik\", \"Under the Banner of Marxism\", \"Communist. International \"and others, monograph\" Sov. economics: Economics and economics, politics of the USSR \". In 1930 he was expelled from the party for belonging to the \"Right Opposition\" and was soon reinstated. In 1933 he was arrested on charges of belonging to the \"Antipart, a group of rightists ...\", sentenced to 2 years in prison (he was kept in the Suzdal political isolator). In 1935 he was sentenced again to 2 years in prison, replaced by exile in the town of Berezov, where A. worked in the floating workshop of Berezovsky fish. s-yes (1935). In Jan. 1937 arrested again on charges of counterrevolution. activities; sentenced to 15 years in prison. He served his sentence in the Oryol prison. 09/11/1941 by the verdict of the Military. Colleges Top. USSR ships were shot., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EIKHENWALD Alexandra Yurievna (b. 1957, Moscow), linguist. Daughter of Y.A. Eichenwald. In 1979 she graduated from the department of structural and applied linguistics philol. Faculty of Moscow State University. In 1980–89 she worked at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Cand. philol. Sciences (1989). Since 1989 - prof. Federal University of Santa Catarina State in Florianópolis in Brazil, since 1994 prof. University of Canberra (Australia). Author of many works on the Berber, Anatolian languages, languages ​​of the South Indians. America, according to the Baltic-Finnish mythology; Hebrew specialist, author of approx. 15 articles and monograph “Sovr. Hebrew \", M., 1990., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EIKHENWALD Boris Yulievich (1902, Moscow - 1938), literary critic. Son of Yu.I. Eichenwald). Graduated from Philosophy. dep. ist.-philol. Faculty of Moscow un-that (1922). In 1922–23 scientific. sotr. Inst. Scientific. philosophy. From 1923 he taught Russian. literature in schools and in training courses in higher education. uch. institutions. In Jan. 1926 in Lit. section of the State. acad. artist Sciences (GAKhN) read the report \"Dostoevsky's willfulness\", after which in March he became a freelance scientist. sotr. Philos. dep. Gakhn. In the Commission for the Compilation of the Dictionary of Aesthetic. A. terminology dealt with the concepts of \"Art\", \"Art and Nature\", \"Normativeism\". In Dept. General lawsuit worked on the study of aesthetics. views of NV Gogol, made reports \"The structure of the verbal image\", \"The way of cinema\", etc. Prepared by dis. \"On the lyrics of Pushkin\". The author of Art. about TV-ve MS Shaginyan \"Method\" Hydrocentral \"(Zh.\" Krasnaya nov \", 1933, book 2). Together with A.I.Smirnitsky per. in Russian lang. op. Swede, poet I. Tegner (1935). In apr. 1937 arrested (during arrest, among other papers, A.'s work \"The Philosophy of Betrayal\" was seized), sentenced to 5 years in prison. He died in a camp in the Far East., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EIKHENVALD Lev Isaevich (1873, Balta, Podolsk province - 1954, Odessa), psychiatrist. Brother of Yu.I. Eichenwald. Prof. (1935). Graduated from Yuryevsky University, in 1899-1908 resident of the Odessa psychiatrist. b-tsy. In 1904–05 during the Russian-Japanese period. war was in the army. In 1908-14 - psychiatrist resident. b-tsy in Ufa, in 1913 conducted a census of the mentally ill in the Ufa province., participant of the 1st world. war (military doctor). From 1921 - Ch. doctor Odessa psychiatrist. hospitals. Member Board of the Odessa branch of the Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists, the author of St. 50 scientific. works on clinical issues, court-psychiatric. examination and organization of psychiatrists. help (including the monograph \"The Right of the Mentally Ill\", 1925)., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EICHENWALD Julius Isasvich (1872, Balta, Podolsk province - 1928, Berlin), lit. critic. The son of a rabbi. In 1894 he graduated from historical philology. Faculty of Novorossiysk un-that in Odessa with a gold medal for the work \"Locke's empiricism and Leibniz's rationalism.\" From 1895 he taught in Moscow, was a secretary scientist. Moscow psychol. about-va, chl. Pushkin Commission of the Society of Lovers of Russian Literature. Translated from him. lang. book K. Fischer \"A. Schopenhauer\" (M., 1895) and complete collection. op. A. Schopenhauer (vols. 1–4, Moscow, 1901–10). A. in pl. periodic. ed. published Art. on philosophy, ped. or T. Topics. Wrote Art. for encycl. dictionary Granat, for “History of Rus. literature \"D. N. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky. A. lit. became famous. portraits, interpretation of the work of Rus. and Western European writers and books. “Silhouettes of Russian. writers \"(vol. 1-3. Moscow, 1906-10),\" Studies on Western Writers \"(Moscow, 1910). A. is a representative of impressionistic, immanent criticism. This criticism contradicted Russian. democratic traditions, for to-rykh were important chap. arr. social problems and journalistic. focus. Believing that the critic has the right to interpret thin. manuf. subjectively, A. saw in the criticism a kind of priest - a mediator between the creator and the reader. In the discussion about the development of t-ra (1900–10) A. stated that t-r had outlived its usefulness, that the scene was depriving thin. the text of its inherent ambiguity. An essay on Belinsky, the inconsistency of which A. proved the inconsistency, caused controversy, after which A. published the book. \"Dispute about Belinsky: Answer to the Critics\" (Moscow, 1914). October. A. did not accept the Revolution of 1917. A number of Art. A. is dedicated to Heb. issue, the origins of anti-Semitism, whose roots in social and spirit. infringement of a person. In 1922, together with other intellectuals of A. was exiled abroad. Lived in Berlin, published in emigre. press, conducted literary critic. dep. into gas. \"Rul\" giving weekly. reviews of owls. and émigré literature, taught in Rus. scientific. in-those, was the soul of lit. about-va \"Club of Writers\", member. to-rogo was V.V. Nabokov, whose aesthetic. views A. had a significant impact. Killed by being hit by a tram., pronunciation=None, extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EIKHENWALD Yuri Alexandrovich (ps: Y. Valich, Y. Sitnikov) (1928, Moscow - 1993, ibid.), Poet, translator, member of the human rights movement, son of A.Yu. Eichenwald. After the arrest of his parents, he worked and went to school as a slave. youth. In 1947 he entered the lit. Faculty of Moscow mountains. ped. in-ta them. V.P. Potemkin. In 1949 he was arrested and exiled to Karaganda for 10 years; in exile in 1951 he was arrested again, placed in Leningrad. prison psychiatrist. b-tsu. After rehabilitation (1955) he graduated from lit. Faculty of Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. V.I. Lenin. In 1957–68 he taught literature at school. Since 1957 he has published poetry, trans., Art. into gas. \"Mosk. Komsomolets \",\" Teach. newspaper \",\" Lit. newspaper \", etc., in f. \"Family and School\", \"New World\", \"Theater\", \"Art-in Cinema\" and others. He wrote lyrics for the plays of the Moscow Art Theater, made an authorization. per. plays by O. Zagradnik \"Solo for the striking clock\" (Moscow Art Theater, 1973); per. and made a stage. edition of the comedy by E. Rostan \"Cyrano de Bergerac\" (premiere in the theater \"Contemporary\", 1964). In \"Contemporary\" in the lane. and scenic A.'s edition staged the plays \"The Masters\" by R. Stoyanov (1968) and \"Lorenzaccio\" by A. Musset (1979). Author of the text for the musical \"The Man from La Mancha\" (VV Mayakovsky Theater in Moscow) and a number of other plays, as well as monographs about the actors of the Small Theater: \"Ostuzhev\" (Moscow, 1977); \"A.I.Sumbatov-Yuzhin\" (M., 1987). Main themes of poetry A. - the importance of eternal human. values, a sense of history, the sin of oblivion, fidelity to love, etc. Poems and prose A. were distributed in samizdat, collection \"On the edge of the sharp\" (1972) and \"Leap year\" (1980), as well as ist. research Don Quixote on Russian soil (vols. 1–2, 1982–84) publ. in the West., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EINZAFT Samuil Semenovich (ps. Sh. Stulin) (1889, Zhitomir - 1929, Moscow), historian, participant of the revolutionary. movement. Carpenter-furniture maker by profession. In 1905, a member of the Hebrew. self-defense in Zhitomir, then joined the Socialist. Heb. working party (SERP). In 1908 he was arrested and exiled for 3 years to the Vologda province. Since 1914, member. Bund. In 1916 he was arrested and exiled to the Irkutsk province. After Feb. rev-tion - in Zhitomir, member. Pres. Volyn lips. Council of Trade Unions, then worked in the Yuzhprofburo (Kharkov). In the years of civil. During the war, he was repeatedly persecuted by the Petliurists and White Guards. In 1920 he left the Bund, soon moved to Moscow, studied at the Institute of the Red Professors. Author of works on the history of the labor movement in Russia. Member Ob-va of Marxist historians, one of the founders of the Istprof MGSPS, worked in the bureau of the section for the study of roar. movement among the Jews under Vses. about-ve of former political prisoners and exiled settlers, collaborated with Heb. scientific. ob-vom and Heb. Department of Ukr. AN Op .: Zubatovschina and Gaponovschina, M., 1922 (4th ed. M., 1925); Labor movement in Russia before 1905, M., 1924; The first stage of the trade union movement in Russia (1905-1907), c. 1–2, Gomel, 1924–25; The history of the worker prof. movement of woodworkers before the revolution of 1917, M., 1928., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНБЕРГ Григорий Захарович ( 1904, Тимковичи – 1994, Москва), специалист в обл. теории и техники антенн для радиосвязи и радиовещания. Д-р техн. наук (1946). После окончания в 1930 Одесского политехн. ин-та работал в Центр. н.-и. ин-те связи, где возглавлял антенный отдел, (с 1949 – отдел НИИ радио). С 1946 преподавал в Моск. электротехн. ин-те связи, зав. кафедрой техн. электродинамики антенн, проф. с 1946. Под рук. А. разработаны практически все используемые в стране вещательные и связные антенны, в т. ч. для СВ, ДВ и KB диапазонов, внедрены высокоэффективные антенны для KB диапазонов с изменяющимся направлением макс. излучения. А. принадлежат работы по антенно-фидерным устройствам для радиорелейных линий связи с использованием искусств, спутников Земли. Автор 53 изобретений, 60 печатных работ, в т. ч. 7 монографий, 3 из к-рых переведены за рубежом. Засл. деятель науки и техники РСФСР (1965). Стал, пр. (1947). Лен. пр. (1957). Гос. пр. СССР (1984).Соч.: Антенны для магистральных коротковолновых радиосвязей, М., 1948; Антенны ультракоротких волн. М., 1957; Коротковолновые антенны, М., 1962; Пассивные ретрансляторы для радиорелейных линий, М., 1973; Антенны УКВ, ч. 1–2, М., 1977., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНБЕРГ Григорий Захарович ( 1904, Тимковичи – 1994, Москва), специалист в обл. теории и техники антенн для радиосвязи и радиовещания. Д-р техн. наук (1946). После окончания в 1930 Одесского политехн. ин-та работал в Центр. н.-и. ин-те связи, где возглавлял антенный отдел, (с 1949 – отдел НИИ радио). С 1946 преподавал в Моск. электротехн. ин-те связи, зав. кафедрой техн. электродинамики антенн, проф. с 1946. Под рук. А. разработаны практически все используемые в стране вещательные и связные антенны, в т. ч. для СВ, ДВ и KB диапазонов, внедрены высокоэффективные антенны для KB диапазонов с изменяющимся направлением макс. излучения. А. принадлежат работы по антенно-фидерным устройствам для радиорелейных линий связи с использованием искусств, спутников Земли. Автор 53 изобретений, 60 печатных работ, в т. ч. 7 монографий, 3 из к-рых переведены за рубежом. Засл. деятель науки и техники РСФСР (1965). Стал, пр. (1947). Лен. пр. (1957). Гос. пр. СССР (1984).Соч.: Антенны для магистральных коротковолновых радиосвязей, М., 1948; Антенны ультракоротких волн. М., 1957; Коротковолновые антенны, М., 1962; Пассивные ретрансляторы для радиорелейных линий, М., 1973; Антенны УКВ, ч. 1–2, М., 1977., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=ISENBERG Isaak Petrovich (1902 - 1968, Moscow), economist. Dr. econ. Sciences (1960). Graduated from Moscow. in-t Nar. x-va them. G.V. Plekhanov (1929). From 1932 to teach. work in Moscow (since 1962 prof.). Author of works on monetary finance. relations under socialism. Cit .: Schemes of document formation for settlement operations of the State Bank, M., 1937; Questions of the exchange rate of the ruble, M., 1958; Fundamentals of the stability of money under socialism, M., 1964., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EISENBERG Mikhail Natanovich (b. 1948, Moscow), poet, critic. Graduated from Moscow. architect. Institute (1972), worked as an architect-restorer. Published abroad since 1974, in the USSR since 1989. Lyrics 1972–92 were included in the book. \"Index of Names\" (Moscow, 1993). Poetics A., directly inheriting the lyric. traditions of V.F. Khodasevich, is based on emphatically earthly and everyday images. A. acted as a theorist and popularizer of \"new poetry\", primarily Russian. postmodernism., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EISENBERG Nina Evseevna (1902, Moscow - 1974, ibid.), Artistic director t-ra and cinema, easel graphic artist. She studied at the studio of F.I.Rerberg (1914), the school of I.I.Mashkov, then at the VKHUTEMAS (1918–24) in the class of I.I.Mashkov and A.A. Osmerkin. From 1924 she worked in the \"Blue Blouse\" trade center, where she created sketches of costumes, sets, \"stage numbers\". A.'s work was distinguished by laconicism and simplicity. Designed performances for a number of t-drov in Moscow and Leningrad (\"Green Island\", \"Bourgeois in the nobility\"). A. - participated in Moscow. Association of Artistic Decorators (MAHD) (1928–32), was a member. association \"October\" (1930–32), participated in the decoration of Moscow for the holidays (1930–41). After the war of 1941–45 she continued to work in the t-ts of Moscow (\"The Gadfly\", \"Plyasunya\", \"Henry IV\", etc.). She was the artistic director of the cartoon. \"The Tale of the Priest and His Worker Balda\" (1955). In recent years, she has been doing a lot of easel graphics., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EISENBERG Julian Borisovich (b. 1931, Kiev), engineer, specialist in the region. lighting devices. Dr. Tech. Sciences (1986), prof. since 1988, ch. Academy of Electrical Engineering. Sciences (1993). At the end of Moscow. energetic in-that in 1954 worked in N. - and. lighting technology. in-those in Moscow (head of laboratory, head of the department of lighting devices and lighting for industrial and public buildings). scientific. tr. associated with the system development of lighting devices, the principles and methods of their classification, the calculation of the service life. Developed by scientific. terminology and designation system for light electrical engineering. products. Conducted a complex of studies. and the development of a number of non-traditional solutions for lighting devices (with pneumatic protection against pollution, with heat-reflecting screens, in a particularly vibration and shock-resistant design). He put forward a number of new ideas and developed principles for designing lighting, devices with long hollow fibers, as well as maintenance-free lighting devices. He supervised the development and introduction into serial production of more than 40 series of new mass lamps. Since 1957 scientific. ed., from 1969 ch. ed. scientific and technical g. \"Lighting Engineering\"; in 1993 he founded the international. scientific. g. on Lighting Engineering, published in New York. Is the vice-president. Lighting engineering. about-va of the CIS countries, before. Tech. to-that \"Hollow light guides\", Mezhdunar. lighting commissions. Honored. inventor (1992). Author of 300 scientific. works, monographs, 60 inventions, international patents. Cit .: Lighting devices with fluorescent lamps, Moscow, 1968; Lighting devices, M., 1980; Reference book. on lighting engineering, M., 1983; Basics of designing lighting devices, M., 1994., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНМАН Алексей Семенович (р. 1918, Москва), живописец, график, педагог. Учился в Моск. худ. уч-ще им. 1905 года (1933–38) на отд. станковой живописи у Н.П.Крымова. С 1954 уч. в выставках. Основные работы А. созданы в жанре городского пейзажа; причем большая часть их написана маслом («Улица Горького», «В московском дворе», «Зубовская площадь», «В Кировске», «Новороссийск» и др.). Исключением являлись произведения 70-х гг., созданные темперой («В районе Арбата», «На Садовом кольце», «У Кировских ворот» и др.). А. в совершенстве владеет эффектами освещения и разработкой световых нюансов. В последние гг. пишет гл. обр. придуманные пейзажи. С 1960 преподает в заочном нар. ун-те иск-в на ф-те изобр. иск-ва., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНМАН Алексей Семенович (р. 1918, Москва), живописец, график, педагог. Учился в Моск. худ. уч-ще им. 1905 года (1933–38) на отд. станковой живописи у Н.П.Крымова. С 1954 уч. в выставках. Основные работы А. созданы в жанре городского пейзажа; причем большая часть их написана маслом («Улица Горького», «В московском дворе», «Зубовская площадь», «В Кировске», «Новороссийск» и др.). Исключением являлись произведения 70-х гг., созданные темперой («В районе Арбата», «На Садовом кольце», «У Кировских ворот» и др.). А. в совершенстве владеет эффектами освещения и разработкой световых нюансов. В последние гг. пишет гл. обр. придуманные пейзажи. С 1960 преподает в заочном нар. ун-те иск-в на ф-те изобр. иск-ва., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=EISENSTADT Benjemin (1838, Brestovichi, Vilna province - 1920, Uteny, Lithuania), rabbi. R. in the family of a local rabbi. Received a tradition. Heb. religious education. 1868-1920 - Rabbi in Uteny. He was known for his sympathy for religions. Zionism., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Борис Абрамович (р. 1913, Слуцк, Минской губ.), метеоролог и биоклиматолог. Д-р геогр. наук (1970), проф. с 1974. Окончил в 1936 физ.-матем. ф-т Среднеазиатского ун-та в Ташкенте. С 1936 работал в системе Гидрометеослужбы, ст. науч. сотр. (1950), зав. лаб. метеорологии и климатологии Среднеазиатского регионального НИИ гидрометеорологии им. В.А.Бугаева Госкомгидромета. Выполнил приоритетные науч. работы по тепловому балансу гор, пустынь, оазисов и по биометеорологии человека и животных. Разработал рекомендации по количественному учету радиационно-теплового воздействия элементов гор. среды на человека (1985). Автор печатных науч. работ, монографий. Засл. деятель науки УзССР.Соч.: Тепловой баланс и микроклимат влажных горных долин, Л., 1967; Биоклимат и микроклимат Ташкента, Л.,1982 (совм. с Л.П.Лукиной); Климат Намангана, Л., 1984 (в соавт.)., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Борис Абрамович (р. 1913, Слуцк, Минской губ.), метеоролог и биоклиматолог. Д-р геогр. наук (1970), проф. с 1974. Окончил в 1936 физ.-матем. ф-т Среднеазиатского ун-та в Ташкенте. С 1936 работал в системе Гидрометеослужбы, ст. науч. сотр. (1950), зав. лаб. метеорологии и климатологии Среднеазиатского регионального НИИ гидрометеорологии им. В.А.Бугаева Госкомгидромета. Выполнил приоритетные науч. работы по тепловому балансу гор, пустынь, оазисов и по биометеорологии человека и животных. Разработал рекомендации по количественному учету радиационно-теплового воздействия элементов гор. среды на человека (1985). Автор печатных науч. работ, монографий. Засл. деятель науки УзССР.Соч.: Тепловой баланс и микроклимат влажных горных долин, Л., 1967; Биоклимат и микроклимат Ташкента, Л.,1982 (совм. с Л.П.Лукиной); Климат Намангана, Л., 1984 (в соавт.)., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Исай Львович (парт. и лит. пс. «И.Юдин», «Ю.Дин» и др.) (1866, Вильна – 1937, Париж), полит. деятель. Окончил г-зию в Вильне, учился в Демидовском юрид. лицее в Ярославле. В кон. 1880-х гг. чл. виленского кружка народовольцев, в нач. 1890-х гг. примкнул к с.-д., один из рук. евр. рабочего движения в Вильне, создатель ряда рабочих кружков. В 1893–94 жил в Германии, по возвращении участвовал в организации первой массовой стачки евр. рабочих-табачников в Вильне, был арестован, через год сослан на 5 лет в Сибирь. По возвращении из ссылки (1900) чл. ЦК Бунда, дел. 2-го съезда РСДРП (1903). Участник рев-ции 1905–07, участвовал в изд. и редактировании ряда периодич. изд. Бунда в Ковно и Вильне, после поражения рев-ции вел полемику с «ликвидаторами». В 1912 вновь арестован и сослан в Сибирь, по возвращении жил в Астрахани, возглавлял потребит. кооператив. В 1917 примкнул к меньшевикам, окт. переворот встретил враждебно. В 1921 арестован сов. властями и заключен в тюрьму, где провел голодовку протеста. В 1922 выслан в Германию. Живя в Берлине, участвовал в создании ж. «Социалистич. вестник», был чл. Загран. делегации РСДРП (центра меньшевист. эмиграции). После прихода нацистов к власти в Германии (1933) эмигрировал во Францию., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Исай Львович (парт. и лит. пс. «И.Юдин», «Ю.Дин» и др.) (1866, Вильна – 1937, Париж), полит. деятель. Окончил г-зию в Вильне, учился в Демидовском юрид. лицее в Ярославле. В кон. 1880-х гг. чл. виленского кружка народовольцев, в нач. 1890-х гг. примкнул к с.-д., один из рук. евр. рабочего движения в Вильне, создатель ряда рабочих кружков. В 1893–94 жил в Германии, по возвращении участвовал в организации первой массовой стачки евр. рабочих-табачников в Вильне, был арестован, через год сослан на 5 лет в Сибирь. По возвращении из ссылки (1900) чл. ЦК Бунда, дел. 2-го съезда РСДРП (1903). Участник рев-ции 1905–07, участвовал в изд. и редактировании ряда периодич. изд. Бунда в Ковно и Вильне, после поражения рев-ции вел полемику с «ликвидаторами». В 1912 вновь арестован и сослан в Сибирь, по возвращении жил в Астрахани, возглавлял потребит. кооператив. В 1917 примкнул к меньшевикам, окт. переворот встретил враждебно. В 1921 арестован сов. властями и заключен в тюрьму, где провел голодовку протеста. В 1922 выслан в Германию. Живя в Берлине, участвовал в создании ж. «Социалистич. вестник», был чл. Загран. делегации РСДРП (центра меньшевист. эмиграции). После прихода нацистов к власти в Германии (1933) эмигрировал во Францию., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Лиза Хайкелевна (р. 1924, Ленинград), график. В 1949 окончила Ленингр. худ.-пед. уч-ще. Постоянно работает в техниках акв., офорта, литографии, линогравюры. Для творчества А. характерно свободное владение широким мазком, четкое комн. решение, чистота и свежесть цвета («У яхт-клуба», 1956, «Оленька», «Паруса», 1959 и др.). А. привлекает изображение города как самостоят. нового мира, созданного людьми, художественно отражает множество его обличий (сер. «Ленинград» и др.). Уч. 1-й (1965) и 3-й (1972) Всес. выставок акв., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Лиза Хайкелевна (р. 1924, Ленинград), график. В 1949 окончила Ленингр. худ.-пед. уч-ще. Постоянно работает в техниках акв., офорта, литографии, линогравюры. Для творчества А. характерно свободное владение широким мазком, четкое комн. решение, чистота и свежесть цвета («У яхт-клуба», 1956, «Оленька», «Паруса», 1959 и др.). А. привлекает изображение города как самостоят. нового мира, созданного людьми, художественно отражает множество его обличий (сер. «Ленинград» и др.). Уч. 1-й (1965) и 3-й (1972) Всес. выставок акв., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Мариам Соломоновна (лит. пс. Мирра Железнова.) (1909, Киев – 1950), журналист, лит. критик. Окончила Ленингр. ин-т философии и лит-ры (1932). С 1934 в Москве. В предвоен. годы – корр. «Лит. газеты», обозреватель «Комсомольской правды». С нач. 1942 – сотр. Евр. антифаш. к-та (ЕАК), обозреватель газ. «Эйникайт». А. – автор неск. циклов публицистич. очерков о евреях – Героях Сов. Союза, партизанах, узниках концлагерей. Ряд очерков предназначался для публикации в «Черной книге». Последней работой (в соавт. с С.Персовым) была кн. очерков, героями к-рых были евреи-инженеры, представители технич. интеллигенции. Верстка книги была уничтожена вскоре после разгрома ЕАК. В 1950 репрессирована.Дочь – Железнова Надежда Леопольдовна (наст. фам. Бергельсон; р. 1933), журналист, лит. критик. Автор кн. «Б.Полевой: Проза, публицистика, мемуары» (М., 1985), «Возвращенные страницы» (М., 1990) и др., а также мн. лит.-критич. ст. в период, изд., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Мариам Соломоновна (лит. пс. Мирра Железнова.) (1909, Киев – 1950), журналист, лит. критик. Окончила Ленингр. ин-т философии и лит-ры (1932). С 1934 в Москве. В предвоен. годы – корр. «Лит. газеты», обозреватель «Комсомольской правды». С нач. 1942 – сотр. Евр. антифаш. к-та (ЕАК), обозреватель газ. «Эйникайт». А. – автор неск. циклов публицистич. очерков о евреях – Героях Сов. Союза, партизанах, узниках концлагерей. Ряд очерков предназначался для публикации в «Черной книге». Последней работой (в соавт. с С.Персовым) была кн. очерков, героями к-рых были евреи-инженеры, представители технич. интеллигенции. Верстка книги была уничтожена вскоре после разгрома ЕАК. В 1950 репрессирована.Дочь – Железнова Надежда Леопольдовна (наст. фам. Бергельсон; р. 1933), журналист, лит. критик. Автор кн. «Б.Полевой: Проза, публицистика, мемуары» (М., 1985), «Возвращенные страницы» (М., 1990) и др., а также мн. лит.-критич. ст. в период, изд., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Моисей Григорьевич (1870 – 1943, Париж), раввин, обществ. деятель. Окончил Гисенский ун-т в Германии (1894), получив степень д-ра философии. В 1899 приглашен Евр. общиной Петербурга на три года помощником раввина, но не был утвержден властями. В 1909 избран на должность казенного раввина Петербурга, утвержден в 1910. А. создал Вечерние курсы евр. языка и истории при Хоз. правлении Хоральной синагоги для уч-ся высших и ср. уч. заведений, хедер за Нарвской заставой. Вместе с З.Жаботинским возглавлял Об-во любителей евр. яз., входил в состав к-тов Евр. лит.-науч. об-ва, Об-ва евр. нар. музыки, Об-ва воспитания и образования евреев, Об-ва содействия обучению детей бедных евреев, участвовал в деятельности Об-ва для распространения просвещения между евреями в России (ОПЕ), чл. Попечит. к-та Евр. уч-щ и библиотечной комиссии ОПЕ, К-та по усовершенствованию муз. стороны синагогальных богослужений. Во время 1-й мир. войны А. участвовал в орг-ции Об-в для помощи раненым воинам-евреям, беженцам из прифронтовых р-нов. После окт. переворота 1917 избран в Исполком Евр. общины (зам. пред. его Совета, один из рук. религ. отдела), вошел в К-т по оказанию помощи евреям-ремесленникам, оказавшимся в бедственном положении. Дел. от Петрограда на съезде евр. общин в Москве (1918). Считая для себя невозможным сотрудничать с новыми властями, отказался от раввинства, но продолжал работать в общине, участвовал в возрождении ряда евр. об-в, преподавал в Петрогр. ин-те высших евр. знаний (вел курс «История развития устного учения Талмуда»), подвергался преследованиям со стороны властей, в 1923 был вынужден эмигрировать., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАДТ Моисей Григорьевич (1870 – 1943, Париж), раввин, обществ. деятель. Окончил Гисенский ун-т в Германии (1894), получив степень д-ра философии. В 1899 приглашен Евр. общиной Петербурга на три года помощником раввина, но не был утвержден властями. В 1909 избран на должность казенного раввина Петербурга, утвержден в 1910. А. создал Вечерние курсы евр. языка и истории при Хоз. правлении Хоральной синагоги для уч-ся высших и ср. уч. заведений, хедер за Нарвской заставой. Вместе с З.Жаботинским возглавлял Об-во любителей евр. яз., входил в состав к-тов Евр. лит.-науч. об-ва, Об-ва евр. нар. музыки, Об-ва воспитания и образования евреев, Об-ва содействия обучению детей бедных евреев, участвовал в деятельности Об-ва для распространения просвещения между евреями в России (ОПЕ), чл. Попечит. к-та Евр. уч-щ и библиотечной комиссии ОПЕ, К-та по усовершенствованию муз. стороны синагогальных богослужений. Во время 1-й мир. войны А. участвовал в орг-ции Об-в для помощи раненым воинам-евреям, беженцам из прифронтовых р-нов. После окт. переворота 1917 избран в Исполком Евр. общины (зам. пред. его Совета, один из рук. религ. отдела), вошел в К-т по оказанию помощи евреям-ремесленникам, оказавшимся в бедственном положении. Дел. от Петрограда на съезде евр. общин в Москве (1918). Считая для себя невозможным сотрудничать с новыми властями, отказался от раввинства, но продолжал работать в общине, участвовал в возрождении ряда евр. об-в, преподавал в Петрогр. ин-те высших евр. знаний (вел курс «История развития устного учения Талмуда»), подвергался преследованиям со стороны властей, в 1923 был вынужден эмигрировать., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАТ Давид (1890 – 1942, Варшава), дирижер синагогальных хоров. Учился в России, позднее – в Варшаве. В 1921–42 дирижировал хором Большой синагоги в Варшаве. Писал канторскую музыку, песни, фп. и орк. произв. Редактировал «Народную муз. энциклопедию» на идише. Погиб в гетто., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАТ Давид (1890 – 1942, Варшава), дирижер синагогальных хоров. Учился в России, позднее – в Варшаве. В 1921–42 дирижировал хором Большой синагоги в Варшаве. Писал канторскую музыку, песни, фп. и орк. произв. Редактировал «Народную муз. энциклопедию» на идише. Погиб в гетто., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТАТ Давид Самойлович (1880, Рыбинск – 1947), библиофил, книгоиздатель и книготорговец. Р. в семье земского врача. После окончания рыбинской классической г-зии поступил на юрид. фак-т Моск. ун-та и закончил его в 1910. Затем занимался адвокатурой. Еще в студенческие годы начал заниматься литературной работой, сотрудничая в газетах «Рабочее слово», «Руль». К 1906 относится первый издательский опыт: совместно с коллекционером-пушкинистом Л.С.Гинзбургом составили и выпустили в свет сб. книгоизд-ва «Набат». В 1917 совместно с А.М.Кожебаткиным и Л.С.Якубом организовал небольшое изд-во «Венок». В 1919–23 вместе с С.А.Есениным заведовал кн. магазином Моск. трудовой артели художников слова. В 1920–29 был одним из инициаторов создания и деятельнейшим чл. Русского об-ва друзей книги. В 1931–37 – дир. Моск. «Книжной лавки писателей». С 1938 лит. работа стала основной для А., им опубл. более 100 статей в разл. газ., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТАТ Давид Самойлович (1880, Рыбинск – 1947), библиофил, книгоиздатель и книготорговец. Р. в семье земского врача. После окончания рыбинской классической г-зии поступил на юрид. фак-т Моск. ун-та и закончил его в 1910. Затем занимался адвокатурой. Еще в студенческие годы начал заниматься литературной работой, сотрудничая в газетах «Рабочее слово», «Руль». К 1906 относится первый издательский опыт: совместно с коллекционером-пушкинистом Л.С.Гинзбургом составили и выпустили в свет сб. книгоизд-ва «Набат». В 1917 совместно с А.М.Кожебаткиным и Л.С.Якубом организовал небольшое изд-во «Венок». В 1919–23 вместе с С.А.Есениным заведовал кн. магазином Моск. трудовой артели художников слова. В 1920–29 был одним из инициаторов создания и деятельнейшим чл. Русского об-ва друзей книги. В 1931–37 – дир. Моск. «Книжной лавки писателей». С 1938 лит. работа стала основной для А., им опубл. более 100 статей в разл. газ., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТЕЙН Семен Моисеевич (1884, Киев – 1962), инженер, специалист в обл. радиотелеграфирования, организатор радиотехн. пром-сти. Высш. образование получил в Киевском и Берлинском ун-тах и Шарлоттенбургском политехн. ин-те (под Берлином). В 1901 в Киеве демонстрировал радиосвязь на короткие расстояния с помощью самодельного радиопередатчика и когерентного приемника. В 1904 получил первый патент на аппарат беспроволочного телеграфа, организовал частную лаб. по выполнению заказов воен. ведомства, построил эксперим. радиостанции в Киеве и Жмеринке (1906–07) и установил радиосвязь Жмеринка – Одесса – Севастополь. В 1907 в Петербурге основал и возглавил акц. Об-во беспроволочных телеграфов и телефонов, где разработал проекты стр-ва радиостанций в Москве (Ходынской и Тверской, 1914) и Царском Селе (1915). В 1912–14 издавал первый рус. радиотехн. ж. «Вестник телеграфии без проводов». В 1915 руководил работой по установлению первой радиосвязи с подводными лодками в подводном положении на длинных волнах. В 1914–17 в лаб. Об-ва созданы первые в России радиолампы и радиоаппаратура. В дек. 1914 совм. с Н.Д.Папалекси провел первые опыты по радиотелеграфированию между Петербургом и Царским Селом. В 1917 Об-во оснастило аппаратурой радиостанцию «Новая Голландия». После 1917 руководил секцией радио «Объединенных гос. эл.-техн. предприятий слабого тока», принимал участие в рук-ве стр-вом радиостанции на Шаболовке в Москве. В 1921 выступил осн. инициатором созд. Радиоассоциации и стал зам. пред. моск. группы ассоциации. С 1922 – в Англии в фирме «Маркони», рук. стр-вом радиотехн. з-дов в Польше (1922–35) и Чехословакии. В 1941–45 работал в электровакуумной лаб. фирмы «Маркони». В 1947–55 – ген. дир. компании «Инглиш электрик вольв компани лтд»., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТЕЙН Семен Моисеевич (1884, Киев – 1962), инженер, специалист в обл. радиотелеграфирования, организатор радиотехн. пром-сти. Высш. образование получил в Киевском и Берлинском ун-тах и Шарлоттенбургском политехн. ин-те (под Берлином). В 1901 в Киеве демонстрировал радиосвязь на короткие расстояния с помощью самодельного радиопередатчика и когерентного приемника. В 1904 получил первый патент на аппарат беспроволочного телеграфа, организовал частную лаб. по выполнению заказов воен. ведомства, построил эксперим. радиостанции в Киеве и Жмеринке (1906–07) и установил радиосвязь Жмеринка – Одесса – Севастополь. В 1907 в Петербурге основал и возглавил акц. Об-во беспроволочных телеграфов и телефонов, где разработал проекты стр-ва радиостанций в Москве (Ходынской и Тверской, 1914) и Царском Селе (1915). В 1912–14 издавал первый рус. радиотехн. ж. «Вестник телеграфии без проводов». В 1915 руководил работой по установлению первой радиосвязи с подводными лодками в подводном положении на длинных волнах. В 1914–17 в лаб. Об-ва созданы первые в России радиолампы и радиоаппаратура. В дек. 1914 совм. с Н.Д.Папалекси провел первые опыты по радиотелеграфированию между Петербургом и Царским Селом. В 1917 Об-во оснастило аппаратурой радиостанцию «Новая Голландия». После 1917 руководил секцией радио «Объединенных гос. эл.-техн. предприятий слабого тока», принимал участие в рук-ве стр-вом радиостанции на Шаболовке в Москве. В 1921 выступил осн. инициатором созд. Радиоассоциации и стал зам. пред. моск. группы ассоциации. С 1922 – в Англии в фирме «Маркони», рук. стр-вом радиотехн. з-дов в Польше (1922–35) и Чехословакии. В 1941–45 работал в электровакуумной лаб. фирмы «Маркони». В 1947–55 – ген. дир. компании «Инглиш электрик вольв компани лтд»., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕНШТОК Иеремия Яковлевич (1900, Елисаветград – 1980, Ленинград), лит.-вед. В 1921 окончил Харьков, ин-т нар. образования. Участвовал в текстологич. подготовке акад. изд. укр. и рус. классиков, комм. к соч. Т.Г.Шевченко в 12 тт. (1925–31) и первым полн. изд. его «Дневника» (1925), внес значит. вклад в шевченковедение. А. принадлежат монографии о И.П.Котляревском, П.П.Гулаке-Артемовском, а также лучший текстологич. и источниковедч. комментарий к «Тарасу Бульбе» (Н.В.Гоголь, Полн. собр. соч., т. 2, 1937). С объективностью и тактом А. комментирует аспекты, связанные с освещением евр. вопроса в укр. и рус. лит-рах., pronunciation=АЙЗЕНШТОК Иеремия Яковлевич (1900, Елисаветград – 1980, Ленинград), лит.-вед. В 1921 окончил Харьков, ин-т нар. образования. Участвовал в текстологич. подготовке акад. изд. укр. и рус. классиков, комм. к соч. Т.Г.Шевченко в 12 тт. (1925–31) и первым полн. изд. его «Дневника» (1925), внес значит. вклад в шевченковедение. А. принадлежат монографии о И.П.Котляревском, П.П.Гулаке-Артемовском, а также лучший текстологич. и источниковедч. комментарий к «Тарасу Бульбе» (Н.В.Гоголь, Полн. собр. соч., т. 2, 1937). С объективностью и тактом А. комментирует аспекты, связанные с освещением евр. вопроса в укр. и рус. лит-рах., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗЕРМАН Марк Аронович (р. 1913, Двинск), математик, специалист по теории управления, засл. деят. науки и техники РСФСР (1965). Окончил МВТУ им. Н.Э.Баумана (1937). Д-р техн. наук (1947). Проф. (1955). С 1939 работает в Ин-те автоматики и телемеханики АН СССР, с 1953 – также в Моск. физ.-техн. ин-те. Осн. результаты в теории автоматич. регулирования и теории дифференц. уравнений. Лен. пр. (1964).Соч.: Лекции по теории автоматического регулирования, М., 1956; Абсолютная устойчивость регулируемых систем, М., 1963, (совм. с Ф.Р.Гантмахером); Логика. Автоматы. Алгоритмы, М., 1963, (совм. с Л.А.Гусевым, Л.И.Розоноэром, И.М.Смирновой, А.А.Талем)., pronunciation=АЙЗЕРМАН Марк Аронович (р. 1913, Двинск), математик, специалист по теории управления, засл. деят. науки и техники РСФСР (1965). Окончил МВТУ им. Н.Э.Баумана (1937). Д-р техн. наук (1947). Проф. (1955). С 1939 работает в Ин-те автоматики и телемеханики АН СССР, с 1953 – также в Моск. физ.-техн. ин-те. Осн. результаты в теории автоматич. регулирования и теории дифференц. уравнений. Лен. пр. (1964).Соч.: Лекции по теории автоматического регулирования, М., 1956; Абсолютная устойчивость регулируемых систем, М., 1963, (совм. с Ф.Р.Гантмахером); Логика. Автоматы. Алгоритмы, М., 1963, (совм. с Л.А.Гусевым, Л.И.Розоноэром, И.М.Смирновой, А.А.Талем)., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗИКОВИЧ Самуил Яковлевич (1882, Вильна – 1963, Москва), архитектор, специалист по проектированию жилых зданий. В 1910 окончил Ин-т гражд. инженеров в Петербурге. С 1912 жил и работал в Москве. Участвовал в ряде конкурсов. Осн. работы: жилой дом, кинотеатр и школа в Вильне (1910–12), сборные щитовые дома в Москве (1915–17), реконструкция здания ВСНХ в Москве (1919–24), типовые жилые дома в Москве (1924–30), проект Центрального телеграфа в Москве (1925, с Г.Я.Вольфензоном, Е.Волковым), дом-коммуна в Хавско-Шаболовском проезде в Москве (1927–29, с Вольфензоном, Волковым)., pronunciation=АЙЗИКОВИЧ Самуил Яковлевич (1882, Вильна – 1963, Москва), архитектор, специалист по проектированию жилых зданий. В 1910 окончил Ин-т гражд. инженеров в Петербурге. С 1912 жил и работал в Москве. Участвовал в ряде конкурсов. Осн. работы: жилой дом, кинотеатр и школа в Вильне (1910–12), сборные щитовые дома в Москве (1915–17), реконструкция здания ВСНХ в Москве (1919–24), типовые жилые дома в Москве (1924–30), проект Центрального телеграфа в Москве (1925, с Г.Я.Вольфензоном, Е.Волковым), дом-коммуна в Хавско-Шаболовском проезде в Москве (1927–29, с Вольфензоном, Волковым)., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЙЗИКСОН Исроэль (1851, Минская губ. – 1923, Нью-Йорк), раввин. Получил традиц. евр. ре-лиг, образование. В теч. неск. лет был раввином в местечках Зап. края. С 1907 – в США. Преподавал в лучших иешивах Нью-Йорка. Секретарь Союза ортодоксальных раввинов США., pronunciation=АЙЗИКСОН Исроэль (1851, Минская губ. – 1923, Нью-Йорк), раввин. Получил традиц. евр. ре-лиг, образование. В теч. неск. лет был раввином в местечках Зап. края. С 1907 – в США. Преподавал в лучших иешивах Нью-Йорка. Секретарь Союза ортодоксальных раввинов США., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AIZMAN David Yakovlevich (1869, Nikolaev - 1922, Detskoe Selo), prose writer. He studied at a real school, then graduated from Odessa. art school, studied painting in Paris. At the age of 20, he began to publish essays from Hebrews. life in Odessa. gas. In 1901, J. \"Rus. wealth ”published A.'s first story in Hebrew. the topic \"A little to the side\". During the Revolution of 1905–07, it was adjacent to gr. writers, united around the collection of \"Knowledge\". On Sat. stories \"Black Days\" (St. Petersburg., 1904) and in the tragedy \"Thorny Bush\" (Berlin, 1907) depicted the life of the Hebrews. the poor, roar. activity of Heb. intelligentsia, the contradiction between the latter and a simple Russian. people. Since 1906, A.'s work has been marked by the influence of symbolism (Morning of an Angel, 1906; Bloody Spill, 1908). He wrote in Russian. lang., successfully transferring bunk. the speech of their Jewish heroes. He was friends with Sholem Aleichem, corresponded with him, helped him in editing and publishing his works, translated them into Russian. lang. In 1911 - 19 a meeting was published in St. Petersburg. op. A. in 8 volumes., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЗАДОВСКИЙ Марк Константинович (1888, Иркутск – 1954, Ленинград), фольклорист, литературовед. Д-р филол. наук, проф. В г-зии участвовал в рев. движении, был близок к эсерам (его одноклассник и друг А.Б.Эльяшевич стал впоследствии одним из рук. этой партии). После окончания Петерб. ун-та (1913) преподавал в Томске, Чите, с 1923 -зав. кафедрой лит-ры Иркутского ун-та. В 1930 переехал в Ленинград, был зав. сектором фольклора ИРЛИ (Пушкинского Дома) АН СССР, руководил кафедрой фольклора Ленингр. ун-та. Стал жертвой «кампании по борьбе с космополитизмом», подвергся грубым оскорблениям на собраниях в ун-те, в прессе, был уволен со всех должностей и лишен возможности печататься. Поэтому большое кол-во его работ, в т.ч. самые капит., опубл. посмертно.Науч. работу начал в 1913. Опубл. св. 350 ст. и монографий по фольклору, истории рус. лит-ры и обществ, мысли 19 в., мн. занимался историографией науки, был авторитетным специалистом по декабристской лит-ре, знатоком истории и культуры Сибири. Подготовил тексты, написал вступит, ст. в кн.: «Ленские причитания» (1922), «Сказки Верхнеленского края» (1925), «Восп. Бестужевых» (1931 и 1951), «Рус. сказка: Избр. мастера» (т.1–2, 1932), «Верхнеленские сказки» (1938), «Рус. плачи в Карелии» (1940), «Сказки Магая» (1940), «Фронтовой фольклор» (1944), «Рус. сказки в Карелии» (1947), А.А.Шахматов «Фольклорные записи... в Прионежье» (1948), «Декабристы: Новые материалы» (1955), издал соч. Н.М.Языкова, П.П.Ершова и др. Инициатор создания фольклорного архива АН СССР, где хранятся и записи евр. фольклора; по его предложению началось изд. ж. «Сибирская живая старина», сб. «Сов. фольклор».Соч.: Беседы собирателя, Иркутск, 1924 и 1925; Лит-ра и фольклор, Л., 1938; Очерки лит-ры и культуры в Сибири, в. 1, Иркутск. 1947; В.К.Арсеньев: Критико-биогр. очерк, М., 1956; История рус. фольклористики, т. 1–2, М., 1958–63; Ст. и письма: Неизд. и забытое, Новосибирск, 1978; Сибирские страницы: Ст., рецензии, письма, Иркутск, 1988; Страницы истории декабризма, кн. 1–2, Иркутск, 1991–1992.Сын А. – Константин (р. 1941, Ленинград), литературовед. Автор кн. «Николай Клюев» (Л., 1990) и др. В 1980 по сфабрик. КГБ обвинению в хранении наркотиков был арестован, провел 2 года в тюрьме в Магаданской обл. Подлинной причиной преследований явилась его правозащитная деятельность., pronunciation=АЗАДОВСКИЙ Марк Константинович (1888, Иркутск – 1954, Ленинград), фольклорист, литературовед. Д-р филол. наук, проф. В г-зии участвовал в рев. движении, был близок к эсерам (его одноклассник и друг А.Б.Эльяшевич стал впоследствии одним из рук. этой партии). После окончания Петерб. ун-та (1913) преподавал в Томске, Чите, с 1923 -зав. кафедрой лит-ры Иркутского ун-та. В 1930 переехал в Ленинград, был зав. сектором фольклора ИРЛИ (Пушкинского Дома) АН СССР, руководил кафедрой фольклора Ленингр. ун-та. Стал жертвой «кампании по борьбе с космополитизмом», подвергся грубым оскорблениям на собраниях в ун-те, в прессе, был уволен со всех должностей и лишен возможности печататься. Поэтому большое кол-во его работ, в т.ч. самые капит., опубл. посмертно.Науч. работу начал в 1913. Опубл. св. 350 ст. и монографий по фольклору, истории рус. лит-ры и обществ, мысли 19 в., мн. занимался историографией науки, был авторитетным специалистом по декабристской лит-ре, знатоком истории и культуры Сибири. Подготовил тексты, написал вступит, ст. в кн.: «Ленские причитания» (1922), «Сказки Верхнеленского края» (1925), «Восп. Бестужевых» (1931 и 1951), «Рус. сказка: Избр. мастера» (т.1–2, 1932), «Верхнеленские сказки» (1938), «Рус. плачи в Карелии» (1940), «Сказки Магая» (1940), «Фронтовой фольклор» (1944), «Рус. сказки в Карелии» (1947), А.А.Шахматов «Фольклорные записи... в Прионежье» (1948), «Декабристы: Новые материалы» (1955), издал соч. Н.М.Языкова, П.П.Ершова и др. Инициатор создания фольклорного архива АН СССР, где хранятся и записи евр. фольклора; по его предложению началось изд. ж. «Сибирская живая старина», сб. «Сов. фольклор».Соч.: Беседы собирателя, Иркутск, 1924 и 1925; Лит-ра и фольклор, Л., 1938; Очерки лит-ры и культуры в Сибири, в. 1, Иркутск. 1947; В.К.Арсеньев: Критико-биогр. очерк, М., 1956; История рус. фольклористики, т. 1–2, М., 1958–63; Ст. и письма: Неизд. и забытое, Новосибирск, 1978; Сибирские страницы: Ст., рецензии, письма, Иркутск, 1988; Страницы истории декабризма, кн. 1–2, Иркутск, 1991–1992.Сын А. – Константин (р. 1941, Ленинград), литературовед. Автор кн. «Николай Клюев» (Л., 1990) и др. В 1980 по сфабрик. КГБ обвинению в хранении наркотиков был арестован, провел 2 года в тюрьме в Магаданской обл. Подлинной причиной преследований явилась его правозащитная деятельность., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЗАК, см. Азов., pronunciation=АЗАК, см. Азов., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЗАРХ Раиса Моисеевна (1897, Щербиновка Екатеринославской губ. – 1971, Москва), врач, писательница. Чл. Коммунистич. партии с 1917. Окончила мед. ф-т Харьковского ун-та (1917). Участница окт. боев 1917 в Москве. Чл. ВЦИК. В гражд. войну нач. санчасти отрядов, нач. санупра Укр. фронта, нач. санслужбы 5-й Армии, нач. Главного Санупр. Забайкалья. Организатор борьбы с эпидемией тифа в Сибири. Одна из первых женщин, награжденных орд. Кр. Знамени (1928). Затем на парт. и проф. работе в Ростове-на-Дону и Томске. Ред. ряда журналов и газет, училась на лит. отд. Ин-та красной профессуры. Член РАППа. С 1934 член ССП. В 1936–37 – участница гражд. войны в Испании, советник Респ. армии и Мин-ва здравоохранения. Во время аннексии Вост. Польши (1939) и сов.-финл. войны (1939–40) – уполном. НКО СССР. В 1941–44 – воен. корр. Автор ряда книг., pronunciation=АЗАРХ Раиса Моисеевна (1897, Щербиновка Екатеринославской губ. – 1971, Москва), врач, писательница. Чл. Коммунистич. партии с 1917. Окончила мед. ф-т Харьковского ун-та (1917). Участница окт. боев 1917 в Москве. Чл. ВЦИК. В гражд. войну нач. санчасти отрядов, нач. санупра Укр. фронта, нач. санслужбы 5-й Армии, нач. Главного Санупр. Забайкалья. Организатор борьбы с эпидемией тифа в Сибири. Одна из первых женщин, награжденных орд. Кр. Знамени (1928). Затем на парт. и проф. работе в Ростове-на-Дону и Томске. Ред. ряда журналов и газет, училась на лит. отд. Ин-та красной профессуры. Член РАППа. С 1934 член ССП. В 1936–37 – участница гражд. войны в Испании, советник Респ. армии и Мин-ва здравоохранения. Во время аннексии Вост. Польши (1939) и сов.-финл. войны (1939–40) – уполном. НКО СССР. В 1941–44 – воен. корр. Автор ряда книг., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЗАРХ Юлия Семеновна (р. 1929, Ленинград), лингвист. Д-р филол. наук (1984). Окончила Моск. заочный полигр. ин-т (1949) и филол. ф-т МГУ в 1954. Науч. сотр. Казанского музея им. А.М. Горького (с 1954), ст. преподаватель Елабужского гос. пед. ин-та (с 1955), учитель ср. школы в Москве, с 1974 – ст. науч. сотр. Ин-та рус. яз. АН СССР. С 1987 ведущий науч. сотр. ИРЯ РАН.Осн. науч. тр. связаны с вопросами истории и диалектологии рус. яз., ист. морфологии рус. яз., диалектного и ист. словообразования, с методами ареальных исследований, атласом рус. нар. говоров, фонетикой севернорус. говоров.Соч.: Словообразование и формообразование существительных в истории рус. яз., М., 1984; Рус. именное диалектное словообразование в лингвогеог-рафич. аспекте, Кемерево, 1994., pronunciation=АЗАРХ Юлия Семеновна (р. 1929, Ленинград), лингвист. Д-р филол. наук (1984). Окончила Моск. заочный полигр. ин-т (1949) и филол. ф-т МГУ в 1954. Науч. сотр. Казанского музея им. А.М. Горького (с 1954), ст. преподаватель Елабужского гос. пед. ин-та (с 1955), учитель ср. школы в Москве, с 1974 – ст. науч. сотр. Ин-та рус. яз. АН СССР. С 1987 ведущий науч. сотр. ИРЯ РАН.Осн. науч. тр. связаны с вопросами истории и диалектологии рус. яз., ист. морфологии рус. яз., диалектного и ист. словообразования, с методами ареальных исследований, атласом рус. нар. говоров, фонетикой севернорус. говоров.Соч.: Словообразование и формообразование существительных в истории рус. яз., М., 1984; Рус. именное диалектное словообразование в лингвогеог-рафич. аспекте, Кемерево, 1994., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=en, dest=en, text=АЗАРОВ Всеволод Борисович (1913, Одесса – 1990, Ленинград), поэт, прозаик, переводчик, критик. Окончил лит. ф-т ЛИФЛИ (1934). Начал печататься в 1929. В 30-е гг. работал на радио. В годы войны 1941–45 служил в гр. при Политуправлении Балтийского флота, руководимой В.В.Вишневским. Совместно с Вишневским и А.А.Кроном написал героич. комедию «Раскинулось море широко», к-рая была поставлена в блокадном Ленинграде на сцене Театра муз. комедии. На тексты А. созданы мн. песни, кантата «Последняя ночь» (композитор А.А.Петров), две кантаты В.К.Сорокина и др. Переводил поэтов Эстонии, Латвии, Литвы, Украины, Белоруссии, нем. поэтов, перевел с евр. цикл стихов М.Грувмана. Творчество А. овеяно романтикой моря, флотской службы, рев. молодости. Опубл. около 30 сб. стихов и пер., 10 прозаич. кн. Одна из них – «Живые, пойте о нас!» – посв. трагич. эпизоду войны: отвлекающему десанту под Петергофом (1969). После выхода 2 изд. (1970) книга была запрещена, ее нельзя было даже упоминать., pronunciation=АЗАРОВ Всеволод Борисович (1913, Одесса – 1990, Ленинград), поэт, прозаик, переводчик, критик. Окончил лит. ф-т ЛИФЛИ (1934). Начал печататься в 1929. В 30-е гг. работал на радио. В годы войны 1941–45 служил в гр. при Политуправлении Балтийского флота, руководимой В.В.Вишневским. Совместно с Вишневским и А.А.Кроном написал героич. комедию «Раскинулось море широко», к-рая была поставлена в блокадном Ленинграде на сцене Театра муз. комедии. На тексты А. созданы мн. песни, кантата «Последняя ночь» (композитор А.А.Петров), две кантаты В.К.Сорокина и др. Переводил поэтов Эстонии, Латвии, Литвы, Украины, Белоруссии, нем. поэтов, перевел с евр. цикл стихов М.Грувмана. Творчество А. овеяно романтикой моря, флотской службы, рев. молодости. Опубл. около 30 сб. стихов и пер., 10 прозаич. кн. Одна из них – «Живые, пойте о нас!» – посв. трагич. эпизоду войны: отвлекающему десанту под Петергофом (1969). После выхода 2 изд. (1970) книга была запрещена, ее нельзя было даже упоминать., extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en . jlo:hasAbstract "Translated(src=ru, dest=en, text=AZBEL Mark Yakovlevich (b. 1932, Poltava), theoretical physicist. Dr. Phys.-Math. Sciences (1958). After graduation (1953) from Kharkov University, he worked at a school for working youth. In 1955–64 at the Kharkov Phys.-Tech. in-those of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, simultaneously. from 1958-, prof. Kharkov University. In 1964–70 prof. geological Faculty of Moscow university and head. sector in Ying-those theoretical. physics to them. LD Landau (1964–72). In 1972–77 prof. Moscow engineer-phys. in-that. Active human rights activist. Since 1977 in Israel, prof. Tel Aviv University (since 1973). research on the electronic theory of metals. Joint. with E.A. Kaner predicted cyclotron resonance in metals (1955, Azbel - Kaner resonance). Predicted a sharp change in the behavior of electrons in metals with a vanishingly small change in magn. fields (1964, the Azbel-Hofstadter problem). Discovered (with E.A. Kaner and V.F. Gantmakhsrom) anomalous penetration of high-frequency electromagnet into metal. fields. He predicted that Landau's diamagnetism leads to the emergence of spaces, superstructure. In works on superconductivity, he predicted the existence of quantum oscillations and resonances (resonances A.). Author approx. 200 scientific. articles, approx. 150 publicistic. Art. and book. “Refusenik in the Sov. trap ”(translated into plural, lit. ave. named after Christopher). In 1974 he headed the seminar of refusenik scientists and J. \"Jews in the USSR\". Member Amer. physical about-va., pronunciation=[[]], extra_data=\"{'translat...\")"@en .